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Full text of "The twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans .."

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" History U bat the essence of innumerable biographies.'* — Th^ma* Carfyit, 

THE 

TWENTIETH CENTURY 
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

OF 

NOTABLE AMERICANS 

BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS 
ADMINISTRATORS, CLERGYMEN 
COMMANDERS, EDITORS, ENGINEERS 
JURISTS, MERCHANTS, OFFICIALS 
PHILANTHROPISTS, SCIENTISTS 
STATESMEN, AND OTHERS WHO 
ARE MAKING AMERICAN HISTORY 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

ROSSITER JOHNSON, Ph. D., LL. D. 

•BITOK or THX AMMVAI. CYCLOFiBDIA AND ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF THB AMBRICAN CYCLOr«OIA 

MANAGING EDITOR 

JOHN HOWARD BROWN 

WITH WHOM ARE ASSOCIATED MANY EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 



VOLUME II 
BRO— eOWAN 



BOSTON 

THE BIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

1904 



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MARV^RO COLLEGE LliBABV 

. . FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

' HUGO MUNSTCRKIIG 
, . MARCH 15. 1917 



Ctf^yrffktf igof, by Tki BUgrapUcal StcUty 



Printers and Binders^ Norwood^ Mais. 
U.S. A. 



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LIST OF FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS 



Vol. I 

John Adams 
John Qcincy Adams 
John A. Andrew 
Chester A. Arthur 
Phillips Brooks 

Vol. II 

James Buchanan 
John C. Calhoun 
Andrew Carnegie 
Henry Clay 
(trover Cleveland 

Vol. Ill 

Charles A. Dana 
Jefferson Davis 
George Dewey 
Thomas A. Edison 

Vol. IV 

David G. Farragut 
Millard Fillmore 



Benjamin Franklin 
Melville W. Fuller 
James A. Garfield 
James, Cardinal Gibbons 
Ulysses S. Grant 

Vol. V 

Marcus Hanna 
William R. Harper 
Benjamin Harrison 
William Henry Harrison 
Nathaniel Hawthorne 
John Hay 

Rutherford B. Hayes 
Washington Irving 

Vol. VI 

Andrew Jackson 
Thomas Jefferson 
Andrew Johnson 
Robert Edward Lee 
Abraham Lincoln 



Vol. VII 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
William McKinley 
James Madison 
James Monroe 
Samuel Finley Breese Morse 

Vol. VIII 
Oliver Hazard Perry 
Franklin Pierce 
James Knox Polk 

Vol. IX 

Theodore Roosevelt ' 
Elihu Root 
William T. Sherman 

Vol. X 

Zachary Taylor 
John Tyler 
Martin Van Buren 
George Washington 
Daniel Webster 



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THE 



BiOGRAPHicAiv Dictionary 



OP 



NOXABIvK AMERICANS. 



BROWNE, Charles Farrar (Artemus Ward), 
humorist, was born at Waterford, Me., April 26, 
1834. He was educated in the public schools ; 
learned the printer's trade in the office of the 
Skowhegan Clarion^ and on the Boston Carpet 
Bag, where he published his first humorous story, 
a description of Skowhegan Fourth of July cele- 
bration. He went to Tiffin, Ohio, and from there 
to Toledo, where he was engaged as a compositor 
and local reporter on the Commercial. Every- 
thing he saw assumed a comical aspect, and he saw 
fun everywhere, even at the funeral of a man 
noted for his bitter speech, where he remarked, 
"Well, after all, he makes a nice quiet corpse." 
His lips were always smiling. His very looks, 
with all his assumption of gravity, were provoca- 
tive of laughter. In the summer of 1858, when 
twenty-four years old, he went to Cleveland to 
write for the Haindealer, and his connection with 
this paper enlarged his reputation and its circula- 
tion. His quaint and extravagant humor took 
with the people, and his sol)er writing, masking 
unexpected conceits, excited much interest and 
quickened a desire to know what the next sur- 
prise would be. It was at this time he assumed 
the pseudonym, ** Artemus Ward — Showman. 
His first letter in that character, addressed to 
the editor and written at the time to ** fill space," 
was an unexpected success and gave him wide 
introduction as a humorist. His peculiar spell- 
ing was one of the original features of these let- 
ters, but the merit of their real and kindly 
humor was their attraction. The " Moral Show " 
took Cleveland by storm, and scarcely a day 
passed without some country reader of the Plain- 
dealer applying at its counting-room for a sight 
of the " Kankaroo," the moral ** Bares " and the 
wonderful wax "figgers." After several yeai*s' 
connection with the Plaindealer^ he removed to 
New York, and for a while was a contributor to, 
and afterwards editor of, a short-lived journal. 
Vanity Fair, Of this venture he said : ** I wrote 



some comic copy and it killed it. The poor paper 
got to be a conundrum and so I gave it up." He 
began his career as a lecturer Dec. 23, 1861, in 
Clinton hall, New York, before a scant audience 
of a few friends and some curiosity seekers. 
His subject was ** Babes in the Woods." Thi» 
first venture resulted in a loss of thirty dollars, 
but the after ones were wonderfully successful, 
as was his lecture on The Mormons and Sixty^ 
Minutes in Africa, He visited California in 
1862, delivering lectures to large audiences, and 
on his return spent a few weeks in Utah^ 
where he obtained material for his popular pano- 
ramic lecture on Mormonisra. In 1866 he visited 
England, and was received at the ** Literary 
Club," London, and welcomed by Charles Reade 
and in literary circles genemlly. His lectures 
at Egyptian hall, which began in November, 
were continued without interruption for eleven 
weeks, when his health, which had begun to 
fail him before he left home, became so bad that 
in February, 1867, he was obliged to seek rest on 
the Island of Jersey. He failed to recuperate, 
and when he attempted to return home he 
breathed his last at Southampton, England, 
and his remains were carried back to America, 
and placed beside those of his father in the ceme- 
tery at Waterford, Me. While in England he 
was a frequent contributor to Punch, and his 
papers, Artemus Ward in London, published 
in that periodical, contain some of his most 
graphic and humorous sketches, notably his first 
contribution, At the Tomb of Shakespeare. It 
may be said of him that he made the world 
happier by his living in it. Laughter is a good 
medicine, and he compounded it with skill and 
prescribed it with unfailing success. He pro- 
vided in his will for an asylum for printers and 
for the care of their orphan children ; for the 
education of a young man in whom he had be- 
come interested, and for his widowed mother, for 
whom during his life he showed an affection 



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BROWNE. 



BROWNE. 



peculiarly beautiful. His published works are : 
Artemus Ward^ His Book^ Artemua Ward^ His 
Travels {ISQo) ; Artemus Ward in London (1867) ; 
Artenius Ward's I^ecture (1869). His complete 
works were issued in 1875 under the title, Arte- 
mus Wardy His Works Complete. He died March 
6. 1867. 

BROWNE* Francis Fisher* editor and author, 
was born at South Halifax, Vt., Dec. 1, 1843; 
son of William Goldsmith Browne, a well-known 
poet and editor. He learned the printer's trade 
in his father's office in Chicopee, Mass. In the 
summer of 1862 he enlisted in the 46th Mass. regi- 
ment, in which he served for one year in North 
Carolina and in the Army of the Potomac, 
in 1866 he entered the law department of the 
University of Michigan. In 1867 he removed to 
Chicago, 111., where he devoted himself almost 
exclusively to literary work. He was editor of 
The Western Monthly and The Lakeside Monthly 
from 1869 to 1874 ; afterward was literary editor 
of The Alliance, and in 1880 founded The Dial, 
which he edited, serving meanwhile as literary 
adviser to a leading publishing house. Besides 
his critical writings, he wrote many short poems, 
.«ome of which have found a place in standard 
literary anthologies. His books include : Tlie 
Every 'Day Life of Abraham Lincoln, Bugle 
Echoes, a collection of Poems of the Civil War, 
Nortliem and Southern, Oolden Poems by British 
and American AutJwrs, and The Golden Treas- 
ury of Poetry and Prose. He also edited an ex- 
tended series of popular poems. 

BROWNE* Irving, author, was bom in Mar- 
shall, Oneida county, N.Y., Sept. 14, 1835. He was 
educated at academies in New England ; admit- 
ted to the bar in New York, 1857, and practised 
his profession at Troy, N. Y., until 1879, when 
lie retired from the bar to assume editorial 
charge of the Albany Law Journal, in which he 
continued until 1893. In 1892 he removed to 
Buffalo, N.Y. He lectured on law and compiled 
many reports and digests of legal decisions. His 
principal legal treatises are on the domestic 
relations, criminal law, parol evidence, and sales. 
He has also written several legal treatises of a 
semi-humorous character and of literary interest, 
such as. Humorous Phases of the Law, and 
Judicial Interpretation of Common Words and 
Phrases; also Law and Lawyers in Literature, 
and Short Studies of Great Lawyers. Also a 
volume of critical essays entitled, Iconoclasm 
and Whitetoash. He published a rhyniic trans- 
lation of Racine's comedy, Les Plaideurs, a satire 
on law and lawyers; and a volume entitled, 
Reminiscences and Khyminiscences of Travel, 
He became widely known to the legal fraternity 
as associate editor of The Green Bag, He died 
in Buffalo, N.Y., Feb. 26, 1899. 



BROWNE, John Ross, author, was born in 
Ireland in 1817. His parents emigrated to the 
United States and settled in Kentucky, where 
he received a common school education. His 
passion for travel and adventure led him to leave 
home in 1885, and make the trip down the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers from Louisville to New 
Orleans. He returned by way of Washington, 
D.C., where he was a shorthand reporter in the 
senate. He then shipped on a whaler bound on 
a cruise through southern seas. During his voy- 
age of eighteen months he visited the principal 
ports of the world, and upon his return pub- 
lished Etchings of a Whaling Cruise, with 
notes of a Sojourn on the Island of Zanzibar 
(1846). On returning to the national capital he 
secured the ix)sition of private secretary to 
Robert J. Walker, secretary of the treasury, and 
in 1849 followed the gold hunters to California. 
He went to Europe in 1851 as reporter and 
spent two years in travel. On his return to the 
United States he published Yusef, or the Jour- 
ney of the Fragi ; a Crusade in the East (1853). 
He made several tours through Europe and 
Amenca. One series of his magazine articles 
was published in a separate volume, under the 
title Adventures in the Apache Country (1869). 
In 1866 and again in 1868 he was employed 
by the United States government in preparing 
reports on the mineral resources of the states 
and territories west of the Rockies, which wei^e 
published by order of Congress, and the results 
of his investigations and observations were 
embodied in Resources of tlie Pacific Slope, 
a volume published in 1869. In 1868 Presi- 
dent Johnson appointed him as United States 
minister to China, and after his recall in July, 
1869, he settled in Oakland, Cal., and devoted 
himself to promoting the development of the 
country, and caring for the needy. In addition 
to the works alrea<ly noted, he published : 
Crusoe's Island, with SketcJies of Adventures in 
California and Washoe (1864) ; The Land of 
Tlior (1866), and the Adventures of an Ameincan 
Family in Germany (1869). He died in Oakland, 
Cal., Dec. 9, 1875. 

BROWNE, Junius Henri, journalist, was 
born at Seneca Falls, N.Y., Oct. 14, 1833. He 
was educated in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was 
graduated at St. Xavier college in 1849, after- 
wards receiving the degree of A.M. For two 
years he was with his father, who was a banker 
in Cincinnati, and then became connected with 
the newspaper press of that city, and retained 
his connection until 1861, when he went into the 
field as war correspondent of the New York 
Tribune. After two years* service in the south- 
west, he, with his coadjutor, Albert D. Richard- 
son, was captured May 8, 1863, while running the 



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BROWNE. 



BROWNELL. 



batteries of Vicksburg. They were placed in 
seven prisons, and finally escaped together from 
Salisbury, N. C, after twenty months of confine- 
ment. In making their escape they marched by 
night in the dead of winter nearly four hundred 
miles, over the mountains, to Strawberry Plains 
in Tennessee. Subsequently Mr. Browne lectured 
on the war and prison life, and was editorially 
connected with the New York Tribune, and later 
with the New York THmes. He was New York 
correspondent at different times of the leading 
newspapers in the country, and a contributor to 
the principal magazines. He is the author of 
Four Years in Secessiay TJie Great Metropolis^ 
Sights and Sensations in Europe^ and several 
volumes on the French revolution. He died in 
New York city, April 2, 1902. 

BROWNE, Thomas Haynes Bayly, represen- 
tative, was bom at Accomack Court House, Va., 
in 1844. He entered the Confederate army as a 
private at the beginning of the civil war in 1861, 
and was present at Lee's surrender in 1865. Sub- 
sequently he studied law at the University of 
Virginia, was graduated in 1867, commenced 
practice at Accomack, and in 1873 became state's 
attorney for his county. He was a delegate to 
the Republican national convention in 1884, and 
was a representative in the 49th, 50th and 51st 
congresses from 18S5 to 1891, being defeated as a 
candidate for the 52d Congress. He served on 
the commerce, pensions and expenditures in the 
navy department committees. He died at Acco- 
mack, Va., Aug. 19, 1892. 

BROWNE, Thomas M., representative, was 
bom at New Paris, Ohio, April 19, 1829. He re- 
moved to Indiana in 1844, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1849. In 1855 he was elected prosecut- 
ing attorney for his judicial district, holding 
the office imtil 1859. He was secretary of 
the state senate of Indiana in 18C1, and was 
elected to a seat in that body from Randolph 
county in 1863. He entered the army as lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 7th Indiana cavalry, was 
promoted colonel, and in 1865 was commissioned 
brigadier -general by brevet. Was United States 
attorney for the district of Indiana from 1869 to 
1872, when he resigned to become the Republican 
candidate for governor of Indiana, and was de- 
feated in the election by Thomas A. Hendricks. 
He was elected a representative from the sixth 
Indiana district to the 45th Congress in 1876, and 
was re-elected to the six succeeding congresses, 
on the Republican ticket. 

BROWNE, William Hand, author, was born in 
Baltimore, Md., Dec. 31. 1828, son of William 
and Patience (Hand) Browne. He studied medi- 
cine at the University of Maryland, and was 
graduated in 1850, but did not engage in the 
practice of that profession. He was junior edi- 



tor of the Southern Review, 1867-68, and editor of 
the Southern Magazine, 1871-75. He was made 
a member of the Maryland historical society and 
edited numerous volumes of the ** Maryland 
Archives." He was for many years professor of 
English literature in Johns Hopkins university. 
His first books were: *' Life of Alexander H. 
Stephens," and a ** Historical Sketch of English 
Literature," written in conjunction with Richard 
M. Johnston. He afterwards wrote : Maryland, 
in the Commonwealth series ; George and Cecilius 
Calvert, in the Makers of America series ; the 
Clarendon Dictionary of the English Language, 
and Select ions from the Early Scottish Poets. He 
tranalate<l Greece and Rome, by Jakob von Falke 
(1882), and other works from the German and 
French, and is the author of many critical and 
literary pai)ers. 

BROWNELL, Henry Howard, author, was 
bom in Providence, R. I., Feb. 6, 1820. • He was 
graduated at Trinity college in 1841, and taught 
school for a number of years at Hartford. 
At the beginning of the civil war he turned into 
rhyme the ** General Orders" by which com- 
mander Farragut directed the movements of his 
fleet when preparing for the attack on New 
Orleans ; and these verses, which were extensively 
copied by the newspapers of the day, reaching 
the eyes of Farragut, a correspondence between 
that hero and the poet was commenced in which 
Brownell expressed a desire to be present at a 
naval engagement, and Farragut, in order to 
gratify him, appointed him acting ensign on his 
flagship, the Hartford. During the New Orleans 
and Mobile engagements the ensign -poet was busy 
taking notes of the details of the battles, and 
The River Fight and the Bay Fight, two of his 
finest poems, are descriptions of the scenes of 
which he was a witness. He published a volume 
of i)oems in 1847, The People's Book of Ancient 
awl Modern History (1851) ; Tlie Discoverers, 
Pioneers and Settlers of North and South 
Aynerica (lH.i3), and Lyrics of a Day, or News- 
paper 4^oetry. by a Volunteer of the U.S. Ser- 
vice. He died in East Hartfofd, Conn., Oct. 31, 
1872. 

BROWNELL, Thomas Church, 8d bishop of 
Connecticut, and 19th in succession in the Ameri- 
can episcopate, was born at West field, Mass., 
Oct. 19, 1779. He taught in a common school at 
the age of twelve, but was not able to complete 
his preparation for college till he was twenty -one. 
In 1800 he entered the college of Rhode Island, 
from which he removed, with President Maxcy, 
to Union college in 1802, and was graduated there 
in 1804 with the highest honors of his class. 
While in college he studied theology under Rev. 
Dr. Eliphalet Nott, who became president of 
Union in 1804, and he made yoimg Brownell 



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BROWNELL. 



BROWNING. 




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tutor in the classics, and a year later professor of 
logic and helles lettrea in the college. After this 
he spent a year in Great Britain and Ireland in the 
study of the natural sciences, and returned to 
teach chemistry at Union college, at first as lec- 
turer, and in 1814 as professor. About this time 

he changed his reli- 
gious belief from the 
Calvinistic creed to 
that of the histor- 
ical episcopacy, and 
was ordained a 
deacon of the Protes- 
tant episcopal 
church,Aprilll,1816. 
Two years later he 
was elevated to the 
priesthood and ac- 
cepted the position of 
assistant minister in 
Trinity church, New 
York, and in June, 
1819, he was elected 
to the episcopate of 
the diocese of Connecticut, which had been va- 
cant for six years. He was consecrated Oct. 27, 
1819. He renewed the efforts to secure a charter 
for a college in the state, which shoiild be free 
from Congregational control; and in 1828 the 
charter of Washington college (afterward Trinity) 
was granted with full academic prerogatives. It 
was located at Hartford, and scholastic work was 
begun in October, 1824, with nine students. Bishop 
Brownell had been chosen president, and with him 
was soon associated a full faculty, including men 
of no little ability. Two buildings of freestone 
were erected on a sightly campus southeast of 
the centre of the city. The nimiber of under- 
graduates rapidly increased, partly on account of 
the provision made for practical work and for 
special courses, and one of the best libraries in 
the country was soon within its walls. For seven 
years Bishop Brownell guided the plans and the 
actual work of the college. In 1831, at the re- 
quest of the convention of the diocese, he re- 
signed his position as president of Trinity college 
and was elected to the honorary office of chan- 
cellor. Before this date, however, the bishop 
had three times paid a visit to the Southern 
states in the interest of the advancement of the 
Episcopal church. For twenty years longer he 
administered the diocese alone, and in 1851 the 
Rev. Dr. John Williams, president of Trinity 
college, was elected his assistant. Bishop Brow- 
nell, though suffering much from infirmity, 
officiated from time to time as late as 1860. For 
twelve years he was presiding bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal church on account of his 
seniority. During the closing years of his life, 



on each commencement day, the procession on 
its way from the college buildings to the public 
hall stopped before his house to salute him, and 
all stood with uncovered heads while the band 
played ** Auld Lang Syne." A colossal bronze 
statue of the bishop stands on the college campus. 
His published writings, besides a lecture on the 
theology of agriculture, are sermons, addresses, 
and charpjes, a Commcntanj on the Pratjer-hook, 
a Compilation on tfie Religion of the Heart and 
Life^ and an edition of Holden''s Comnientanj on 
the New Testament. He died at Hartford, Conn., 
Jan. 13, 1865. 

BROWNELL, Walter A., educator, was bom 
at Evans Mills, N. Y., March 23, 1838. He 
acquired an academical education and was grad- 
uated from Genesee college. His first appoint- 
ment was as professor of Latin in Fulton seminary ; 
in 1865 he became principal of the Red Creek 
seminary ; in 1868 principal of Fairfield seminary, 
and in 1871 principal of the Syracuse high school, 
which he held for a quarter of a century. In 
1872 he was chosen professor of geology and 
chemistry in the high school. In 1881 he was 
elected professor of geology in the summer school 
for teachers, Martha's Vineyard, Mass. He be- 
came renowned as a lectiu*er and ^-riter upon 
scientific subjects ; was made a member of the 
American association for the advancement of 
science, and one of the original fellows of the 
Geological society of America. He received the 
degree of A.M. from Syracuse university, and 
that of Ph.D. from Hamilton college in 1875. 
During his vacations he made geological explora- 
tions in Europe. 

BROWNING, Eliza Gordon, librarian, was 
bom at Fortville, Ind., Sept. 23, 1856. After ob- 
taining a public school education she taught 
music for two years, and in 1880 became an as- 
sistant at the Indianapolis public library. She 
was the librarian's first -assistant from 1883 to 
1892, when she was chosen librarian. She be- 
came a member of the American library associa- 
tion, and on Dec. 28, 1893, was elected president 
of the Indiana association of librarians. She 
was chapter registrar of the Caroline Scott Harri- 
son chapter of the daughters of the American 
revolution. 

BROWNING, Orville Hickman, statesman, 
was born in Harrison county, Ky., in 1810. He 
early in life removed to Bracken county, where 
he was educated. In 1830 he removed to Quincy, 
111., where he was admitted to the bar in 1831. 
He was a soldier in the Black Hawk war. In 
1836 he was elected to the state senate and served 
two terms, when he was elected to the lower 
house, serving for three years. He was a dele- 
gate of the Bloomington convention, which or- 
ganized the Republican party of Illinois in 1856, 



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BROWNLOW. 



BROWN-SEQUARD. 



and to the Chicago convention wliich nominated 
Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. In 
1861 he was appointed United States senator by 
Governor Yates, to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, 
who died June 8, but the appointment was not 
confirmed by the legislature of Illinois, and 
W A. Richardson was elected to fill the unexpired 
term. In the senate he served from 1861 to 1863, 
and actively supported all the war measures of 
the government, except the confiscation bill. In 
1866 he was appointed secretary of the interior in 
the cabinet of President Johnson, and for a time 
acted also as attorney -general. At the close of 
Johnson's administration he resumed the prac- 
tice of the law, which he followed at Quincy, HL, 
until his death, Aug. 10, 1881. 

BROWNLOW, Walter Preston, representa- 
tive, was bom in Abington, Va., March 27, 1851 ; 
son of Joseph A. and Mary R. Brownlow, and 
grandson of Joseph A. Brownlow. He attended 
the common schools and became an engineer. In 
1876 he was a reporter for the Knoxville Whig 
and Chronicle, edited by his uncle, William G. 
Brownlow, U.S. senator ; and in the same year 
purchased the Herald and Tribune, Republican, 
published in Jonesboro, Tenn., and became its 
oditor and proprietor. He was a delegate to the 
Republican national conventions of 1880 and 
1896 ; postmaster of Jonesboro, 1881 ; was eight 
years a member of the Republican state commit- 
tee and also chairman in 1882-'83 ; was a delegate 
at large to the Republican National convention of 
1884 ; a representative in the national committee 
in 1884 and 1896 ; was unanimously elected chair- 
man of the Republican state committee, 1898, and 
was a representative from Tennessee in the 55th, 
56th, 57th and 58th congre8.ses, 1897-1905. 

BROWNLOW, William Qannaway, governor 
of Tennessee, was born in Wythe county, Va., 
Aug. 29, 1805. He was an itinerant minister of 
the Methodist church, 1826-'36. He began his pol- 
itical career in South Carolina in 1828, where he 
advocated the re-election of President John Q. 
Adams and opposed nullification. He became 
editor of the \Vhig, a political journal, in 1838, 
published fii*st at Elizal)ethtown, Tenn., and after- 
ward at Knoxville. He was appointed a Missouri 
river navigation commissioner in 1850, and in 
1858 advocated slavery in a public debate with 
the Rev. A. Prynne, which debate was published 
in a volume entitled Ought AmeiHcan Slavery 
to be Perpetuated 9 He opposed se<;ession in 
1860, and continued to publish the Whig in spite 
of persecution until Oct. 24, 1861. He was im- 
prisoned until Margh 3, 1862, when he was released 
and sent inside the Union line at Nashville. He 
lectured in the North, 1862-'64, and on his 
return helped to reorganize the state gov- 
ernment, and in 1865 became governor of Ten- 



nessee. In 1867 he opposed Mayor Brown of 
Nashville in the matt<er of election judges, and 
the United States government sent troops to 
sustain the governor. He afterwards in the Ku- 
Klux troubles, proclaimed martial law in several 
counties. He resigned the governorship in 1869, 
having been elected United States senator from 
Tennessee. He served in the senate to the end 
of his term, when he returned to Knoxville, 
bought a controlling interest in the Whig, and 
assumed the editorship of the paper. He pub- 
lished, in 1856, The Iron Wheel Examined and 
its False Spokes Extracted, a reply to an attack 
on the Methodist church, and in 1862, Sketches 
of the Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession, 
He died at Knoxville, Tenn., April 29, 1877. 

BROWN RIQQ, Richard Thomas, soldier, was 
born in North Carolina in 1831 ; son of Gen. R. T, 
Brownrigg. He was educated at Dillsborough, 
N. C, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. He 
located as a lawyer, first in Mississippi, and after- 
wards at Austin, Texas. When . the state of 
Texas seceded he joined the CJonfederate army 
and became a major on General Sibley's staff. 
He served in New Mexico, was in the battle of 
Glorietta, and for gallant conduct was presented 
with a sword and rifie, each bearing an inscrip- 
tion testifying to his chivalrous conduct. He 
received a mortal wound in the battle of Camp 
Bisland, April 14, 1863. 

BROWN-SEQUARD, Charles Edouard, physi- 
ologist, was bom at Port Louis, Isle of Mau- 
ritius, April 8, 1817. His father, Edward Brown, 
was bom in Philadelphia, and his mother was 
a native of the Isle of Mauritius. The son was 
educated in Port Louis, and in his twentieth 
year was sent to Paris to study medicine. In 
November, 1888, he was made a B.L., and the 
following year a B.S., by the University of 
France. He taught natural history, chemistry 
and natural philosophy in 1839, and in 1840 
lectured on physiology. His M.D. degree was 
conferred Jan. 3, 1846, and he first devoted his 
energies to making researches in experimental 
physiology, upon the composition of the blood, 
animal heat, diseases of the spinal cord, the 
muscular system and the lymphatic nerves and 
ganglia. He has been called a specialist, but 
when questioned in regard to it, said- **I am 
chiefly consulted for nervous affections, both 
functional and organic, but I am not a specialist ; 
and have studied and continue to study every 
branch of medicine." In 1858 he delivered a 
course of lectures at the Royal college of sur- 
geons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and soon after, at 
the request of a niunber of young and progres- 
sive physicians and scientists, went to Dublin, 
where he gave the same lectures. In March, 
1853, he married Ellen Fletcher, a niece of 



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BROWN-SEQUARD. 



BROWNSON. 



Daniel Webster, and in 1864 visited America, 
where he lectured and practised at both Cam- 
bridge and Boston. From 1864 to 1868 he held 
the chair of physiology and pathology of the 
nervous system at Harvard college, and in 1860 
returned to Paris, where he was made professor 
of experimental and comparative pathology in 
the ecole de medicine. He had established, 
when in Paris in 1858, the Journal de la Physiol- 
ogie de VHomme et des Animaux, and on his 
return in 1869 he started another journal, which 
h3 called Archives de la Physiologie Nomiale et 
Pathologique. He remained in Paris four years, 
returning to America in 1873 to practise in New 
York city, and soon after he began to publish, 
in connection with Dr. Seguin, the ** Archives 
of Scientific and Practical Medicine." Return- 
ing to France, he was called, in 1878, to the 
professorship of experimental medicine at the 
College of France, to take the place of his former 
teacher, Claude Bernard, and in the same year 
was elected to the chair of medicine in the 
French academy of sciences, from which body 
he received at various times five prizes, one of 
them the biennial prize of twenty thousand 
franos. He also twice received a portion of the 
grant set aside by the Royal society of London 
for the promotion of science, and honors from 
many other scientific bodies were bestowed upon 
him. Vivisection was necessarily used largely 
in making his discoveries, and he was subject to 
much adverse criticism on this account. In 
1889 he created a sensation in the press, if not 
in the scientific world, by announcing the dis- 
covery of a process of rejuvenating man, and 
restoring his vitality, by means of a subcutane- 
ous injection of a peculiar composition extracted 
from the organs of living animals. He gave the 
results of his experiments in a special work 
written in 1890. The theory that ** the fibrine of 
the blood is an excreiJlentitious product, and 
not subservient to nutrition, originated with 
him, as did also the discovery that arterial blood 
is subservient to nutrition, while venous blood 
is required for muscular contraction." He also 
determined by his experiments that the animal 
heat of man is 103^ F. He was decorated with 
the medal of the legion of honor in 1880 and in 
1886, and having been elected a member of the 
academy of science was made its perpetual sec- 
retary. His publications, contained in pamphlets, 
periodicals, and cyclopaedias, were catalogued 
under two hundred and nine titles in 1863. 
Among his English writings are : Physiology 
and Pathology of the Nei^vous System (1860); 
Lectures on Paralysis of the Lower Extremities 
(1872) ; Lecture OH Functional Affections (1873), 
and 77ie Elixir of Life (1889). He died April 1, 
1894. 



BROWNSON, Heary Francis, lawyer and 
author, \%^as born near Boston in 1885 ; son of Dr. 
Orestes Augustus Brownson. He was educated 
in the public schools and at the Holy Cross col- 
lege, Worcester, and was graduated at George- 
town college. In 1851 he went to Europe and 
studied in Paris and Munich. Upon his return 
to America in 1854, he became associate editor 
of Broicnson's Quarterly Review, and translated 
Balme's Fundamental Philosophy (1856). He 
served as 2d lieutenant, 1st lieutenant and cap- 
tain in the 3d U.S. artillery 1861-70 ; practiced 
law at Detroit, Mich., 1870-82, and from the 
latter year devoted himself to literature. He 
edited and published the works of his father (20 
vols. 1882-87) and translated from the Italian 
Francesco Tarducci's Life of Columbus, He 
originated and was chairman of the Catholic 
congress at Baltimore in 1889 ; received the de- 
gree LL.D. from Notre Dame university and tlxe 
Laetare medal in 1892. 

BROWNSON, Nathan, governor of Georgia, 
was born about 1740. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1761 ; studied medicine and practised his pro- 
fession in Liberty county, Ga., being the first 
physician to practise south of the Ogechee river 
before the Revolution. He was a member of tlie 
provincial congress of Georgia in 1775 and was 
surg€H3n of the Georgia brigade in the Continen- 
tal line. He was a delegate to the Continentiil 
congress, 1776-78 ; a representative in the state 
legislature, and speaker of the house in 1781 ; 
and governor of Georgia in 1782. He was again 
speaker of the house in 1788; a member of the 
state constitutional convention of 1789 and presi- 
dent of the state senate 1789-*91. He died in 
Liberty county, Ga., Nov. 6, 1796. 

BROWNSON, Orestes Augustus, theologist. 
was bom at Stockbridge, Vt., Sept. 16, 1803. 
His father died when he was a mere child and 
he was taken in charge by relatives living in 
Royalton, and brought up in a simple, precise 
and puritanic way until he was fourteen. He 
then found work at Saratoga, N. Y., and earned 
enough to take a course of study in the academy 
at Ballston. When nearly nineteen years old he 
joined the Presbyterian church, and three years 
later entered the Universalist ministry, and 
preached in New York and Vermont. He became 
editorially connected with the Christian Advocate 
and was later the editor of the Philanthropist. He 
was encouraged in matters of social reform by 
Robert Owen, and made energetic efforts to estab- 
lish such an organization of the humbler classes 
as to make them an effective element in political 
life. But the times were not ripe and the move- 
ment failed. About this time he became inter- 
ested in the religious views of Dr. Channing, and 
in 1832 became pastor of a Unitarian congrega- 



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BROWNSON. 



BRUCE. 



tion. He organized the society for Christian 
union and progress in 1836, and served in Boston 
as pastor until 1848, when he abandoneu preach- 
ing, and gave himself to secular interests. He 
took the stump as a speaker in the interests of 
the Democratic party, opposing the Whigs with 
much vehemence and popular eloquence ; helped 
to organize the Looo-f ooo party in New York, and 
supported Van Buren for the presidency. He 
was too Independent to suit party leaders, and 
when a new constitution was proposed in Massa- 
chusetts he sided with the Whigs. He pub* 
lished, in 1886, ** New Views of Christian Society 
and the Church," and in 1886-'37 published 
articles in the Christian Examiner, which gave 
him renown as a philosopher. He started the 
Boston Qtiarterly Review in 1888, and was for 
five years his own editor and almost the only 
contributor. He advocated no special system 
either of philosophy or religion, but invited inves- 
tigation, stimulated thought in others, and sug- 
gested searching changes in politics and reform. 
In 1848 the periodical was absorbed by the Demo- 
cratic Review of New York, and Dr. Brownson 
continued a contributor. In 1840 he published, 
Charles El wood ^ or the Infidel Converted, a 
novel, purporting to be the biography of a soul 
struggling out of bondage into freedom, from 
darkness to light. It was popular; awakened 
discussion, and had ready sale; but, regardless 
of his interests, he refused to have a second 
edition issued in the United States, as his own 
views were imdergoing vital change, so radical 
and extreme, that he found contentment of 
thought and peace of mind in the Roman Catho- 
lic church, into which communion he entered in 
1844. The philosophy of his faith seemed to lie 
in the close distinction he made between inmiedi- 
ate perception of intuition and reflex knowledge. 
His intimate study of the French philosophy of 
Leroux and Gioberti and Cousin was manifest 
in his writings, and in several instances brought 
him into conflict with the authorities of the 
church to which he had given his allegiance. 
Articles published in Brownson's Quarterly 
Review were subject to stringent criticism, and 
were finally referred to Rome. Nothing was 
found really deserving of censure, but Dr. Brown- 
son was asked to be more cautious in his treat- 
ment of certain themes. The controversy, added 
to domestic troubles, was so trying to him, that 
his health gave way, and in 1804 he discontinued 
his Review. When the syllabus of 1865 was pub- 
lished he defended it in the Catholic journals, 
and was charged with inconsistency in the 
emphasis of what he deemed truth and of the 
foith he professed, so far as Roman Catholic 
doctrines were concerned; and while he was held 
to be liberal in one direction, he was regarded 



as too severe and conservative in another. He 
was honored with an invitation to a professorship 
in Dublin imiversity, which he valued much 
although he declined it. When he was seventy- 
two years old he left the east and settled in 
Detroit, where his son was living, and he there 
busied himself in re-writing portions of the 
works already published. Among them were: 
Essays and Reviews (1852) ; The Spirit Rapper, 
an Autobiography (1854) ; The Convert or 
Leaves from my Experience (1857) ; Tfie Amer- 
ican Republic, its Constitution, Tendencies and 
Destiny, (1865) ; Convei'safion on Liberalism and 
the Chnrch (1870). He died in Detroit, Mich., 
April 17, 1876. 

BROWNSON, Truman Qaylord, educator, 
was born at Afton, N. Y., April 2, 1851. He was 
prepared for college at Colgate academy ; in 1877 
was graduated at Colgate univei-sity, and in 
1883 from the Baptist union theological seminary 
of Chicago. He was subsequently pastor of a 
church at Three Rivers, Mich., from 1879 to 1882, 
of one at Albany, Oregon, from 1884 to 1887, and 
in June, 1887, was appointed president of Mc- 
Minnville college, McMinnville, Oregon. Under 
his administration the collej^e enjoyed reniHrk- 
able growth. He became president of Califor- 
nia college in 1890, and received the degree D.D. 
from Colgate in 1901. 

BRUCE* Archibald, physician, was bom in 
New York city in February, 1777; son of William 
Bruce, a noted English physician, having charge 
of the medical department of the New York 
division of the British army. He was graduated 
at Columbia cx)llege in 1797, and from the medi- 
cal school of the University of Edinburgh in 1800. 
He returned to the United States in 1803, liaving 
spent the interim in European travel, and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. In 1807 
he accepted the chair of materia medica and 
mineralogy in the New York college of physi- 
cians and surgeons, and in 1812 a similar chair 
in Queen's (Rutgerfj) college, New Jersey. He 
commenced the publication of the Journal of 
American Mineralogy in 1810, and acted as its 
editor from that time until 1814. He accumu- 
lated a large collection of rare minerals, and 
discovered and analyzed many valuable minerals. 
His paper On the Ores of Titanium occurring 
within the United States, was published in 1814. 
He was a member of a number of the leading 
scientific associations of Europe and America. 
He died in New York city, Feb. 22. 1818. 

BRUCE, Blanche K., senator, was born in 
Prince Edward coimty, Va., March 1, 1841; a 
slave, but shared with the young son of his 
master, to whom he was assigned as a compan- 
ion and attendant, the advantages of private 
instruction. At the breaking out of the civil war 



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/? /<j /V*-c^. 



he was living in Missouri, and he removed to a 
free state, where he taught school ; after which, 
with the means thus acquired, he pursued an 
elective course of study at Oberlin college. In 
1868 he went to Mississippi, where he engaged 
in cotton planting with great success. In the 
following year he was chosen sergeant-at-arms 
of the Mississippi senate ; and in 1871 was elected 
sheriff and tax collector of Bolivar county, and 
also a member of the Mississippi levee commis- 
sion. In 1874 he was 
elected to the U.S. 
senate. On appearing 
in the senate chamber 
March 4, 1875, he was 
without an escort, his 
colleague failing to 
present him to the 
presiding officer, as 
was customary, and 
Senator Conkling, 
noticing the omission, 
8tepx)ed forward and 
said: "Excuse me, Mr. 
Bruce, I did not until 
just now see that you were without an escort. 
Permit me." He thereupon gave his arm, and 
the two advanced to the vice-president's desk. 
After the oath was administered, he escorted 
Senator Bruce back to the seat. He was made 
chairman of the committee on Mississippi levees, 
and of the select committee on the Freedman's 
savings bank, the affairs of which institution he 
closed, selling its property, and reimbursing the 
unfortimate depositors with the proceeds. His 
first speech was on the admission of P. B. S. 
Pinchbaok of Louisiana to a seat in the senate; 
but his speeches on the investigation of elections 
in Mississippi, and on the ** Chinese Bill," are the 
most noteworthy of his senatorial term. He was 
on several occasions called to preside over the 
senate, and elicited- the encomiums of his fellow 
senators, by the ease and dignity with which he 
wielded the gavel of the second officer of the re- 
public. At the expiration of his term in the 
senate, Mr. Bruce was appointed register of the 
treasury by President Garfield, and this position 
he held until the first administration of President 
Cleveland, when he accepted an engagement as a 
platform lectiu-er. His principal lectures were. 
Popular Tendencies and TJie Race Problem, 
He served as a delegate to nearly every national 
Republican convention after the reconstruction 
era, and he was the first colored man ever called 
upon to preside over a national convention, which 
he did at Chicago in 1H80. He was recorder of 
deeds for the District of Columbia, 1891-'93 and 
1807-'98. He also served as school trustee. He 
died in Washington, D.C., March 17, lbU8. 



BRUCE» Qeorgc, type-founder, was bom in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, June 26, 1781. In 1795 he 
joined his brother David, who had emigrated to 
the United States some years previously, and 
after learning the printer's trade in Philadelphia, 
George found employment in New York. He 
became the printer and publisher of the New 
York Daily Advertiser in 1803, and was an occa- 
sional contributor to its columns. In partner- 
ship with his brother he opened a book-printing 
establishment in 1806, and among the first works 
brought out by the new firm, who did the entire 
work themselves, was an edition of ** Lavoisier's 
Chemistry. ' ' In their efforts to introduce the art 
of stereotyping, which David went to England in 
1812 to learn, they encoimtered many mechanical 
difficulties, which tliey succeeded in overcoming 
by inventing new machinery, and casting new 
type. They sold out the printing business in 
1816 and established a type foundry, introduced 
many innovations, and with the assistance of his 
nephew, David Bruce, Jr., George invented a type- 
casting machine, which was in use in 1896. He 
was a prominent member of the Mechanics' insti- 
tute, and of the various industrial societies con- 
nected with the craft. He died in New York 
city. July 6. 1866. 

BRUCE, Wallace, poet, was bom at Hillsdale, 
Columbia coimty, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1844. He was 
graduated at Yale college in 1867, with distin- 
guished honors, and then visited Europe, where, 
while in Paris in 1870, he witnessed some of the 
stormiest scenes of the Franco- Prussian war. 
Returning to the United States in 1871, he lec- 
tured before literary societies. In 1875 he deliv- 
ered his poem, ** Parson Allen's Ride," at the 
centennial celebration at Bennington, Vt. Mr. 
Bruce was appointed United States consul in 
Edinburgh, Scotland. July 1, 1889, by President 
Harrison. While in Scotland he was instru- 
mental in securing the erection in Edinburgh of 
a statue of Lincoln to commemorate the service 
of Scottish- American soldiers in the American 
civil war. The monimient was designed by a 
Union veteran soldier, and stands in Old Carlton 
burying-ground, where a number of Scotch- 
American soldiers are buried. He published in 
1878 Tlie Land of Bums, in 1880 The Yosemite, 
\\\ 1883 The Hudson, in 1883 The Long Drama, 
a centennial poem, delivered at Newburg, N.Y., 
in 1884 From the Hudson to the Yosemite, in 
1888 Old Homestead Poems, and in 1894 Way- 
side Poems. 

BRUEN, riatthias, clergyman, was born at 
Newark, N.J,, April 11, 1793. He was graduated 
from Columbia college in 1812, and after study- 
ing theology he was licensed to preach in 1816. 
From 1816 to 1819 he resided in Europe, at first 
travelling for his health, and having been 



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BRUMM. 



BRUSH. 



ordained in London in 1818, he assumed charge of 
the ** American chapel of the oratory " in Paris. 
In May, 1819, lie returned to the United States, 
and in 1823 began missionary labors in the poorer 
quarters of New York city, finally succeeding in 
establishing the Bleecker Street church, of which 
he was pastor during the remainder of his life. 
Among his published writings are : a sermon, 
on taking leave of his congregation in Paris 
(1819) ; a Thanksgiving sermon (1821) ; Essays 
descriptive of Scenes in Italy and France (1822). 
He also contributed to numerous periodicals. 
His memoir was published in 1831.* He died in 
New York city, Sept. 6, 1829. 

BRUMM, Charles N., representative, was bom 
at Pottsville, Pa., June 9, 1838. He received 
a common-school training and attended at Penn- 
sylvania college one year, when he was appren- 
ticed to a watchmaker, meantime studying law. 
In June, 1861, he volunteered for three months* 
service in the Union army, and served as fii*st 
lieutenant in the 5th Pennsylvania volunteers. 
In September, 1861, he volunteered for three 
years and was assigned to the 76th Pennsylvania 
volunteers, being detailed on the staff of General 
Barton as aide-de-camp and assistant quarter- 
master. He afterwards served in the same 
capacity on General Penny packer's staff until 
the close of the war. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1871, and practised in Schuylkill 
county. 

BRUNDIDQE, Stephen, representative, was 
born in White county, Ark., Jan. 1, 1857 ; son of 
Stephen and Minerva Brundidge. He attended 
private schools, studied law at Searcy, Ark., was 
admitted to the bar in 1878, and practised in 
Searcy. He was elected prosecuting attorney 
for the 1st judicial district of Arkansas in 1886 
and again in 1888. He was a member of the 
Democratic state central committee of Arkansas 
from 1890 and was a Democratic representative 
from Arkansas in the 55th, 56th, 5rth and 58th 
congresses, 1897-1905. 

BRUNNER, David B., representative, was 
born at Amity, Berks county, Pa., March 7, 
18iJ5. He was educated in the common schools, 
learned the carpenter's trade, and taught school 
from 1853 to 1856, during which time he studied 
the classics. He was graduated at Dickinson 
college in 1860, and for the succeeding nine 
years was principal of a classical academy in 
Reading. In 1869 he was elected superintendent 
of the public schools of Berks county, which 
office he filled until 1875, and in 1880 he estab- 
lished the Reading business college. lie was 
elected to the 51st and 52d congresses as a Demo- 
crat 1889-'93. He published "The Indians of 
Berks County, Pa.," and a work on English 
grammar. 



BRUNNER, John Hamilton, educator, was 
born near Greeneville, Tenn., March 12, 1825. He 
was graduated at Greeneville and Tusculum col- 
lege in 1847, and was elected to a profe.ssorship in 
Hiwassee college in 1853. In 1854 he became 
president of that institution, being succeeded 
in 1890 by J. T. Pritchett. He is the author of 
Sunday Evening Talks, and The Union of the 
CJiurcJies; and was elected a member of the 
Society of science, letters and art of London, as 
well as of numerous American literary organi- 
zations. Having experienced the difficulties 
attending a penniless boy in quest of an educa- 
tion, he has succored scores of young men, who 
have won their way from obscurity to positions 
of usefulness, and, in many cases, to distinction. 
He was a presiding elder in the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, south, and for some years served as 
assistant editor of a church paper, and as a con- 
tributor to the Quarterly Review. 

BRUNOT, Felix R., philanthropist, was bom 
at Newport, Ky., Feb. 7, 1820. After passing 
through Jefferson oollege, Cannonsburg, Pa., he 
studied engineering and practised that profession 
for a time. In 1847 he acquired an interest in a 
steel furnace, which brought him a fortune and 
enabled him to indulge the philanthropic prompt- 
ings of his nature. During the civil war he 
organized and equipped a corps of volunteer phy- 
sicians, which rendered most effective service in 
caring for the sick and wounded on the battle- 
fields. In 1865, by appointment of President 
Qrant, he became one of the commissioners 
selected to inquire into the complaints made by 
the Indians in the west. Upon the organization 
of the board, Mr. Bnmot was chosen president, 
and during the five summers spent among the 
Indians he succeeded in correcting many abu&ies. 
He died in Allegheny, Pa., May 9, 1898. 

BRUSH, Charies Benjamin, civil engineer, 
was bom in New York city, Feb. 15, 1848; son 
of Jonathan Ethelbert and Cornelia (Turck) 
Brush. He was graduated at the University of 
the city of New York in 1867. He was on the 
engineer corps, Croton aqueduct department. 
New York city, 186S-'69; was adjunct professor 
of civil engineering in the University of the city 
of New York, 1874-'88, when he was advanced 
to the full professorship. From 1888-'91 he 
was director of the American society of civil en- 
gineers, and in 1892 was chosen vice-president 
of the society. He directed the construction of 
many of the more important bridges, water- 
works and sewers in the United States. He was 
elected a member of the American society of 
civil engineers, the American society of mechani- 
cal engineers, the American water-works associa- 
tion, the New England water- works association, 
the New York academy of sciences, and the New 



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BRUSH. 



BRUSH. 



Jersey sanitary association. The University of 
the city of New York conferred upon him the de- 
gree of B.S. and C.E. in 1867, and of M.S. in 1878. 
He is the autlior of numerous contributions to 
the Transactions of scientific associations, includ- 
ing: Roads (1878) ; Aeration of Water (1886) ; 
Friction, Wa^te and Loss of Water in Mains 
(1888) ; One Way of Obtaining Brine (1890) ; 
Aeration on a Gravity W^ater Supply (1891), and 
Vertical Gates on Force Mains (1892). He died 
in New York city, June 3. 1897. 

BRUSH, Charles Francis, electrical engineer, 
was born at Euclid, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, 
March 17, 1849. His ancestors came from England 
in 1630 and 1656. His early years were spent at 
work on his father's farm. While quite young 
he devised experiments at home and at school 
that indicated his special taste for chemistry, 
physics, and engineering. At the age of thirteen 
he entered the Shaw academy at Collamer, Ohio, 
where he made his first experiments with static 
electrical machines, electro-magnets, and bat- 
teries, all of his own construction. Early in 1864 
he entered the Cleveland high school, where he 
became much interested in the subject of micro- 
scopes and telescopes. He constructed every part 
of these instnmients, even to grinding the lenses. 
In the same year he devised a plan for lighting 
and turning off gas on street lamps by electricity. 
He also constructed a number of induction coils, 
and did some very creditable dry-plate photo- 
graphic work, a process then almost unknown. 
During his high school course he passed a rigid 
examination in physics, and during his senior 
year, the physical and chemical apparatus be- 
longing to the school was placed in his charge. 
At this early time he constructed an electric 
motor, having its field magnets as well as its 
armature excited by the battery current. He 
also produced his first electric arc light, with a 
lamp and battery of his own construction. The 
subject of his '^p^uating oration was '* The Con- 
servation of Force." Having graduated from 
the Cleveland high school in June, 1867, Mr. 
Brush, in September, entered the University of 
Michigan, where he took a course of study par- 
ticularly suited to his tastes, and was graduated 
in 1869, being one year in advance of his class. 
Returning to Cleveland he organized a laboratory 
and conducted the business of an analytical and 
consulting chemist for about three years. Dur- 
ing this period he was employed as expert in 
several important litigations involving questions 
of chemistry. In the spring of 1873 he engaged 
in business with C. E. Bingham, dealing in Lake 
Superior and other pig-irons and iron-ores, and 
continued his electrical investigations, and early 
in 1876 completed his first dynamo-electric ma- 
chine. After 1877 Mr. Brush devoted his entire 



attention to electrical inventions and constructed 
a commercial arc lamp, wiiicii was followed by 
liis series arc-lamp. He also invented and pat- 
ented copper-[)late carbons, automatic cut-outs ; 
a compound series-shunt winding for dynamo- 
electric machines, and a multiple carbon arc- 
lamp. He sold these patents to a London com- 
pany in 1880, for nearly $500,000. He established 
the Brush Electric Company at Cleveland, Ohio ; 
became a fellow of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science and a member of 
the British association of that name. He re- 
ceived the degree Ph. D. from Western Reserve 
university in 1880, and LL.D. in 1900, and was 
decorated a chevalier of the legion of honor in 1881. 

BRUSH, George de Forest, artist, was bom 
at Shelb\ ville, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1855, son of Alfred 
Clark Brush. He was educated at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts and under Gerome in Paris, and on 
his return to the United States opened a studio 
in New York city. He was awarded the first 
Hallgarten prize in 1888 ; a medal at the World's 
Columbian exjwsition in Chicago in 1893, and the 
Temple gold medal at the Pennsylvania academy 
of fine arts in 1897. He was a member of the 
Society of American Artists, and of the Artists' 
Fund Society, and was elected a National Acade- 
mician in 1902. He exhibited Tlie Artist and 
Mother and Child at the Paris Exposition in 1900, 
where he received a gold medal. 

BRUSH, George Jarvis, mineralogist, was 
.bom in Brooklyn, N. Y.. Dec. 15, 1831. His 
fondness for scientific research was developed 
while he was a student of Theodore S. Grold at 
West Cornwall, Conn. Upon leaving the acad- 
emy, he entered a counting-house in New York 
city, and had acquired two years' business ex- 
perience, when he attended a course of lectures 
on agriculture at Yale, he having decided to 
become a farmer. His fondness for chemistry 
and mineralogy now re-asserted itself, and after 
completing his course in agriculture, he re- 
mained at Yale two years studying his favorite 
branches. He was appointed assistant to Benja- 
min Silliman, Jr., professor of chemistry in the 
University at Louisville, Ky., in 1850, and in the 
following year accompanied the elder Silliman 
on an extended tour through Europe. Return- 
ing to Yale in 1852 for examinations, he was one 
of six to receive the degree of Ph.B., the first 
time that degree was conferred by the college. 
The next three years he spent in study at the 
University of Munich, the Royal mining academy 
of Saxony, and the Royal school of mines in 
London, after which he made an extended tour 
through the mines and smelting works of Eng- 
land, Scotland, Wales, Belgium, Gtermany and 
Austria. In 1857 he entered upon his duties as 
professor of metallurgy at the Yale 8ci«>tntifio 



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Bc^iool, having been elected to that offioe while 
in Europe, which chair he exchanged for that of 
mineralogy in 1864. The school was in an em- 
bryonic state in 1857, and through his zeal and 
ability it became established, and paved the way 
for the Sheffield scientific school. In addition 
to the duties of his professorship, he discharged 
those of treasurer, secretary, and of presiding 
officer of the faculty, after the organization of 
that body in 1872. He was made president of 
the American association for the advancement 
of science, in 1885, and became an honored 
member of the leading scientific societies of Eu- 
rope and America. His writings are recognized 
as valuable accessions to the literature of science ; 
those contributed to the American Journal of 
Science being especially notable. He assisted 
Prof. James D. Dana in preparing the third, 
fourth, and fifth editions of his Descriptive 
Mineralogy, contributing to them valuable 
analyses of minerals, and he wrote a Manual 
of Determinative Mineralogy and Bloic-pipe 
Analysis (1875). 

BRUSH, Jesse, clergyman, was bom in Hun- 
tington, N. Y., June 11, 1880; son of John Rogers 
and Elizabeth (Carman) Brush. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of the city of New York in 
1854, and was admitted to the New York city bar 
in 1855. In 1859 he was graduated at the Union 
theological seminary, and was ordained to the 
Presbyterian ministry. In 1859-'60 he was pastor 
at Susquehanna, Pa., and in 1862-'68 a supply at 
Westhampton, Mass. From 1868 to 1865 he was 
chaplain of the 158th infantry, N. Y. volunteers. 
He was pastor at Vernon, Conn., from 1865 to 
1867; at North Cornwall, Conn., from 1867 to 
1873; at Berlin, Conn., from 1878 to 1876, and at 
North Stamford, Conn., from 1876 to 1880. In 

1880 he entered the Episcopal church, and was 
rector of Grace church, Say brook, Coi^n., from 

1881 to 1888, becoming in the latter year rector in 
Mayville, Chautauqua coimty, N. Y., remaining 
in that position imtil May, 1898, when he became 
associated with Rev. Dr. Smith, rector of St. 
James' church, Buffalo, N. Y. In January, 1896, 
he was elected chaplain of the church home, 
Buffalo, N. Y. He married a daughter of the 
Rev. Harvey Newcomb, who died Oct. 24, 1894. 
Their three sons became — Edward Hale, a jour- 
nalist ; Henry Wells, a lawyer ; George Robert, a 
clergyman, graduate of the G^eneral theological 
seminary, New York city, 1896. 

BRUSKB, August Friedrich, educator, was 
bom at Rachen, Prussia, March 24, 1847; son of 
Benjamin and Maria (Schultz) Bruske. He was 
educated in Germany until he was nine years 
of age, when he was brought by his parents to 
America. He attended the public schools of 
Perrinsville, Mich., and was graduated at Adrian 



college, Mich., in 1869. He studied for tha 
ministry in Drew theological seminary, N. J., 
for six years was pastor of the Congregational 
church, Charlotte, Mich., and for thirteen years 
of the First Presbjrterian church, Saginaw, Mich., 
when he became president of Alma college. 
Alma, Mich. 

BRUT^, Simon Gabriel, R. 0. bishop, was 
bom at Rennes, capital of Brittany, in France, 
in 1779. He was educated in the schools and 
colleges of his native town, and at the Seminary 
of St. Sulpice at Paris, and at the close of his 
theological course, in 1808, was ordained to the 
priesthood. He refused the position of assistant 
chaplain to the Emperor Napoleon, and a canoni- 
cate in the cathedral at Rennes, preferrmg to 
enter the Sulpitian order. He was made professor 
of theology in the Sulpitian seminary at Rennes 
and in ISlOaccompaniei Bishop FlagettoAn^erica. 
He became professor of philosophy at St. Mary*s 
college, Baltimore ; was transferred to Emmitts- 
burg in 1812, and visited France 1815-17. He 
brought his library of nearly 5000 volumes for 
the use of St. Mary*s college, of which he was 
made presitlent on his return. lie was conse- 
crated first bishop of the new see of Vincennes 
in 1834 ; visited France in the interests of his 
diocese and returned with twenty priests. He 
established twenty-three churches, twenty-eight 
missions, two religious communities, one theo- 
logical seminary, a college for men, a female 
academy and two free schools in his diocese. He 
die<l at Vincennes, Ind., June 26, 1839. 

BRYAN, Charles Page, diplomatist, was bom 
in Chicago, 111., in 1856, son of Thomas Barbour 
Bryan (q.v.). He was educated at the University 
of Virginia and was graduated at Columbian law 
school in 1878. He was adniitte<l to the bar in 
that year and in 1879 removed to Colorado, where 
he served as a representative in tlie state legis- 
lature and as colonel on the military staff of 
Governor Eaton. He returned to Chicago i.i 1883 ; 
served four terms in the state legislature and 
visited Europe twice in theinttMestof the World's 
Columbian Exposition. He also served as colonel 
on the staffs of Governors Fifes. E^lesby and 
Altgeld of lllinoii^ ; was ap]K)inted envoy exti*a- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Ciiina 
in October, 1897 ; was transferred to Brazil in 
January, 1898, and to Switzerland in September, 
1902.* 

BRYAN, Oeorge, jurist, was bom in Dublin, 
Ireland, in 1731. He settled in Philadelphia, 
Pa., while quite young, and became interested in 
political affairs. He was elected to the state 
assembly, was a delegate to the stamp act 
congress, and in 1776 was made vice-president 
of the state supreme executive council, holding 
the office until 1778, when he was made its 



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president. In that office he used all his influence 
to free the slaves of Pennsylvania by gradual pro- 
cess. In 1779 he was a representative in the 
state legislature, and his draft of a gradual 
emancipation law was introduced. He was made 
a judge of the state supreme court in 1780, and 
was one of the council of censors in 1784. He 
opposed the adoption of the Federal constitution, 
and died Jan. 27, 1791. 

BRYAN, ilary (Edwards), journalist, was 
born in Jefferson county, Fla., in 1846 ; daughter 
of Maj. John D. Edwards. In her childhood her 
father removed to Thomasville, Ga., where she 
enjoyed the advantage of excellent schools and 
made rapid progress in her studies. While at 
school she married Mr. Bryan, a wealthy Louisi- 
anian. She began to write for the press at an 
early age, her first journalistic experience being 
on the Literary and Temperance Crusader, of 
which she was literary editor. She was for some 
time a regular correspondent of the SoutJiem 
Field and Fireside, In 1866 .she assumed the 
editorship of the Natchitoches, La., Semi-Weekly 
TimeSj and in 1875 that of the Sxinny South at 
Atlanta, Ga. To all of these journals she con- 
tributed sketches, stories, poems, and not infre- 
quently political articles. In 1885 she went to 
New York to superintend the publication of her 
novels and was engaged lis assistant editor of The 
Fashion Bazaar and The Fireside Companion, 
Subsequently she resigned this position, and, 
returning to Atlanta, assumed editorial charge of 
Tlie Old Homestead, a monthly magazine, which 
gained both circulation and high literary stand- 
ing under her management. The more popular 
of her works are: '^Manch" (1879): "Wild 
Work ; a Story of the Red River Tragedy " (1881) ; 
and '* The Bayou Bride" (1886). 

BRYAN, Thomas Barbour, philanthropist, 
was born at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 22, 1828. 
He was graduated at the Harvard law school in 
1848 and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati, 
where he engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion, removing to Chicago in 1852. During the 
civil war he rendered effective service in raising 
troops and providing for them in the field, belong- 
ing to the famous ** Union defence committee," 
of Chicago. He was president of the Chicago 
sanitary fair, and was president of the soldiers' 
home at Chicago for twenty-five years. In 1876 
he was made a member of the board of com- 
missioners appointed to govern the District of 
Columbia, and retired from the office in 1878. 
Mr. Bryan was one of the originators and pro- 
moters of the World's Columbian exposition in 
1893, and was sent as a special commissioner 
to southern Europe, where he interviewed the 
ruling kings and high officials and received a 
letter from Leo XIII. commending the enterprise. 



His speech before the congressional committee 
had great influence in securing the fair for Chi- 
cago. He was appointed vice-president of the 
first board of directors ; refused to accept the 
salary of twelve thousand dollars, which be- 
longed to the office, and soon after tendered his 
resignation, to avoid threatened discord in the 
administration. While a student at Harvard he 
published a German work, and many of his 
writings and ti*anslations have achieved great 
popularity. 

BRYAN, William Jennings, statesman, was 
born at Salem, Marion county. 111., March 19, 
1860 ; son of Silas Lillard and Mariah Elizabeth 
(Jennings) Bryan, grandson of John and Nancy 
(Lillard) Bryan, and great-grandson of William 
Bryan, born in Culpeper county, Va., about 1765* 
His grandfather re- 
moved from Cul- 
peper county to Point 
Pleasant in western 
Virginia shortly after 
his marriage, and in 
1852 his son, SilasLil- 
lard, was married 
and removed to Sa- 
lem, Marion county, 
111., where he was a { 
lawyer of high stand- 
ing, for eight years 
state senator, and for 
twelve years a cir- 
cuit judge. Until 
his tenth year, Wil- 
liam was taught at^ 
' home, then entering 
the public schools, 
and, in 1875, Whipple academy, the preparatory 
school of Illinois college, at Jacksonville. When 
fourteen years old he joined the Presbyterian 
church, and in 1880 made his first appearance as- 
a speaker at a political meeting. In June, 1881, 
he was gi-aduated at Illinois college with the 
highest honors, and was also chosen class orator. 
In 1884, by invitation of the faculty, he delivered 
the master's oration, and received the degne 
of M.A. During his college course he won five 
prizes. Immediately after his graduation from 
college he entered the Union college of law in 
Chicago, where he had as a classm2.u3 Henry, 
son of Lyman Trumbull, and thus gained the 
privilege of the use of Mr. Trumbull's law office 
for study after school hours. He was admitted 
to the bar, beginning his law practice July 4, 
1883. On Oct. 1, 1884, he was married to Mary 
Elizabeth Baird of Perry, 111., who afterwards 
studied her husband's profession, and won 
admission to the bar, not for the purpose of 
practising, but in order to be in intelligent 




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sympathy with Mr. Bryan's business life. Until 
1887 he practised in Jacksonville, 111., removing 
in that year to Linooln, Neb., where he became 
a law partner with Mr. Talbot, but did not share 
in his railroad business. He early took an in- 
terest in political affairs, was a student of the 
science of government, and soon became known 
for his knowledge of political questions. In 1890 
he received the unanimous nomination of the 
Democratic party as representative from the first 
Nebraska district to the 52d Congress. He was 
elected in an overwhelming Republican district, 
receiving 6,713 more votes than his chief com- 
petitor, a result attributable largely to his 
exceptional ability as a platform orator and the 
persistency with which he personally prosecuted 
the canvass. His reputation had preceded him 
to Congress, and he was placed on the ways and 
means committee, one of the yoimgest members 
to be ever thus honored. His speech on the 
tariff, delivered March 16, 1892, was made a cam- 
paign document in the canvass of that year, 
resulting in the second election of Mr. Cleve- 
land, and was universally commended for its 
lucid statement of the tariff question then at 
issue. Though a Democrat, and running on a 
Democratic platform, he was re-elected in 1892 in 
a district which gave the Republican state ticket 
a plurality of six thousand at the same election. 
In the 53d Congress he was again placed upon 
the ways and means committee. He also took an 
active part in the silver debate, which began 
with the extraordinary session, and on Aug. 
16. 1893, made a speech in favor of ** The gold 
and silver coinage of the constitution." In this 
speech he advocated the free coinage of silver at 
the ratio of sixteen to one, without waiting for 
the consent of any other nations, claiming that 
the adoption of a bimetallic standard by the 
United States would force the other nations, 
England only excepted, to adopt the standard as 
final. On July 4, 1892, he made a notable speech 
in Tammany Hall, New York city, that greatly 
increased his reputation as an orator, and on 
May 30, 1894, he delivered an oration at Arling- 
ton cemetery, Virginia, at the memorial services 
over the soldiers' graves, which was listened to 
by the President and his cabinet, and was widely 
published as an exceptional oratorical effort. As 
political editor of the Omaha World Herald he 
represented his paper at the Republican conven- 
tion at St. Louis, June 19, 1896, and there was 
the first newspaper man to obtain a definite 
acknowledgment of the intention of the leaders 
to stand for gold, notwithstanding the declaration 
in their platform in favor of bimetallism. This, 
to him, radical measure greatly increased his 
faith in the success of the Democratic party, if it 
could be induced to adopt the free coinage of 



silver as the political issue of the campaign. 
When the convention met at Chicago, July 9, 
1896, Mr. Bryan was a delegate, and while await- 
ing the report of the committee on platform he 
addressed the assembly. His speech electrified 
the audience, the different delegations bringing 
forward their standard, and clustering them 
aroimd the young orator. One of the oldest con- 
servative and experienced newspaper correspon- 
dents of a gold organ telegraphed to his paper : 
** As he (Bryan) spoke I thought I could see the 
presidential halo about his brow." The next 
day Mr. Bryan was found to have captured the 
convention, and after the heroic fight made by 
the gold standard Democrats to stem the silver 
tide, Mr. Bryan was nominated as the Demo- 
cratic standard bearer. At the national conven- 
tion of the Silver party at St. Louis, July 24, Mr. 
Bryan received the nomination of that party as 
he did that of the People's party. In the can- 
vass that followed Mr. Bryan took the stump, and 
in the course of the campaign made 592 speeches 
in 477 cities and towns, in 27 states of the Union, 
travelling 18,831 miles between July 12 and Nov. 
2, 1896. This was an example of industry and 
earnestness unprecedented in the history of 
politics in America. At the general election 
Nov. 8, 1896, he was defeated in the election, 
receiving 176 electoral and 6,351,042 popular votes. 
He became colonel of the 3d Nebraska volunteers 
July 13, 1898, and joined the 7th army corps at 
Jacksonville, Fla., which corps was ordered to 
Savannah, Ga. He resigned from the army Dec. 
10, 1898, and entered actively into the campaign 
against the annexation of the Philippine Islands, 
declaring that the United States could not per- 
manently endure ** half republic and half colony 
—half free and half vassal." He was nominated 
a second time for president of the United States 
by the Democratic party in 1900, and was de- 
feated, receiving 155 electoral and 6,358,133 
popular votes. He received the degree LL.D. 
from McKendree college in 1897, and published 
The First Battle (1897). In 1901 he established 
and edited The Commoner, a weekly political 
journal, at Lincoln, Neb. 

BRYANT, David E., jurist, was bom in La 
Rue county, Ky., Oct. 19, 1849. He removed to 
Grayson county, Texas, with his parents in 1853, 
and was graduated at Trinity college, Durham, 
N.C., in 1871. He studied law, was admitted to the 
Texas bar in 1873, and engaged in practice at Sher- 
man, Texas, until 1890, when he was appointed 
U.S. judge for the eastern district of Texas. 

BRYANT, Edwin Eustace, educator, was bom 
in Milton, Vt., Jan. 10, 1835 ; son of John C. and 
Lorina (Green) Bryant. He attended the New 
Hampshire institute two years ; was admitted to 
the bar in 1857, and practised at Monroe, Wis., 



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1857-*61. He served through the Civil war, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 50th 
Wisconsin infantry ; was adjutant of the state, 
1868-78 and 1876-82 ; representative in the state 
legislature in 1878, and assistant attorney -general 
of the post-office department, 1884-'89, where he 
edited the Postal Guide, and compiled a volume of 
postal laws. He became dean of the law depart- 
ment of the University of "Wisconsin in 1889, and 
president of the commissioners of fisheries of Wis- 
consin in 1893. He published several legal works. 

BRYANT, Qridley, inventor, was born at 
Scituate, Mass., in 1798. He was apprenticed to 
a builder in Boston in 1818, and in 1819 established 
a business of his own. He invented a portable 
derrick in 1823, which was first used in the con- 
struction of the U.S. bank, Boston, and in April, 
1826, became the projector and engineer of the 
first railroad in America, used to convey the 
granite quarried at Quincy to Charlestown for 
the Bunker Hill monument, of which he was the 
contractor and builder. He invented the eight- 
wheel car, a turn-table, a switch, a turnout and 
other railway equipments, for which he did not 
obtain patents. In 1834 Ross Winans received a 
patent for Bryant's eight-wheel car principle, 
which he improved and adapted to passenger 
travel. This patent was purchased by the Balti- 
more and Ohio road, and as Bryant's eight- wheel 
car was used on other roads litigations followed 
and Mr. Bryant appeared as a witness. The fail- 
ure of the coi-porations in whose behalf I a testi- 
fied, to keep their promises of compensation for 
his disinterested services hastened his death, 
which occurred at Scituate, Mass., June 13, 1867. 

BRYANT, William Cullen, poet, was bom in 
Cummington, Mass., Nov. 3, 1794; son of Peter 
and Sarah (Snell) Bryant; grandson of Philip and 
Silence (Howard) Bryant; great-grandson of 
Ichabod Bryant, and great-great-grandson of 
Stephen and Abigail (Shaw) Bryant, who came 
from England and settled in Plymouth, Mass., in 
1632. William Cullen was the second child in a 
family of seven, and is described as being ** puny 
and very delicate in body, and of a painfully 
delicate nervous temperament." At the age of 
four years he was sent to the district school, 
where he obtained elementary instruction until 
his twelfth year. He early began to rhyme, and 
wrote a poem in his eleventh year, which he 
recited at the closing of the winter school. In 
1808 he vras sent to Brookfield to perfect himself 
in Latin under the tuition of his uncle, the Rev. 
Thomas Snell, and in 1809 pursued the study of 
Greek with the Rev Moses Hallock of Plainfield. 
About this time he began to read Pope's transla- 
tion of the Iliad, a delightful transition from Dr. 
Watts' hynms, and it is not surprising that his 
first serious efforts were some enigmas writt^en 



after the manner of this favorite poet. In 1809, he 
wrote, and his father had published in > pamph- 
let form, a poem entitled, The Embargo, or 
Sketclies of the Times, a Federalist satire attack- 
ing President Jefferson, then very unpopular 
because of the enforcement of the embargo laid 
upon the ports of the republic. He entered Wil- 
liams college, Oct. 9, 1810. but before the close of 
his first year asked for an honorable dismissal, 
desiring to enter Yale. His father's financial 
position forbade the completion of a college 
coui-se, and he studied law at Worthington and 
afterwards at Bridgewater, vvas admitted to the 
bar in 1815, began the practice of his profession 
at Plainfield, Mass., and had been there nearly a 
year when he entered into partnership with a 
young lawyer of Great Barrington, Mass. He 
purchased his i)artner's interest at the close of a 
year and continued practice alone, getting him- 
self described as ** an active, learned and i*ather 
fiery young lawyer." In 1817 the poem Thana- 
topsis, was published in the September number 
of the North American Review, It had been writ- 
ten six years before, shortly after Bryant left 
college, when he had not attained his eighteenth 
year ; in the same number of the Review ap- 
peared alsp, under the title of a Fragment, 
what is now known as An Inscription for the 
Entrance to a Wood. The publication of these 
exquisite poems at that time was due to what 
might be termed an accident of fortune. In 
June of 1817, Willard Phillips, an old New Hamp- 
shire friend of the Bryant family, then an associ- 
ate editor of the North American Review, wrote 
to Dr. Bryant his desire that William Cullen 
should contribute to the Review, then in its 
infancy. Dr. Bryant wrote to his son advising 
him to accept the offer, but chancing to look 
through a desk which the young poet had been 
in the habit of using, he found the MSS. of these 
incomparable poems and hastened with them to 
Boston. So instant was the appreciation of his 
muse on the publication of these lines that he 
was invited to become a regular contributor to 
the Review, to which, in 1818, he sent a paper 
on Early American Poetry, and the poem 
To a Waterfowl. The latter was inspired 
by an incident thus beautifully related by one 
of his biogiaphers : ** When he journeyed on 
foot over the hills to Plainfield on the 15th of 
December, 1816, to see what inducements it 
offered him to commence there the practice of the 
profession to which he had just been licensed, he 
says in one of his letters that he felt * very for- 
lorn and desolate.' The world seemed to grow 
bigger and darker as he ascended, and his future 
more uncertain and desperate. The sun had 
already set, leaving behind it one of those bril- 
liant seas of chrysolite and opal which often flood 



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BRYANT. 



the New England skies, and, while pausing to 
<x)ntemplate the rosy splendor, with rapt admira- 
tion, a solitary bird made its winged way along 
the illuminated horizon. He watched the lone 
wanderer until it was lost in the distance. He 
then went on with new strength and courage. 
When he reached the house where he was to stop 
for the night he immediately sat down and wrote 
the lines * To a Waterfowl."* In 1818 he was 
•elected one of the tithing men and town clerk of 
Great Barrington, holding the latter office until 
he left Massachusetts five years later. He was 
also appointed a justice of the peace. He was 
married June 11, 1821, to Fanny Fairchild, with 
whom he passed forty -five years of happy mar- 
ried life. In 1822 he wrote the poem Tlie Ages, 
which he read before the Phi Beta Kappa society 
of Harvard college. He was urged to publish 
it, and from the suggestion resulted the first 
publication of a collection of Bryant's poems, a 
small volume, consisting of the eight poems: 
The Ages, To a Waterfowl, Fragment from 
Simonides, An Inscription for the Entrance to 
a Wood, The Yellow Violet, Tlie Song, Oreen 
River, and Thanatopsis, which appeared in 
1823. In 1824 he became a contributor to 
the United States Literary Gazette, and wrote 
many of his most charming pt>enis for its 
pji^es. About this time also were written Tlie 
Death of Vie Floxoers and The Past, for each of 
which he asked two dollars, " with which remu- 
neration,'- he wrote, he should be ** abundantly 
satisfied." His publishers, however, made him 
a more generous proposition, suggesting a yearly 
salary of two hundred dollars for an average of one 
hundred lines a month, expressing their regrets 
that they were ** unable to offer a compensation 
more adequate." In 1824 Mr. Bryant removed to 
New York, and assumed the editorship of the 
New York Review and Athenaeum Magazine. He 
delivered a coiurse of lectures on English poetry 
before the Athenaeum society, and in the same 
year accepted a professorship connected with the 
New York academy of design, where he lectured 
on Greek and Roman mythology. In July, 1826, 
the Review was amalgamated with the United 
States Gazette of Boston, imder the title of the 
United States Review, Mr. Bryant being the New 
York and J. G. Carter the Boston editor. In 1827, 
'28, '29 Mr. Brj^nt was associated with Verplanck 
and Robert C. Sands in the publication of an an- 
nual entitled the Talisman, and in 1828, in con- 
junction with Mr. Sands, issued two volumes 
entitled, Tales of the Glauber Spa, In thia 
year also was published a complete collection of 
his poems, which was re-published in England, 
and won him European reputation. In 1836 he 
accepted an editorial chair on the New York 
JSvening Post, and acquired a small interest in 



the paper; five months later, on the death of Mr. 
Coleman, the editor-in-chief and proprietor, Mr. 
Bryant was promoted to his chair and purchased 
a further interest in the property. Mr. Bryant's 
course as a journalist was dignified and consist- 
ent; he accepted no favors from individuals or 
parties, and was fearless in opposing popular 
measures and questions when he esteemed it 
essential to the public interest to do so. He was 
at the inception of his journalistic career a Dem- 
ocrat in principle, but before the war became a 
strong Republican. The Evening Post, which 
had been chiefly occupied with matters of local 
interest, sanitary and fiscal reforms and the like, 
under Mr. Bryant's leadership became an advo- 
cate of free trade principles at a time when pro- 
tective duties were favored by both houses of 
Congress and by the north generally. In 1836 he 
maintained in the columns of the Post the valid- 
ity of trade imions; he favored international 
copyright, the abolition of capital punishment, 
supported President Jackson in his most unpopu- 
lar measures, and the tariff of '46, a tariff for 
revenue with incidental protection; opposed 
slavery as ** a foul and monstrous idol, a jugger- 
naut under which thousands are crushed to 
death," and suggested the fullest and freest 
emancipation as the only fit remedy for the evil. 
He was conscientious and impartial in the state- 
ment of facts, and temperate in debate. Solid- 
t o u s for ^^ 

honor as a .r^^c\ 

man of let- -3^ ^ **— ^^ 

ters, his 
carefully 
prepared 
and finely 
phrased 
editorials, 
and his 
rules im- 
posed upon 

Saxon English, materially elevated the literary 
tone of journalism. In 1851 he published a short 
history of the Evening Post, then half a century 
old, and he terminated his editorial labors in 1870. 
George William Curtis wrote of him: ** What 
nature said to him was plainly spoken and 
clearly heard and perfectly repeated. His art 
was exquisite. It was absolutely unsuspected, 
but it served its truest purpose, for it removed 
every obstruction to full and complete delivery 
of his message." From 1834 to 1867 Mr. Bryant 
made six visits to the old world, and in 1872 vis- 
ited Cuba and the city of Mexico for the second 
time. In 1850 he published Letters of a Trav- 
eller, a collection of the letters he had sent to 
the Post during his travels abroad, and in the 
winter of 1869 he issued a supplementary volume 




HOUSE AT RO^LyKi;L.|SLANI>> 

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entitled, '* Letters from the East/* Mr. Bryant 
was unexcelled in the art of pronouncing eulo- 
gies, and was often called upon to perform this 
office. In 1872 a volume was published embody- 
ing the chief of these orations, notably those 
doing honor to Gulian C. Verplanck, Thomas 
Cole, the painter; Fenimore Cooper, Washington 
Irving, Fitz-Greene Halleck, and those made at 
the unveiling of the Shakespeare, Scott and Morse 
statues in Central Park. In 1866, seeking relief 
from the deep grief that had befallen him in the 
death of his wife in 1865, he began his translation 
of the Iliad, and the first twelve books were pub- 
lished in 1870. It was followed by a translation 
of the Odyssey, which was completed in 1871. 
The work had an immediate success, the sales 
of the Iliad up to 1888 reaching 17,000, the sales 
of the Odyssey 10,244 copies. Many American 
editions of Mr. Bryant's poems were issued. Of 
that known as the Red Line, 5,000 copies were 
sold in 1870, and the beautifully illustrated edi- 
tion of 1877 met with a very cordial welcome, as 
did the later one of his complete works in 1884. 
In 1858 Mr. Bryant was elected a regent of the 
University of the state of New York, but declined 
to serve. He was very chary of accepting public 
honors, and refused all such as he consistently 
might ; some few, however, he could not escape. 
In 1878 he was made an honorary member of the 
Russian academy at St. Petersburg. He was 
one of the founders of the Century association in 
New York, and his seventieth birthday was made 
the occasion of a festival by the club, in which 
the notable artists and poets of America partici- 
pated with gifts of paintings and poems. The 
congratulatory address on this occasion was 
delivered by George Bancroft, the historian, and 
speeches were made by R. W. Emerson, R. H. 
Dana, Jr., and William M. Evarts. Many 
delightful poems were read, written for the 
occasion by those who revered the man and 
admired the poet. On his eightieth birthday, 
in 1876, Mr. Bryant was presented with a 
memorial vase of silver, the carving of which 
symbolized his life. This magnificent work of 
art was presented to the venerable poet in Chick- 
ering hall. New York, on June 20, 1876, its per- 
manent destination being the Metropolitan 
museum of art. In this his eighty -first year, Mr. 
Bryant wrote "The Flood of Years"; " Thana- 
topsis*' at eighteen, ** The Flood of Years" at 
eighty -one, a lapse of years indeed but no diminu- 
tion of force, no weakening of expression. Mr. 
Bryant's last poem, ** The Twenty -second of Feb- 
ruary," was written, to commemorate the birth- 
day of Washington, in 1878. Mr. Bryant was 
essentially a domestic man ; home was to him a 
sacred place, where business cares were never 
allowed to obtrude. His letters from abroad to the 



persons in charge of his country houses, ** Cedar- 
mere," at Roslyn, L. I., and the old homestead at 
Cummington, Mass., show that he knew every 
tree and stone of both places. He divided th» 
spring, summer and autumn months between. 
Long Island and Cummington, and spent his 
winters in New York. May 29, 1878, Mr. Bryant 
delivered the address at the unveiling of th& 
statue of Mazzini in Central Park, and after the 
ceremony, upon reaching the house of a friend, 
he fell, and his head coming in contact with the 
stone step he was rendered unconscious ; a few 
days later apoplexy ensued, and his illness proved 
mortal. There are many portraits of Mr. Bry- 
ant extant, of which the ones he most preferred 
himself were those by Inman and Durand. Se» 
WiUiam Cullen Bryant, by John Bigelow (1890) ;: 
OodwirVs Life of Bryant (1883); Wilson'a 
Bryant and His Friends (1886). He died in 
New York city, June 12, 1878, and was buried at 
Roslyn, N. Y. 

BRYANT, William Cullen, editor, was bom in 
New York city, Aug. 1, 1849. He was educated 
in the public schools of Brooklyn, and at the- 
Polytechnic institute of that city. He engaged 
in newspaper work and was married to Mary^ 
W. daughter of Bernard Peters, editor and pro- 
prietor of the Brooklyn Times. He succeeded 
Mr. Peters as publisher of the Brooklyn Times in 
1875. He was a commissioner of the Brooklyn 
Fire Department before it consolidated with the 
New York department ; served as president of 
the New York Press Club, and as secretary and 
manager of the American Newspaper Publishers'" 
Association from 1898. Hu was also treasurer of 
the Publisliers' Press. 

BRYANT, Wliiiam AtcKendree, educator wa» 
born in Lake county, Ind., March 31, 1843, son of 
Eliphalet Wayne Bryant, a pioneer settler of 
Indiana who emigrated from Ohio in 1835, and 
subsequently engaged in the manufacture of 
wagons. His grandfather James Bryant settled 
in Ohio in 1800. He was educated in the public 
schools, and in 1861 joined the 3d Iowa infantry 
as a private. He became adjutant in the 34th 
Iowa volunteers in 1862, where he served until 
1865, when he was made assistant adjutant 
general of a brigade. He was graduated at Ohio- 
Wesleyan university A.B. 1868, A.M. 1871 ; waa 
superintendent of public schools, at New Lisbon, 
Ohio, 1868-'69, superintendent of public schools- 
at Burlington, Iowa, 1870-73, and a teacher in 
the city schools of St. Louis, Mo., from 1873. He^ 
was an instructor of psychology and ethics in 
the St. Louis Normal and high school ; a lecturer 
at the St. Louis kindergarten and normal schools, 
and at the St. Louis Society of Pedagogy. He 
was married in 1867 to Sarah Augusta Shade of 
Columbus, Ohio, a landscape painter of some: 



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BUCHANAN. 



prominence. He received the degree of LL,D. 
from the University of Missouri. He translated the 
following: HegeV 8 Philosophy of Art {1879) ; Phil- 
osophy of Landscape Painting ( 1882) ; World En- 
ergy and Its Self-Conservation (1890) ; Eternity, a 
Thread in the Weaving of a Life ; Ooethe as a Rep- 
resentative of the Modem Art Spirit ; Historical 
Presuppositions and Foreshadowing^ of Dante's 
Divine Comedy; A Syllabus of Psychology (1892) ; 
A Syllabus of Ethics (1893); Ethics and the Neto 
Education (1894) ; Modem Education, Dens avd 
Satanus ; Text Book of Psychology (1894); HegeVs 
Educational Ideas (1896) ; Life, Death and hnmor- 
toHty (1898) ; and numerous magazine articles on 
psychological, ethical and pedagogical subjects. 

BRYCE, Lloyd, editor, was born at Fiu8hing, 
N. Y., Sept. 7, 1851. He studied at Georgetown 
college, D. C, and subsequently took a degree 
at Oxford, England, and afterwards studied law 
at the Columbia law school in New York. Upon 
the election of David B. Hill as governor of New 
York, Mr. Bryce received the appomtment of pay- 
master-general on his staff, and in 1886 was e1e(^ted 
a representative for New York city to the t50th 
Congress. During his term he directed his efforts 
principally to insure beneficial legislation for the 
city and for its harbor, with the object of prevent- 
ing the deposit, of refuse in its waters, and the 
careless anchorage of vessels in the path of harbor 
navigation. By the will of Allen Thorndike Rice, 
proprietor of the North American Review, Mr. 
Bryce acquired a controlling interest in that peri- 
odical, and became its editor in July, 1889. He is 
the author of Paradise, Tlie Romance of an Alter 
Ego, and A Dream of Conquest, novels which re- 
ceived commendation from critical authorities. 
He also wrote Friends in Exile ; Lady Blanche's 
Salon ; The Literary Duet, and numerous essays. 
BRYSON, Andrew, naval officer, was bom in 
New York. July 25, 1822. At the age of fifteen 
he was appointed midshipman in the United 
States navy, and in June, 1848, was promoted to 
passed midshipman. In 1850 he became master, 
and in August, 1851, was made lieutenant. In 
1856 he was attached to the Saratoga of the home 
squadron, and while on a cruise off the Mexican 
coast he commanded the Indianola, a little ves- 
sel which had been secured for the occasion, and 
succeeded in capturing the Miramon after a sharp 
engagement. The affair created international 
complication, and on the arrival of the Saratoga 
at Norfolk, Va., the captain was relieved of com- 
mand. The Saratoga on this voyage (Dec., 1857) 
conveyed, as prisoners of the United States, to 
New York, William Walker and his band of fili- 
busters. In 1858 Lieutenant Bryson was execu- 
tive officer of the Preble on the Paraguayan ex- 
pedition, and retmming late in 1860 he was 
Attached to the Brooklyn navy yard. In October, 



1861, he was attached to the blockading squadron 
and in oonmiand of the Chippewa. He partici- 
pated in the capture of Fort Macon, N. C, and 
the action at Stono Inlet. He was commissioned 
commander in July, 1862, and in September was 
sent to Europe on special service. He was ordered 
to the monitor Lehigh on Aug. 4, 1868, sailing for 
Charleston harbor late in the month. On Dec. 2, 
1863, the Lehigh, while on picket duty, grounded, 
and for several hours was subjected to the concen- 
trated fire of the combined Confederate batteries. 
In this action Conamander Bryson was slightly 
wounded, and his conduct "Was especially com- 
mended. On Oct. 18, 1864, he was ordered to the 
command of the ironclad Essex of the Mississippi 
fleet. On May 5, 1865, he was made fleet captain. 
From April, 1866, to Maitsh, 1868. he commanded 
the Michigan on Lake Erie, and on June 8, 1866, 
he captured the Fenians while attempting to 
cross the Niagara river on their return from 
Canada. On July 26, 1866, he was promoted 
captain, and from 1866 to 1871 was at the 
Boston navy yard in conmiand of the re- 
ceiving ship Ohio, From Sept. 19, 1871, to 
July 28, 1878, he conunanded the Brooklyn in the 
European squadron, and was made commodore 
Feb. 14, 1878. He was commandant of the Ports- 
mouth navy yard from Sept. 15, 1874 to July 27, 
1876, and was president of the board to examine 
the class of 1876 at Annapolis. From Sept. 8, 
1879 to July 25, 1881, he commanded the South 
Atlantic station, sailing from New York in his 
flagship Shenandoah. On March 29, 1880, he was 
promoted to rear-admiral. On Jan. 80, 1888. he 
was retired at his own request, after forty -three 
years of almost continuous active service. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 7, 1892. 

BUCHANAN, Edward Young, clergyman, was 
bom in Mercersburg, Pa., May 30, 1811; son of 
James and Elizabeth (Speer) Buchanan, and 
brother of James Buchanan, fifteenth president 
of the United States. He was graduated at Dick- 
inson college in 1828, and began his studies in 
theology at Pittsburg, Pa., concluding them at 
the General seminary of the Protestant Episco- 
pal church in New York city. He was ordained 
as deacon in 1882, and as priest in 1885, and 
filled various pastorates in the diocese of Penn 
sylvania. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Trinity college in 1858, and S.T.D. from Dickin- 
son in 1868. He was the last survivor of the 
American clergy ordained by Bishop White, and 
died Jan. 20. 1895. 

BUCHANAN, Franklin, naval oflicer, was 
bom in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 17, 1800. He began 
his naval career in 1815 as a midshipman, was 
promoted lieutenant in 1825, conunanded the 
Baltimore on her trial trip, and delivered her 
to the Emperor of Brazil at Rio Janiero in July^ 



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1826, she having been built for the Brazilian 
navy. He was made master-commandant in 
1841. and sailed in the Mississippi and afterwards 
in the Vincennes. From 1845 to 1847 he was en- 
gaged in organizing, and was first superintendent 
of the Annapolis naval academy, and in the latter 
year he was given command of the Qermantovm, 
which was actively engaged in the taking of Vera 
Cniz. He commanded the Susquehanna, the 
flagship of Commodore Perry's fleet, in the 
famous expedition, 1853-'54, which resulted in 
the opening of the doors of China and Japan to 
the commerce and civilization of the world; in 
1855 was advanced to the rank of captain, and 
in 1859 was assigned to the command of the 
Washington navy yard. Acting upon the 
belief that Maryland was about to secede from 
the Union he resigned his commission in April, 
1861, and, repenting his action in the light of 
subsequent events, he asked permission to retract 
his resignation, but this being refused, in Sep- 
tember of the same year he entered the Conf ed 
erate navy. He was placed in charge of the 
construction and equipment of the Merrimac, 
And was her conmiander in the engagement at 
Hampton Roads when the Congress and the 
Cumberland were destroyed, March 8, 1862; the 
Confederate congress tendering him a vote of 
thanks for his gallantry on this occasion, and also 
promoting him a full admiral and senior officer 
of the navy. A severe wound received in the 
encounter prevented him from participating in 
the Merrimac's famous battle with the Monitor 
on the following day. He took command in 
1863 of the naval defences of Mobile, and sug- 
gested and superintended the building of the 
ironclad ram Tennessee as the most effective 
means of protecting that city. In command of 
the Tennessee he engaged in the great battle in 
Mobile Bay on Aug. 5, 1864, and was obliged to 
surrender after a desperate struggle, in which 
he was severely woimded and his vessel hopelessly 
disabled. He remained a prisoner of war for six 
months, his exchange being effected February, 
1865. He was elected president of the Maryland 
agricultural college, and died in Talbot county, 
Md., May 11, 1874. 

BUCHANAN, James, flfteenth President of the 
United States, was bom at Cove (>ap, near 
Mercersburg, Pa., April 23, 1701; second son of 
James and Elizabeth (Speer) Buchanan. His 
mother was the only daughter of James Speer, 
who came of Scotch Presbyterian ancestry, and 
immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1756. His father 
was a native of Coimty Donegal, Ireland, came to 
America in 1783, engaged in basinesB as a clerk 
in Philadelphia, and in 1788 set Bp business for 
himself. James received his primary education 
in the schools of Mercersburg, and in 1807 entered 




Dickinson college in the junior class. After 
graduating in 1809 he removed to Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. As a Federalist, 
he disapproved of the war with England, but did 
not shirk the duties of an American citizen 
when the war be- 
came a fact, and his 
patriotism was 
voiced in a speech 
delivered to the 
people shortly after 
the city of Washing- 
ton was captured by 
the British. He 
urged the enlist- 
ment, and was him- 
self one of the first 
volunteers, under 
Judge Shippen, to 
march to the de- 
fence of Baltimore. 
He was elected a 
member of the house 
of representatives in the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture, Oct. 14, 1814. On the first of February fol- 
lowing, in considering ** An act for the encourage- 
ment of volimteers for the defence of the Com- 
monwealth, '' he ur|ced the passage of the bill, and 
afterwards speaking of the incident he said: 
'* So o^^n and decided was I in my course in 
favor of defending the country, notwithstanding 
my disapproval of the declaration of war, that the 
late William Beale, the shrewd, strong-minded 
and influential Democratic senator from Mifflin 
county, called upon me and urged me strongly 
during the session to change my political name 
and be called a Democrat, stating that I would 
have no occasion to change my principles." On 
July 4, 1815, in an oration delivered at Lancaster 
he characterized the action of the government 
in its prosecution of the war as disgraceful, while 
he eulogized the spirit of the American people. 
He retired from the legislature at the end of his 
second term of service with a fixed determina- 
tion to abandon political life, and devote himself 
exclusively to the practice of law. In 1820 he 
was elected by the Federalists a representative 
to the 17th Congress from Lancaster, York and 
Dauphin counties. Among his important early 
speeches in Congress were those on the deficiency 
in the military appropriation, in January, 1822 ; 
on the bankrupt law, in March following, when 
he successfully opposed its extension to all citi- 
zens, whether traders or not. There was in his 
speech on this subject a perceptible tendency to 
that line of politics which he subsequently 
adopted and to which he always adhered. This 
may be described as a forbearance from exercis- 
ing federal powers of acknowledged oonstitiL> 



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BUCHANAN. 



BUCHANAN. 



tional validity, in ways and on occasions which 
may lead to an absorption of state jurisdictions. 
In the next Congress Mr. Buchanan spoke twice on 
the tariff —March 23 and April 9, 1824. His views 
on protection were conservative. He held that 
in imposing duties necessary to defray the ex- 
penses of the government, care should be taken, 
while extending protection to infant industries, 
not to injure at the same time the interests of 
the producers of wealth. In his speech in the 
house he said: ^*The American system consists 
in affording equal and just legislative protection 
to all the great interests of the country. It is 
no respecter of persons. It does not distinguish 
between the farmer who ploughs the soil in 
Pennsylvania and the manufacturer of wool in 
New England. Being impartial it embraces all. " 
He uttered grave warnings against forming 
alliances with Mexico and the South American 
republics, and insisted on the great importance 
of Cuba, both commercially and strategically to 
the United States. On questions of internal policy 
Mr. Buchanan had voted for the imposing of 
tolls for the support of the Cumberland road. 
When he first had occasion to act on this subject 
as a member of Congress, he was inclined to 
accept the doctrine that Congress had power to 
establish and support this road. Mr. Monroe's 
veto affected him deeply, as it was the first time 
he had been brought to distinguish between 
federal and state powers. At a subsequent ses- 
sion of Congress he endeavored unsuccessfully to 
have the road retroceded to the states through 
which it passed, on condition that they would 
support it by levying tolls. During the canvass 
of 1828, in which the supporters of the adminis- 
tration had taken the name of national Republi- 
can, and the opposition that of Democrat, Mr. 
Buchanan was one of the most able and ardent 
supporters of Oeneral Jackson, and it was mainly 
through his influence that the twenty-eight 
electoral votes of Pennsylvania were secured. In 
1829 he succeeded Daniel Webster as head of the 
judiciary committee, and in this capacity con- 
ducted the trial on impeachment of Judge Peck. 
In March, 1831, Mr. Buchanan retired from Con- 
gre^, with the avowed intention of resuming his 
law practice, but President Jackson, in 1832, 
appointed him envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to St. Petersburg, and urged his 
acceptance of the mission so strongly that he 
could not well decline. He sailed from New 
York, April 8, 1832, on board the Silas Richards, 
a sailing vessel, and reached St. Petersburg the 
June following. His mission was to negotiate the 
first treaty of commerce between Russia and the 
United States, to establish a tariff system and to 
provide for consuls. He was thirty-eight years 
old when he undertook this important commis- 



sion, and although without official ezperienoe in 
diplomacy, he had been a close student of the 
diplomatic history of his own country and of 
public law, and what he did not know about 
trade between Russia and the United States he 
mastered soon after reaching St. Petersburg. He 
also perfected himself in the French language, 
which proved of invaluable assistance to him in 
conducting the negotiations. He referred to 
himself in a letter home, *' As a tyro in dip- 
lomacy, with no weapons but a little conmion 
sense, knowledge and downright honesty — with 
which to encounter the most adroit and skilful 
politicians in the world.'* The encounter was by 
no means a sinecure, but his fair mind, even 
manners, and unfailing tact served him well, and 
by adhering tenaciously to his purpose and exer- 
cising astute diplomacy in his dealings with the 
diplomats, he was eventually successful in 
arranging a commercial treaty by which impor- 
tant privileges in the Baltic and the Black sea 
were secured for the United States. He made a 
warm friend of Count Nesselrode, and when the 
treaty was at length accepted by the cabinet, 
against the strenuous opposition of some of the 
members, it was, by the dexterous management 
of the count, seconded by Mr. Buchanan's skilful 
course and ample knowledge of the points in 
question. He began his journey homeward, Aug. 
8, 1833. On Dec. 6, 1834, he was elected United 
States senator by the Democratic members of 
the Pennsylvania legislature, to fill the imexpired 
term of Senator Wilkins, resigned. In his letter 
of acceptance he wrote: ** I want language to 
express my feelings on the perusal of your kind 
letter. Elevated by your free and unsolicited 
suffrages to the only public station I desire to 
occupy, it shall be my constant endeavor to 
justify by my conduct the generous confidence 
which you have thus reposed." When he took 
his seat in the senate, Dec. 15, 1834, General 
Jackson was in the second term of his office, Mr. 
Van Buren presided over the senate, the op|X)si- 
tion had become consolidated and classified under 
the name of the Whig party as substituted for 
that of national Republicans ; there was a third 
party known as the anti-masons, and the Whigs 
controlled the senate by a two-thirds majority. 
In the great struggle between President Jackson 
and the Whigs, headed by Mr. Cafhoun. Bu- 
chanan at all times warmly defended the Presi- 
dent and his claims. In the course of a speech in 
defence of the President in his exercise of the 
right to remove Presidential appointees from 
office without the consent of the senate, Mr. 
Buchanan said: ** Washington, the elder Adanxs, 
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, and the younger 
Adams removed whom they pleased from oflice ; 
but after the accession of Jackson to oflice the 



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BUCHANAN. 



BUCHANAN. 



existence of this power is denied. We are now 
required to believe that all which former presi- 
dents have done was wrong; the first Congress 
was entirely mistaken in its construction of the 
constitution, and that the president does not 
possess the power of removal without the concur- 
rence of the senate. If ever a question has occur- 
red in the history of any country that ought to be 
considered and settled it is that one. A solemn 
decision at first, adopted in practice afterwards 
by all branches of the government for five and 
forty years makes the precedent one of almost 
irresistible force." In the next session of Con- 
gress. December, 1836, he delivered a speech 
defending the President's action in the removal 
of the public deposits and in support of Senator 
Benton*s ** expunging " resolutions, which pro- 
posed the cancellation on the journal of Mr. 
Clay's resolution, condemning President Jackson 
for the act. In his speech, which has been char- 
acterized as the ablest effort in the senate, he 
deftly separated what was personal or partisan 
in the controversy from the serious questions 
involved, and covering the whole field of argu- 
ment upon the really important topics in a tem- 
perate, courteous, but firm discussion, placed his 
side of the debate upon its true merits. The reso- 
lutions were adopted by a strict party vote. 
During the latter part of General Jackson's 
administration the subject of slavery began to be 
agitated, and niunerous petitions were made to 
Congress for its suppression in the District of 
Columbia. One from the Quakers of Pennsyl- 
vania was presented by Mr. Buchanan. His 
attitude at that time upon the slavery question 
is best expressed in his own words in the senate, 
Jan, 7, 1836: ** The memorial which I have in my 
possession is entitled to the utmost respect from 
the character of the memorialists. If any one 
principle of constitutional law can at this day 
be considered as settled, it is that Congress has 
no right, no power, over the question of slavery 
within those states where it exists. The prop- 
erty of the master in his slave existed in full 
force before the Federal constitution was adopted. 
It was a subject which then belonged, as it still 
belongs, to the exclusive jurisdiction of the sev- 
eral states. For one, whatever may be my opin- 
ions upon the abstract question of slavery, — I am 
free to confess they are those of the people of 
Pennsylvania, — I shall never attempt to violate 
this fundamental compact. The Union will be 
dissolved and incalculable evils will arise, the 
moment any such attempt is seriously made by 
the free states in Congress." In June, 1836, 
when a bill was proposed in the senate to restrain 
the use of the mails for the circulation of in 
oendiary publications in the south, Mr. Webster 
addressed the senate in opposition to the bill, and 



Mr. Buchanan argued against him. In 1886, 
when Michigan sought admission to the Union, 
Mr. Buchanan spoke in favor of admitting the 
territory as a state. His whole career showed 
him to be pre-eminently a state rights man. 
Among his many loyal friends President Jackson 
had none more staunch than Mr. Buchanan. He 
supported him in his financial measures, advo- 
cated the recognition by Congress of the 
independence of Texas, and at a later time its 
annexation. Mr. Buchanan supported the princi- 
pal measures of the administration of Mr. Van 
Buren, including the establishment of an inde- 
pendent treasury. He was re-elected to the 
senate January, 1837, for a full term, being the 
first United States senator re-elected by the legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania. President Van Buren 
invited him to his official family as attorney- 
general to succeed Mr. Grundy, but Mr. Buchanan 
declined, claiming that he could best serve his 
coimtry in the senate. On Feb. 2, 1842, in reply 
to Mr. Clay, he delivered a speech on the veto 
power of the president, in which he said: **0f 
all the executive powers it is the least to be 
dreaded. It cannot create, it can change no 
existing law, it can destroy no existing institu- 
tion. It is a mere power to arrest hasty and incon- 
siderate changes until the voice of the people, 
who are alike masters of senators, representa- 
tives and President, shall be heard." In 1842 he 
opposed the ratification of the treaty between 
the United States and England, which Mr. 
Webster had negotiated with Lord Ashburton. 
In 1843 the legislature of Pennsylvania re-elected 
him senator for a third term, and in 1844 his 
political and personal friends w^ere anxious to 
propose him as Democratic candidate for the 
presidency. But he saw that if he permitted his 
friends to have their way, his interests would 
clash with those of Benton, Van Buren and other 
prominent men in the party. Mr. Buchanan 
accordingly promptly withdrew his name in a 
public letter, and James K. Polk was nominated 
and elected, and at the invitation of the President 
Mr. Buchanan accepted the position of secretary 
of state in his cabinet. Here he had some criti- 
cal questions to adjust, including the settlement 
of the boundary line between Oregon and the 
British possessions, and the annexation of Texas, 
from which arose the war with Mexico. He also 
advised President Polk to strongly re-assert 
the Monroe doctrine, which was in effect 
that no European nation should in future, be 
permitted to settle a colony on the American 
continent or in any way to interfere with Ameri- 
can affairs ; and he also advocated cultivating the 
most friendly relations with the Central Ameri- 
can states. When the Whigs came into power 
in 1849. Mr. Buchanan retired for a time from 



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BUCHANAN. 



BUCHANAN. 



politics, and acquired a small estate a little out- 
side the city of Lancaster, known as Wheatland, 
and this henceforth became his home. The 
death of his sister, Mrs. Lane, in 1839, left to 
him the care and education of four children, and 
the youngest of them, Harriet, was of such a ten- 
der age that it was possible for her natural 
guardian to mould her character as he wished; 
to direct the education of the young girl, to 
form her religious and moral principles, to 
guard her against temptation that would natur- 
ally come in the paths of one of her impetuous 
disposition, and to develop in her the character 
of a true woman, became one of the chief objects 
of his busy life. His letters to her, which began 
in her early youth, reveal a beautiful side of his 
character, of which the world knows but little. 
He wrote numerous public letters during his 
retirement, and the compromise measures of 
1850, offered by Mr. Clay, the abolition of slave 
trade in the District of Columbia, and the fugi- 
tive slave law received his oonmiendation and 
approval. When the Democratic party regained 
power in 1858, President Pierce offered to Mr. 
Buchanan the position of minister to England. 
In urging his acceptance the President said: 
** I can assure you if you accept the mission 
Pennsylvania shall not receive one appointment 
more or less on that account. I shall consider 
yours as an appointment for the whole country, 
and I will not say that Pennsylvania shall not 
have more in case of your acceptance than if you 
should decline the mission." The pressure 
brought to bear was so strong that he finally 
accepted. The fisheries reciprocity with Canada, 
and the Monroe doctrine as relating to Central 
American states, which had not been satis- 
factorily established by the Clayton-Bulwer 
treaty, were the uppermost subjects for discus- 
sion and settlement. President Pierce decided 
that the questions of reciprocity and the fisheries 
should be negotiated at Washington, and the 
Central American question was referred to Lon- 
don. Mr. Buchanan was the originator and one 
of the three members of the Ostend conference 
that met in 1854 to consider the subject of the 
acquisition of Cuba by the United States, and 
with his colleagues maintained that on the prin- 
ciple of self-preservation from dangers of the 
gravest kind, an armed intervention of the United 
States and the capture of the island from the 
Spaniards would be justifiable. He returned to 
the United States in the latter part of April, 1856, 
accompanied by his niece, Harriet Lane, who 
had been for over a year his guest, and upon his 
arrival in New York was accorded a public recep- 
tion from the authorities and people of the city, 
which evinced the interest that was everywhere 
manifested towards him as an able statesman 



and the probable coming chief executive. He re- 
turned to Wheatland, and there received news 
of his nomination as the Democratic candidate 
for President by the convention held at Cincin- 
nati in 1856. The Whig party had passed from 
existence. The anti-slavery party adopted tha 
name of Republican, nominated John C. Fre- 
mont as their candidate for President, and the 
question of slavery in the territories was made 
the issue of the campaign. The repeal of the 
Missouri compromise and the passage of the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska act, which had been followed in 
Kansas by an internecine contest between pro- 
slavery and anti-slavery settlers, gave the can- 
vass a sectional fervor which was smothered but 
not extinguished by the election in November, 
when Mr. Buchanan secured the electoral vote 
of Arkansas, Alabama, California, Delaware, 
Florida, G^rgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, 
one hundred and thirty-nine electoral votes, 
which made him President of the United States. 
He was inaugurated March 4, 1857, and was 
welcomed to the presidency by many anxious and 
patriotic citizens outside of his own party sup- 
porters, who saw danger in the radical doctrines 
of the minority party. His niece, Harriet Lane, 
became mistress of the White House, and was 
admirably qualified to make the new administra- 
tion a social success. In the selection of his 
cabinet he made Lewis Cass, of Michigan, secre- 
tary of state ; Howell Cobb, of G^rgia, secretary 
of the treasury; John B. Floyd, of Virginia, 
secretary of war ; Isaac Toucey, of Connecticut, 
secretary of the navy ; Jacob Thompson, of Mis- 
sissippi, secretary of the interior; Aaron V. 
Brown, of Tennessee, postmaster-general, and 
Jeremiah S. Black, of Pennsylvania, attorney- 
general. The state of the coimtry when this 
administration was organized was ominous to its 
peace and welfare. The autumn of 1857 saw a 
financial crisis of that kind which is apt to recur 
in an expanding country as the cycle advances 
from booming prosperity to the over-confident 
and over-productive stage. Although the sever- 
ity of the times gradually relaxed, and both con- 
fidence and activity were by another twelve 
months fairly restored, it took a long time to do 
away with the effects of the panic. The preced- 
ing administration had left a legacy of trouble 
in the repeal of the Missouri compromise. The 
Kansas-Nebraska act was a bone of contention 
between two factions of the Democratic party, 
and the President had to consider what was the 
limitation imposed by the constitution of the 
United States upon the operation of this newly 
created right. He stood by the decision of the 
supreme court in the famous Dred Scott case, and 



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BUCHANAN. 



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all his official influence was used through the 
territorial government to induce the people of 
Kansas to act in the questions of slavery at the 
proper time, and in the only practical way, by 
voting for delegates to the constitution called 
imder the authority of the territorial laws, and 
then voting on the constitution which that con- 
vention should frame. In 1857 he appointed 
Alfred Ciunming, of Georgia, governor of Utah, 
and filled the judicial and other vacancies which 
existed. This roused the opposition of Brigham 
Young and his followers. The President and his 
secretary of war petitioned the existing Congress 
for necessary troops to quell the incipient rebel- 
lion, but the Lecompton controversy was raging, 
and the use of Federal troops to put down the 
free-state movement in Kansas had caused such 
mistrust and irritation that none but the Presi- 
dent's stanchest supporters were inclined to 
place more troops at his disposal. The bill for an 
army increase was lost, though both houses 
passed a measure authorizing the President to 
accept for the Utah disturbance two regiments of 
volunteers; these were not called out, but the 
President mustered a military force out of the 
regulars strong enough to overawe, and over- 
power Utah's rebellious inhabitants. Two peace 
commissioners also bore to Utah a proclamation 
from the President, dated April 6, which offered 
free pardon except to those who still persisted 
in disloyal resistance. These conciliatory ef- 
forts, backed by an irresistible show of military 
strength, brought the Mormons to a speedy 
acknowledgment of their allegiance. The ques- 
tion of British dominion in Central America, 
which Mr. Buchanan had advanced when minis- 
ter to England, was settled during his admin- 
istration under his advice and approval. A 
settlement with the Central American states 
was effected in accordance with the American 
construction of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty. He 
also succeeded in compelling the English govern- 
ment to recognize international law in favor of 
the freedom of the seas. He recommended to 
Congress sending aid to the constitutional party 
of Mexico, then forcibly suspended from exercis- 
ing the functions of government by military 
nile, and to redress with force the wrongs of our 
citizens who were resident there, and whose 
claims against Mexico aggregated ten million 
dollars. He also instructed the United States 
minister to Mexico, Mr. McLane, to make a 
treaty of " Transit and Commerce," and a " con- 
vention to enforce treaty stipulations and to 
maintain order and security in the territory of 
the republics of Mexico and the United States." 
Congress did not uphold him in his efforts; 
Louis Napoleon interfered; in 1864 an empire 
under Maximillian was established, and the 



claims of the American citizens were for the 
time ignored. In 1858 the President concluded 
a treaty with China which established satis- 
factory conunercial relations between the two 
countries. On June 22, 1860, he vetoed a bill 
** to secure homesteads to actual settlers in the 
public domain, and for other purposes " ; the other 
purposes pertained to donations to the states, his 
objections being that the United States had no 
right to donate her public land to the states for 
domestic purposes. In 1860 the President was 
authorized by Congress to settle the claims 
against the government of Paraguay, by sending 
a commissioner to that country, accompanied by 
a naval force sufficient to exact justice should 
negotiations faiL This exx)edition was started 
on a considerable scale, was entirely success- 
ful and resulted in a permanent peace with that 
country, at no cost to the government beyond the 
usual small annual appropriation for the navy. 
The election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860 was the 
signal for South Carolina to renew her old doc- 
trine, and she seceded Dec. 20, 1860. Mr. Bu- 
chanan refused to receive the commissioners 
sent by the state to treat with him as with a 
foreign power. He emphatically denied the right 
of any state to secede from the Union, and held 
that the only remedy for a dissatisfied state was 
open revolution. In the October preceding the 
election, he received communication from Oeneral 
Scott, commanding-general of the army, which 
subsequently became known as ** Greneral Scott's 
Views," in which paper the general said in view 
of Mr. Lincoln's probable election he anticipated 
the secession of one or more southern states, and 
warned the President against leaving the forts 
in the south without additional garrison. As Mr. 
Buchanan had publicly denied the right of seces- 
sion, he could not consistently re-inforce the 
forts as if he anticipated revolution ; besides the 
entire United States troops available for garrison- 
ing the nine forts in the six excited southern 
states was four himdred men, and the reconmien- 
dation was plainly impracticable. He adhered to 
his policy of non-action, for which he has been 
censured, but which was identical with that 
adopted by President Lincoln until the overt act 
of firing upon Fort Sumter. After the actual 
secession of South Carolina, the President's chief 
aim was to confine the area of secession and 
induce Congress to prepare for war. But again 
he was not seconded by the legislative body, and 
when his term of office expired, March 3, 1861. 
seven states had already seceded, and President 
Lincoln found himself sadly embarrassed by the 
apathy of Congress in not preparing for the con- 
flict, which could no longer be averted. Except- 
ing the short drive from the White House to the 
Capitol in the same carriage with Mr. Lincol]i» 



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BUCHANAN. 



BUCHANAN. 



m compliance with that time-honored custom, 
when the retiring President turns over the admin- 
istration of affairs to his successor, it does not 
appear that Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Lincoln ever 
met. Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
until March 9, settling private affairs, and on 
that day, accompanied by Miss Lane and the 
other members of his liousehold, returned to 
Wheatland. He continued to take a deep in- 
terest in politics, and supported with his influ- 
ence as a private citizen the war that was raging 
for the maintenance of the Union. His declining 
years were saddened by the many cahininies with 
which he was assailed ; but lie bore all witli a 
dignified fortitude and was willing to leave the 
vindication of his course to a future, wlien 
perception would not be dimmed by sectional 
feeling. He published Buchanan's AdminiHtra- 
tiony a vindication of the policy of his admin- 
istration during the last months of his term. 
During the last years of his life he fell a victim 
to rheumatic gout, from which he finally died. 
His remains were laid at rest in Woodward Hill 
cemetery, near Lancaster, Pa. A simple monu- 
ment marks his grave, and the passer-by reads, 
"James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the 
United States, born April 23, 1791 ; died June 1, 
1868." 

BUCHANAN, James, representative, was born 
at Ringoes, Hunterdon county, N. J., June 17, 
1839. He was reared upon a farm, received 
an academic education, was admitted to the 
practice of the law in 1864, and was chosen read- 
ing clerk of the New Jersey legislature in 1866. 
Subsequently he was a member of the Trenton 
board of education, presiding judge of Mercer 
county for six years, was elected a represen- 
tative to the 49th Congress as a Republican in 
1884, and re-elected to the 50th, 51st and 52d con- 
gresses. He died in Trenton, N. J., Oct. 30, 1900. 

BUCHANAN, John Alexander, representa- 
tive, was born in Virginia, Oct. 7, 1843. He 
joined the Confederate army, serving as a private 
in the Stonewall brigade. He was taken a 
prisoner at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, and remained 
in captivity until February. 1865. After the 
close of the war he entered Emory and Henry 
college, Va., and was graduated in 1870, after 
which he studied law at the University of Vir- 
ginia. From 1885 to 1887 he was a member of 
the Virginia house of delegates. He was elected 
a representative to the 5l8t and 52d congresses 
1889-93 and became associate justice of the 
Supreme court of Virginia in 1894. 

BUCHANAN, John P., governor of Tennessee, 
was bom at Williamson, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1847 ; 
son of Thomas Buchanan, grandson of John 
Buchanan, Jr., and great-grandson of Major 
John Buchanan. At the age uf sixteen he joined 



the Confederate army, when he distinguished 
himself in some of the most important battles of 
the civil war. At its conclusion he went back 
to his farm, where he engaged in the raising of 
blooded stock. In 1878 he removed his stock to 
a large farm in Rutherford county, and greatly in- 
creased his business. In 1 886 he was elected to the 
general assembly of Tennessee and was re-elected 
in 1888. In February, 1890, he was elected, 
as a Democi*at, governor of Tennessee. In the 
legislature he made his mark as an able and fear- 
less debater, and contended stubbornly for the 
rights and interests of the people. As governor 
he showed himself well-informed on all subjects 
which came under his administration. On Aug. 
1, 1889, upon the consolidation of the Wheel and 
the Alliance ^ Governor Buchanan was elected 
president of the organization. 

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rhodes, physician, was 
born in Frankfort, Ky., Dec. 11, 1814. He waa 
graduated at the medical school of Louisville 
university in 1842, and was professor of phy- 
siology in the Cincinnati electric medical insti- 
tute from 1846 to 1856. He was dean of the faculty 
from 1850 to 1855, and editor of its medical 
journal. In after years he was engaged in similar 
work in the electric medical schools of New York 
and Boston. Dr. Buchanan is the author of a 
new system of education based on psychometry 
and sarcognomy, sciences of which he was the 
discoverer. His published works include : Out- 
lines of Lectures on the Neurological System of 
Anthropology (1854) ; Electric Practice of Medi- 
cine and Surgery (third revised edition, 1868) ; 
The American System of Medicine (1880) ; Moral 
Education, its Laws and Methods (1882) ; The 
New Education : Moral, Industrial, Hygienic, In- 
tellectual (1882); Manual of Pyschometi*y : the 
Dawn of a New Civilization (1885), and Thera- 
peutic Sarcognomy ( 1 891 ) . He ed ited Buchaiuins 
Journal of Man, 8 vols. He died at San Jose, Cal. , 
in 1899. 

BUCHANAN, Robert Christie, soldier, was 
born in Maryland about 1810. He graduated at 
West Point in 1830 ; served in the Black Hawk 
and Seminole wars ; was promoted captain 1838, 
served in the military occupation of Texas 1845- 
46, and in the war with Mexico 1846-48, where 
he was brevetted major May 9, 1846, and lieu- 
tenant colonel in September 1847. He was pro- 
moted major of the 4th infantry Feb. 3, 1855 ; 
lieutenant-colonel in September 1861; partici- 
pated in the Peninsular campaign where he was 
brevetted colonel June 27, 1862, and was ap- 
pointed brigadier general of volunteers in No- 
vember, 1862. He was placed in command of 
Fort Delaware in March, 1863, was promoted colo- 
nel in the regular army in 1864, and brevetted 
brigadier and major general in 1865, for gallantry 



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BUCHANAN. 



BUCK. 



st Malvern Hill, Manassas and Fredencksburg. 
He commanded the district of Louisiana, 1868 ; 
Fort Porter, N.Y., 1869-70, and was retired Dec. 
51, 1870. He died in Washington, D.C., Nov. 29, 
1878. 

BUCHANAN, William insco, diplomat, was 
born near Covington, Ky,, Sept. 10, 185?, son of 
Oeorge Preston and Mary E. (Gibson) Buchanan. 
He removed to Indiana ; served as engrossing clerk 
in the Indiana house of representatives 1874-75; 
engaged in mercantile pursuits in Piqua, Ohio, 
and Sioux City, Iowa, and became a Democratic 
member from Iowa of tlie World's Columbian ex- 
position in 1890 ; also chief of the department of 
Agriculture of that exposition in 1890 and of the 
•departments of live stock and forestry in 1891. 
He was U. S. minister to tlie Argentine Republic 
1894-99, where he fixed the boundary line be- 
tween Chili and Argentine in the Peruna de 
Atacama. He became director general of the 
Pan-American exposition of 1901 at Buffalo, 
N, Y. in 1899. 

BUCHTELt John RIcharcUt philanthropist, 
-was bom in Summit county, Ohio, Jan. 18, 1822. 
His first American paternal ancestor immigrated 
to the United States from Germany in the eight- 
eenth century. The boy's education was limited, 
And his youth was passed on a farm. In 1854 he 

entered the em- 
ploy of Ball, 
Aultman & 
Co., manufac- 
turers of mow- 
ers and reapers 
at Akron, Ohio. 
The firm failed 
in 1856, making 
liim their as- 
signee and he 
placed their 
affairs on a 
secure founda- 
tion. In 1864 
h e formed a 
_ connection 

^ /I A ^ i A ^ with the Buck- 

C-yyd^C^UuO eye mowing 
machine company, the business being organized 
into a stock company in 1865, and he was elected its 
president. He was also president of the bank of 
Akron and manager of the AkroQ iron company, 
and in all his interests sustained the most pleasant 
relations with his employees, their comfort being 
his first consideration and thus built up the town 
of Buclitel. One hundred and fifty car loads of 
coal and an average of forty-five tons of iron was 
produced each day. He was a trustee of the 
Ohio State Agricultural college, and a member of 
the executive committee during the erection of 




its buildings. He contributed to the building 
fund of every church in Akron ; gave his library 
to Buchtel college and gifts to the amount of 
$500,000. He died May 23, 1893. 

BUCHTEL, Henry Augustus, educator, was 
born near Akron, Oliio, Sept. 30, 1847, son of Dr. 
Jonathan B. Buchtel. He was graduated at 
Asbury (now De Pauw) university 1872, A. M. 
1875; was married Feb. 4, 1873, to Mary M. 
Stevenson of Greencastle, Ind., and served as a 
missionary in Bulgana in 1873. On his return to 
the United States, he served as pastor of Metho- 
dist Episcopal churches in Indiana, Colorado, 
New York and New Jersey and became chan- 
cellor of the University of Denver, at Denver, 
Colo., Jan. 1, 1900. He received the degree D.D. 
from I>e Pauw university in 1884 and LL. D. in 
1900. 

BUCK, Alfred Ellab, diplomat, was bom in 
Foxcroft, Me., Feb. 7, 1832, son of Benjamin T. 
and Elmira (Todd) Buck. He was graduated at 
Waterville college in 1859 ; taught school 1859-^1, 
and served through the Civil war ; as captain in 
the 18th Maine volunteers 1861-^3 ; as lieutenant 
colonel of the 91st U. S. colored infantry 1863-4 
and of the 51st colored infantry 1864-'5, being 
bre vetted colonel at the capture of Fort Bleckley, 
Ala. He served as inspector general of western 
Louisiana in 1865 ; engaged in manufacturing 
turpentine near Mobile, Ala., l866-'67, and was 
a delegate to the Alabama state convention in 
1867 ; clerk of the Mobile county court in 1867 ; 
member of the Mobile city council in 1868, and a 
Republican representative in the 41st congress, 
1869-71. He removed to Atlanta, Ga., was clerk 
of the U. S. court there 1873-87 ; a delegate to 
the National Republican conventions of 1880, 
1884 and 1888, and U. S. marshal 1889-'97. He 
was U. S. minister to Japan 1897-1902 and re- 
ceived the degree LL. D. from Colby in 1897. He 
died in Japan, Dec. 4, 1902. 

BUCK, Dudley, musician, was bom at Hart- 
ford, Conn., March 10, 1830. He began to take 
lessons on the piano in 1846 and became organist 
at St. John's Episcopal church. He attended 
Trinity college 1855-'8 ; studied at the Leipsio 
conservatory under Moritz, Hauptmann, Ernest 
Richter and Julius Rietz in 1858 ; under Johann 
Gottlieb Schneider, the celebrated organist, at 
Dresden in 1859, and at Paris 1860-2. He was 
organist of Dr. Horace BushnelPs church at Hart- 
ford, Conn., 1862-*9; at St. James church, Chicago, 
1869-71, and at St. Paul's church and Music Hall, 
Boston, later becoming assistant conductor of the 
Theodore Thomas concerts at Central Park, New 
York and of the Cincinnati festivals. He was next 
organist of St. Ann's and then of Holy Trinity 
church, Brooklyn, N. Y., and conductor of the 
Apollo club of that city. He composed the music 



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BUCK. 



BUCKHOUT. 



for a cantata. T?ie Centennial Meditation of 
Columbia^ which was sung at the opening of tlie 
Centennial exhibition, Philadelphia, Pa., May, 
1876, under Theodore Thomas's direction, by a 
chorus of one thousand voices, with organ and an 
orchestra of nearly two hundred instrumentalists. 
His services as president of the Metropolitan 
<3ollege of music, of New York city, were greatly 
appreciated by its students. His composition. 
The Golden Legend, obtained a prize of one 
thousand dollars from the Cincinnati musical 
association. The Legend of Don Munio, a ro- 
mantic cantata, founded on Irving's AViambra ; 
The Light of Asia, written in 1885, the text 
from St. Edwin Arnold's epic poem ; The Voy- 
<ige of Columbus, The Nun of Nidaras, King 
Olafs Chrnstmas, TJie Forty-sixth Psalm, 
Chorus of Spirits and Hours, from Shelley's 
Prometheus Unbound, Hymn to Music, TJie 
Story of the Cross, The Triumph of David, 
Marmion, and a communion service in C. in 
nine numbers, are among his more popular 
compositions. 

BUCK, Qurdon, surgeon, was bom in New 
York city, May 7, 1807. He obtained a classical 
education and engaged in business for some 
years. He then studied medicine and was gradu- 
ated from the College of physicians and surgeons 
in 1830. After a short hospital practice he 
travelled in Euroi)e and studied in the medical 
schools of France and Germany. He returned 
to New York in 1883, and established a practice, 
but in 1835 again visited Europe, where he 
remained two years. On his I'etum to the United 
States he was appointed visiting surgeon to the 
New York hospital, a position which he held 
during the remainder of his life. The treatment 
of fractures known as ** Buck's extension " took 
its name and origin from him. He held impor- 
tant offices in the principal medical societies of 
America, and was a fellow and at one time vice- 
president of the Academy of medicine. He was 
a member of the American medical association, 
of the New York pathological society, and a 
trustee of the New York dispensary of the eye 
and ear infirmary, and of the college of physi- 
cians and surgeons. He was also visiting sur- 
.geon to New York hospitals. He is the author 
of Contributions to Reparative Surgery (1876). 
He died in New York city, March 6, 1877. 

BUCKALEW, Charies R.* senator, was bom 
in Fishing Creek township, Pa., Dec. 28, 1821. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1843, and was 
prosecuting attorney of Columbia county from 
1845 to 1847. He was elected to the state senate 
in 1850 and 1855 ; was commissioned to exchange 
ratifications of a treaty with Paraguay in 1854 ; 
was a presidential elector in 1856 ; chairman of 
the Democratic state committee in 1857; again 



state senator in 1857 ; one of the commissioners 
to revise a penal cotle of the state in 1858. In 
1860 he was appointed minister resident at Ecua- 
dor by President Buchanan. In 1863 he was 
elected to the U.S. senate, where he was promi- 
nent on several committees, and active in debate 
upon the reconstruction measures, which he con- 
sidered illegal. He was elected to the state 
senate in 1869 for the fourth time, served in the 
constitutional convention of 1873 ; in 1876 was on 
the Democratic electoral ticket. In 1872 he 
publislied a volume upon Proportional Repre- 
sentation, and in 1883 a work upon the Con- 
stitutv*n of Pennsylvania. In 1887 was elected 
a representative to the 50th, and in 1889 was re- 
elected to the 51st congress. He died at Bloom- 
burg, Pa., May 19, 1899. 

BUCKHAM9 Matthew Henry, educator, was 
bom at Hinckley, Leicestershire, England, July 
4, 1832 ; son of James Buckham, an independent 
clergyman, who settled in Connecticut, where 
the son received his preparation for college. He 
matriculated at the University of Vermont, and 
was graduated in 1851 with honors. The year 
following his graduation he was principal of 
Lenox academy, Mass., and tutor in the Vermont 
university. He then visited Europe, and, after 
several years of study and travel, returned in 
1856 to accept the chair of Greek in the Uni- 
versity of Vermont. In 1865 he added to hia 
duties those of professor of English literature, 
resigning both chairs in 1871 to accept the presi- 
dency of the university, made vacant by the 
resignation of President James B. Angell. In 
1877 he received the degree of D.D. from 
Hamilton college, N. Y., and from Dartmouth 
college, and in the same year the University of 
Vermont conferred upon him the degree of A.M. 
From 1867 to 1874 he was a prominent member 
of the Vermont state board of education. His 
addresses, sermons, reviews and papers on edu- 
cational topics have been largely circulated in 
pamphlet form. 

BUCKHOUT, Isaac Craig, civil engineer, was 
born at Morrisania, N. Y., in 1831. At an early 
age he was employed by the Harlem railroad as 
a surveyor's assistant, and he afterward occupied 
the position of city engineer, and superintendent 
of water-works in Peterson, N. J. Later he 
was appointed city surveyor of New York, and in 
1858, returning to the employ of the Harlem 
railroad company, he superintended the con- 
struction of extensive works on the Harlem river, 
and of important improvements in various parts 
of the road. He became chief engineer of the 
road in 1857, and its superintendent in 1863. He 
designed the Grand central station, and was one 
of a committee of four engineers appointed by 
the legislature to carry out the provisions of the 



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BUCKINGHAM. 



BUCKLAND. 



charter granting the privilege of constructing 
the Fourth avenue improvements. Mr. Buck* 
hout's plans for the construction of the under- 
ground railroad, for which Mr. Vanderbilt 
obtained a charter, were pronounced the most 
practicable of those submitted, as were also his 
plans for a similar road in Brooklyn, N. Y. He 
died at White Plains, N. Y., Sept. 27, 1874. 

BUCKINQHAM, Catharintis Putnam, was 
bom at Springfield, Ohio, March 14, 1808. After 
his graduation at the United States military 
academy in 1829, he served for one year on topo- 
graphical duty, and for another on pedagogical 
duty at the military academy, when he resigned 
from the service. From 1838 to 1836 he was pro- 
fessor of mathematics and natural philosophy 
in Kenyon college, Grambier, Ohio, and he then 
became engaged in manufacturing pursuits, ac- 
quiring a business interest in the Kokosing iron 
works at Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Upon the outbreak 
of the civil war he entered the service as assist- 
ant adjutcmt-general of Ohio, May 3, 1861, 
becoming commissary -general on May 8, and 
adjutant-general with the rank of brigadier- 
general in July of the same year. He was 
detailed to special duty in the war department 
at Washington, D. C, from July. 1862, to Febru- 
ary, 1863, when he resigned his commission, and 
removing to New York engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. He built the Illinois central railroad 
company's grain elevator, 1868-'73, and in 1873 
became president of the Chicago steel works. He 
died in Chicago, HI., Aug. 80, 1888. 

BUCKINGHAM, Joseph Tinker, journalist, 
was born at Windham, Conn., Dec. 21, 1779. At 
the age of sixteen he obtained employment as a 
printer in New Hampshire, and afterwards in 
Greenfield, Mass. He moved to Boston in 1800, 
where he embarked in publishing on his own ac- 
count. In 1824 he established the Boston 
Courier, a daily journal, which he edited until 
June, 1848. In July, 1831, he issued, in connec- 
tion with his son Edwin, the first nrnnber of the 
New England Magazine, which was for a time 
successful, and had among its writers some of 
the most popular authors of the day ; a part of 
The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table first appear- 
ing in its pages. On tlie death of his son, who 
was associate editor, he discontinued the mag- 
azine in 1834. He was president of the Mas- 
sachusetts charitable mechanics, of the Bun- 
ker Hill monument and of the Middlesex 
agricultural associations. He published Speci- 
mens of Newspaper Literature, with Personal 
Memoirs, Anecdotes and Reminiscences (1850) ; 
Personal Memoirs and Recollections of Edi- 
torial Life (1853), Annals of the Massachiifiefts 
Charitable Mechanics* Association (185^3). He 
died in Cambridge, Mass., April 11, 18G1. 



BUCKINGHAM, Samuel Giles, clergyman^ 
was born in Lebanon, Conn., Nov 18, 1812. He 
was graduated at Yale in 1833, and at Yale divin- 
ity school in 1837. He was ordained a Congre- 
gational minister and was pastor of the church 
at MUlbury, Mass., 1837-*47. In 1847 he accepted 
a call to the South church, Bpringfield, Mass., and 
upon his resignation in 1894, after a pastorate of 
forty -seven years, he was elected pastor emeritus. 
Dr. Buckingham was an important factor in the 
cause of religion and education in the western 
part of Massachusetts. He received the hono- 
rary degree of D.D. from Yale in 1868. He died 
at Springfield, Mass., July 12. 1898. 

BUCKINGHAM, William Alfred, governor of 
Connecticut, was born at Lebanon, Conn., May 
28, 1804. His early education was acquired in 
the public schools of Lebanon, and during his 
eighteenth year he taught school. From 1823 to 
1827 he was employed as a clerk in a store at 
Norwich, Conn., entering business on his own 
account in the latter year. He was elected mayor 
of Norwich in 1849, was re-elected the following 
year, and held the same office during 1856 and 
1857. In 1858 he became governor of Connecti- 
cut, and was successively re-elected until 1866. 
During the civil war he rendered signal service, 
sending out from Connecticut without draft more 
than fifty thousand men, an exceedingly large 
number in proportion to the population of the 
state. At the end of his eighth term as governor 
he declined a re-nomination, and in 1868 he was 
elected a U. S. senator, serving as the chairman 
of the committee on Indian affairs and as a mem- 
ber of the committee on commerce. He waa 
public spirited and philanthropic, giving liberally 
to schools and colleges and to cliaritable institu- 
tions. He gave twenty -five thousand dollars to 
the theological department of Yale college, of 
which institution his ancestor, the Rev. Thomas 
Buckingham, was one of the foimders. In 1868 
he was prominently mentioned before the Re- 
publican national convention as candidate for 
the vice-presidency. On June 18, 1884, Olin L. 
Warner's bronze statue of Governor Bucking- 
ham was unveiled at the state house in Hartford, 
Conn. He died at Norwich. Conn., Feb. 8, 18T5. 

BUCKLAND, Cyrus, inventor, was born in 
Manchester, Conn., Aug. 10, 1799. In 1828 he 
was employed at the national armory at Spring- 
field, Mass., as a pattern-maker, and to his inven- 
tive and executive ability are due many of the 
effective improvements in arms, adopted by the 
national government. He devised a machine 
which made poasible the interchange of parts in 
small arms, and also machines for turning the 
upper barrels of muskets, for finishing the cone, 
for milling screws, for boring and turning gun 
barrels, and for rifling muskets. He invented a 



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BUCKLAND. 



BUCKLEY. 



set of stocking machines, thirteen in number, 
which carry the gun stocks from the crude state 
i^ which they come from the mill to an advanced 
degree of finish. These stocking machines were 
introduced into the national armory of England 
— men from the Springfield armory being em- 
ployed to operate them. Several other European 
governments adopted not only these machines 
but also various other of Mr. Buckland's time 
and money-saving inventions. Upon his retire- 
ment, in 1859, the United States government 
voted him a grant of seventy thousand dollars, 
in recognition of its indebtedness, Mr. Buckland 
having previously received no compensation 
beyond his daily wages for his many inventions. 
He died in Springfield, Mass., Feb. 26, 1891. 

BUCKLAND, Ralph Pomeroy, soldier, was 
born at Leyden. Mass., Jan. 20, 1812. His parents 
moved to Ohio, wher^ he received his education. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1837, and com- 
menced practice at Fremont. In 1848 he was a 
delegate to the national Whig convention, and 
from 1855 to 1859 he was state senator. He en- 
tered the Union army in 1861 as colonel of the 
72d Ohio volimteers, which he had organized, 
and at the battle of Shiloh he commanded the 
4th brigade of Sherman's division, receiving pro- 
motion to brigadier-general, Nov. 29, 1862, for 
gallantry on this occasion. He commanded a 
brigade in the 15th army corps at Vicksburg, 
was later assigned to the command of the dis- 
trict of Memphis, and was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers in March, 1865. In Janu- 
ary, 1865, he resigned his commission in the army 
in order to accept a seat in the 89th Congress as 
representative from his state, having been 
elected while in the field. He was re-elected 
in 1866 to the 40th Congress, and served on the 
conunittees on banking, currency and militia. 
He was president of the board of managers of the 
Ohio soldiers* and sailors* orphans* home at 
Xenia from 1867 to 1873, and the government 
director of the Union Pacific railroad from 1877 
to 1880. He died at Fremont, Ohio, May 28, 1892. 
' BUCKLEY, James Monroe, editor, was bom 
at Rahway, N. J., Dec. 16, 1836. He studied at 
Pennington, N. J., and at Wesleyan university, 
leaving in his freshman year on account of ill- 
health. On partial recovery he studied divinity 
imder Dr. Nathaniel Laselle, at Exeter, N. H. 
He entered the New Hampshire conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church on trial, 1859, and 
was stationed at Dover, Manchester and Con- 
cord. In 1863 he travelled in Europe and in 
November of that year was transferred to Detroit 
conference, and preached in Detroit, Mich., from 
1864 to 1866; in Brooklyn, N. Y., and Stamford, 
Conn., 1866 to 1880. He studied medicine 1866-*69, 
and served on the medical committees of the 



State lunatic hospitals of New Jersey for many 
years, and as president of the Methodist Episco- 
pal (Seney) hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., from its 
foiuidation. He was a member of the general 
conference in 1872, 1876 and 1880, and a dele- 
gate to the ecumenical Methodist conference in 
London, 1881. In 1880 he became editor of the 
New York Christian Advocate, and was a mem- 
ber of every general conference and of the ecu- 
menical conference in 1891. He published : 
Appeals to Men of Sense and Reflection, New 
York (1869); Two Weeks in the Yosemite Val- 
ley New York (1873) ; Supposed Miracles, Bos- 
ton (1875) ; Christians and the Theatre, (1875) ; 
Oats or Wild Oats, New York (1885); The 
Land of the Czar and the Nihilist, Boston 
(1886) ; Cliristian Science, Faith-Healing and 
Kindred Phenomena, and Travels in Three 
Continents, The degree of A.M. was couf erred 
on him by Wesleyan \miversity in 1869, and that 
of D.D. in 1872; Emory and Henry college, Va., 
gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1882. 

BUCKLEY, Samuel Botsford, naturalist, was 
bom in Torrey, Yates county, N. Y., May 9, 1809. 
He was graduated at the Wesleyan university in 
1836, and the two years following were spent in 
travelling through the south and west, making 
botanical, geological, malacological and geodeti- 
cal investigations. In 1889-'40 he was principal 
of the academy at Allenton, Ala., and in 1842 
extended his travels and investigations through 
the southern and western parts of the country, 
discovering a nearly complete skeleton of a 
zeuglodon, twenty-four new species of plants, 
and a new genus of shrub, which was afterward 
named ** Buckleya " in his honor, by Professor 
Torrey. He spent some months of 1842-'43 in 
study at the New York college of physicians and 
surgeons, and in the same year he visited Florida, 
where he discovered some thirteen new species 
of shells. In 1858 he ascertained the altitude of 
several of the highest mountains in Tennessee 
and the Carolinas by means of the barometer. 
One of these peaks, Mt. Buckley, in North Caro- 
lina, was named in his honor. In 1859-'60 he. 
was engaged in collecting materials for a supple- 
ment to Michaux and Nuttall*s ** Sylva,** and was 
employed upon the Texas geological survey of 1860- 
'61, as assistant geologist and naturalist. From 
1862 to 1865 he was the chief examiner in the 
statistical department of the U. S. sanitary 
conunission, and, during 1866-*67, state geologist 
of Texas, which office he again filled from 1874 
to 1877, during the latter term constructing two 
geological maps of that state, and writing a 
number of articles on the mineral resources and 
the geological formations of the state for 
Hitchcock and Blake's Geological Atlas of the 
United States. In 1871-*72 he was scieutifio 



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BUCKMINSTER. 



BUCKNER. 



editor of the State Gazette, published at Austin, 
and in 1873 received the degree of Ph.D. from 
Waco university, Texas. He founded the Texas 
association of science, was a member of various 
scientific associations, and a contributor to scien 
tific journals. A full list of his journalistic con 
tributions may be found in the Alumni Record 
of Wesleyan university (1881-'83). At the time 
of his death he had in preparation a work on the 
geology and natural history of Texas, and another 
on the trees and shrubs of the United States. 
He died in Austin, Texas, Feb. 18, 1884. 

BUCKMINSTER, Joseph, clergyman, was 
bom at Rutland, Mass., Oct. 14, 1751; son of Rev. 
Joseph Buckminster, and a direct descendant of 
the Thomas Buckminster who, in 1640, emi- 
grated from England and settled at Muddy river 
(Brookline), Mass. He entered Yale college at 
the age of fifteen, and upon his graduation in 
1770 received a Berkeley scholarship, which 
enabled him to pursue a theological course of 
three years free of charge. From 1774 to 1778 
he was a tutor at Yale, and in 1779 he accepted a 
call to the North church of Portsmouth, N. H. 
His ordination, on January 27, was the commence- 
ment of a pastorate extending over thirty-three 
years. He was a most eloquent and original 
speaker, and in the controversy which recnilted 
in the division of the Congregational church, he 
joined the conservative party, his son, Joseph 
Btevens Buckminster, joining the liberal party. 
The College of New Jersey conferred on him the 
degree of D.D. in 1808. His publications include 
some twenty-five sermons and a memoir of Dr. 
MacClintock. See Memoirs of Rev. Joseph 
Buckminster, D.D., and of his Son, by Eliza 
Buckminster Lee (1851). He died at Reads- 
boro, Vt., June 10, 1812. 

BUCKMINSTER, Joseph Stevens, clergy- 
man, was bom at Portsmouth, N. H., May 26, 
1784 ; son of Joseph Buckminster, 2d. His ances- 
tors for several generations had been clergymen. 
He was graduated from Harvard with honors in 
1801. He studied theology and general literature, 
and taught for a time at Phillips Exeter acad- 
emy. On Jan. 20, 1805, he was ordained pastor 
of the Brattle street church of Boston. In 
1806-*07 his congregation granted him an ex- 
tended leave of absence, which he employed in 
European travel, hoping thereby to regain his 
health. He was the friend and patron of litera- 
ture, a member of the famous ** Anthology 
Club," and a contributor to Monthly Anthology, 
He was one of the first preachers to introduce a 
measure of literary excellence into pulpit dis- 
courses. He belonged to the liberal branch of the 
Congregational church, which, shortly after his 
death, became distinctly Unitarian. In 1808 he 
published, in connection with Mr. William 



Wells, and under the patronage of Harvard 
college, a new edition of Griesbach's Greek 
Testament, and in the following year a memor- 
able address delivered by him before the Phi 
Beta Kappa society of Harvard on the Dangers^ 
and Duties of Men of Letters, was published. 
In 1811 he was invited to deliver a course of 
lectures in biblical criticism at Harvard. After 
his death a number of his sermons were collected 
and published with memoirs by Rev. S. C. 
Thacher (1814, revised fourth ed. 1889) ; and hia 
sister, EUiza Buckminster Lee, wrote a memoir 
of his life (1849). He died at Boston, Mass.» 
June 9. 1812. 

BUCKNER, Simon Bolivar, soldier, was bom 
in Hart county, Ky., in April, 1823; son of 
Aylett H. Buckner, an iron manufacturer and 
extensive farmer who was descended from an 
old Virginia family of English ancestors. Tha 
elder Buckner subsequently removed first to 
Munfordville, and in 
1840 to Muhlenberg 
county. The son was 
graduated at the U.S. 
military academy in 

1844, and in August, 

1845, was appointed 
assistant professor of 
ethics at West Point, 
and remained at this 
post until the follow- | 
ing May. At the out- 
break of the war with 
Mexico, Lieutenant 
Buckner applied for 
transfer to the scene 

of hostUities. ^^^..^ZU^T^uJL^ 
was attached to 

the 6th regiment and was brevetted 1st lieutei^ 
ant for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusoou 
At Molino del Rey he won the captain's brevet- 
He was returned to West Point in 1848, and 
appointed assistant instructor of infantry tactics. 
He retained this position until March 25, 1855, 
when he superintended the building of the 
Chicago custom house. He then recruited a regi 
ment of Illinois volunteers for the proposed Utal^ 
expedition, but they were not called into service. 
In 1860 he resigned his commission and removed 
to Louisville, Ky., where he engaged in the prac- 
tice of law and also took an active interest in the> 
state militia. Governor Magofiin appointed him 
adjutant and inspector-general of the state guard. 
When the civil war broke out his sympathies; 
prompted him to go with the south, and a large 
part of the state guard followed their com- 
mander. (General Buckner called upon the people 
of the state to support him in his movements 
against the troops that had invaded the state f rook 




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BUCKNER. 



BUEL. 



the north by order of President linoohi. He es- 
tablished Camp Boone, and threatened Louisville, 
but advanced no farther than Bowling Green. 
From there he was ordered to Fort Donelson by his 
superior officers, Generals Pillow and Floyd, who 
subsequently forced him to the alternative of 
abandoning his men or surrendering the fort and 
garrison. He first commanded a brigade and 
distinguished himself in the battle of 18th, 14th 
and 15th of February, 1862. On the last day a 
gallant sortie was made. The Federals were 
driven back and the way opened for the CJonfed- 
erates to escape, but General Pillow ordered them 
baolL General Buckner protested, but was over- 
ruled. That afternoon General Grant so ar- 
ranged his forces that escape was cut off. A 
conference was held in the evening, and Gen- 
erals Floyd and Pillow made their escape during 
the night. General Buckner would not consent 
to abandon the troops, the command was turned 
over to him and he remained to undergo 
the mortification of the inevitable surrender. A 
pleasant incident of the occasion was the con- 
duct of General Grant, who privately placed his 
purse at his old friend's disposal when he was 
taken a prisoner of war to Fort Warren, Boston 
harbor. They had been cadets together at West 
Point, and continued life-long friends. Many 
years afterwards, when Ex-President Grant was 
financially ruined by the failure of Grant & 
Ward, General Buckner returned the kindness 
showed him at Fort Donelson. He made a 
special trip to New York, and delicately offered 
to lend General Grant whatever sum he might 
require, to be paid when convenient. It is under- 
stood General Grant accepted the offer, but the 
particulars were never revealed by General Buck- 
ner. He was one of the pall-beurers at General 
Grant*s fimeral. Upon his exchange in August, 
1862. he was given command of the first division 
of General Hardee's corps; was made major- 
general, and distinguished himself at the battle 
of Murfreesboro and Chickamauga. He suc- 
ceeded to the command of Kirby Smith's army 
as lieutenant-general, and surrendered it on May 
26, 1865, at Baton Rouge. While occupied in 
adjusting his complicated financial affairs after 
the war, he engaged in journalism, first in New 
Orleans and afterwards in Louisville. In 1870 he 
took up his residence on the farm in Hart county, 
where he was bom, and in 1887 was elected Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky, defeating William F. Bradley 
by seventeen thousand votes. During his term a 
large amount of money was required to answer 
inunediate and pressing public needs, and Gk>v- 
ernor Buckner advaiiced the commonwealth fifty 
thousand dollars without charging interest. In 
many ways he improved the public service while 
sovemor. He was elected delegate to the state 



constitutional convention, and took part in fram- 
ing the new constitution. On Sept. 8, 1896, the 
independent Democrats convened at Indianap- 
olis, Ind., and nominated General Buckner as 
their candidate for vice-president of the United 
States on the ticket with John M. Palmer as 
president. 

BUDD, Charles Arms, physician, was bom in 
New York city, Jan. 16, 1831 ; son of Bern W. 
and Caroline Elvira (Reynolds) Budd. He wa» 
gi-aduated at the University of the city of New 
York, A.B., 1850, M.D. 1852; was surgeon on a 
packet between New York and Liverpool, 1852-*8, 
and resident physician at the cholera hospital,. 
New York city, 1853-*54. He was adjunct profes- 
sor of obstetrics at the New York medical college, 
1860''4 ; professor of obstetrics and the diseases 
of women and children at the University of the 
city of New York, 1864-76, and emeritus profes- 
sor from 1876. He was physician to Mount Sinai 
hospital ; visiting physician to Bellevue hospital 
and president of the New York obstetrical society. 
He died in New York city. May 17, 1877. 

BUDD, James Herbert* governor of Califor- 
nia, was born in Janesville, Wis., May 18, 1851 ; 
son of Joseph H. and Lucinda M. (Ash) Budd ; 
grandson of John and Elizabeth (Van Rens- 
selaer) Budd, and of Thomas and Lucy (Edger- 
ton) Ash, and of German and English ancestry. 
He removed to California in his boyhood and at- 
tended the public schools and Brayton^s school, 
Oakland. He was graduated from the University 
of California, Ph.B. in 1873 ; was admitted to the 
bar and settled in practice at Stockton, Cal. He 
was a DemoGi-atic representative from Cali- 
fornia in the 48th congress, 1883-*85, declining re- 
nomination, and was governor of California, 1895- 
*90« He was a trustee of the Stockton library and 
president of the board of police and fire commis- 
sioners. He was married in June, 1873, to Inez 
A. Merrill. 

BUEL, Clarence Clough, journalist, was bom 
at Laona, Chautauqua county, N. Y., July 29, 
1850, and was taken to Madison, Wis., in 1855. 
After two years in the University of Minnesota, 
he studied journalism at the University of Berlin 
in 1872-73, and at the Univeraity and Polytechnic 
of Munich, 1873-74. Upon his return to the ' 
United States he was associate editor of the 
Minneapolis Tribune, and then joined the staff 
of the New York Tribune, on which he served 
from June, 1875, to November, 1881, when he 
became assistant editor of the Century Magazine, 
He was associated with Robert U. Johnson in 
editing a series of war papers in the Century^ 
which were afterwards collected and published 
in a serial subscription book under the title, 
Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, which 
was very popular. 



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BUEL. 



BUELL. 



BUEL, Samuel, clergyman, was bom in Troy, 
N. Y., June 15, 1815; son of Judge David Buel, 
an eminent lawyer. He received his education 
at Williams college, from which he was gradu- 
ated first in the class of 1833. He studied at the 
Episcopal theological seminary at Alexandria, 
Va. After twenty years of ministerial and mis- 
sionary work in various parts of the country, he 
became tutor at Kenyon college, professor of 
ecclesiastical history at Seabury divinity school, 
Faribault, Minn., in 1867, and professor of sys- 
tematic divinity and dogmatic theology in the 
(General theological seminary in New York in 
1871, where he continued to teach until poor 
health compelled him to resign in 1888, when he 
was made professor emeritus. The General theo- 
logical seminary gave him the degree of S.T.D. 
in 1885, the degree having been conferred on him 
by Colimibia college in 1862. Of his published 
writings the best known are : A Treatise of 
Dogmatic Theology, The Apostolical System of 
Vie Church Defended, and Eucharistic Pres- 
ence, Sacrifice, and Adoration. He died in New 
York city, Dec. 80, 1893. 

BUELL, Abel, pioneer type-founder, was bom 
at Killingworth, Conn., about 1750. He was a 
man of many resources, and though little is 
known of his life, record is found of him as en- 
graver, jeweller, goldsmith, undertaker, military 
bugler, teacher of singing and choir leader, 
before he adopted the business of type-foimding 
and printing. His expert knowledge of engrav- 
ing led him into the penal oflfence of altering a 
colonial note, for which he served a term of im- 
prisonment. A special act of the legislature, in 
return for many honorable services rendered the 
state, restored to him his civil rights. In 1769, 
without any other aid than his own ingenuity 
and some little knowledge derived from books, 
he began the manufacture of type, and in the 
course of a few years completed several fonts of 
long primer. One John Baine, who came to 
the United States after the revolution, has 
claimed the honor of being the first type-founder 
in America, but the Massachusetts Gazette estab- 
lished Buell's right to that honor beyond a per- 
adventure. Under date of Sept. 4, 1769 (some 
years prior to Baine 's advent), that journal 
says: "We leam that Abel Buell of Killing- 
worth, in Connecticut, has made himself master 
of the art of foimding types for printing. " He 
was extremely eccentric and very restless, and 
was continually getting into trouble. He pub- 
lished a weekly newspaper, entitled, The DernVs 
Club or Iron Cane, in which he advocated ** the 
doctrine of eternal progression and endless 
development." The publication of these views 
gave great offence to the Puritans, and Buell was 
condemned to six months' confinement in Syms- 



bury mines, being released at the end of bis term 
only on condition that he publicly renounce his 
heresy, and tliat he agree to carry an iron cane 
on Sabbath days in token of the sincerity of his 
repentance. So subdued did he become to all 
outward appearances that he was known as 
** the meek man with the iron cane. " Disguised 
as a Kickapoo Indian he was one of the ** Boston 
Tea Party,*' and at the battle of Lexington he 
heated to a white heat the point of his iron cane 
and with it touched off the first cannon fired in 
the revolution, and he was wounded in the knee 
at the battle of Bimker Hill. He became a gov- 
ernment coiner after the revolution, and devised 
new instruments for conducting the work. 
Subsequently he visited England, for the pur- 
pose of studying the machines used in the manu- 
facture of cotton cloth, and upon his return to 
America he established at New Haven a cotton 
factory, which was one of the first erected in 
the United States. He died at New Haven, 
Conn., about 1825. 

BUELL, Don Carlos, soldier, was bom near 
Marietta, Ohio, March 23, 1818. He was gradu- 
ated from West Point in 1841 ; was assigned to 
the 3d infantry, and raised to the grade of 1st 
lieutenant, June 18, 1846. He was brevetted 
captain for gallant conduct at Monterey, and 
major after Contreras and Churubusco, having 
received a severe woimd in the latter engage* 
ment. From 1848 to 1861 he was on duty as 
assistant adjutant-general at Washington, and at 
various department headquarters. On May 11, 
1861, he received a staff appointment as lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and on May 17 was conomissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He was em- 
ployed in the work of organizing the troops at 
Washington. In August, 1861, he was given 
command of a division of the army of the Po- 
tomac, and in November, 1861, superseded 
General Sherman in the conmiand of the depart- 
ment of the Cumberland, re-organized into the 
department of the Ohio. An attack upon Gen- 
eral Buell's pickets at Rowlett station, Dec. 17, 
1861, opened the Kentucky campaign, and Feb. 
14, 1862, he occupied Bowling Green; February 
23 he took possession of Gallatin, Tenn., and 
on the 25th of the same month entered Nash- 
ville. On March 21, 1862, he was made major- 
general of volunteers, and his department became 
a part of the department of the Mississippi 
imder General Halleck. His opportune arrival 
at Shiloh on the evening of April 6, following, 
saved the troops under General Grant from a dis- 
astrous defeat. He assumed command of the 
array of the Ohio, June 12, 1862, and early in Sep- 
tember Bragg advanced into Kentucky, obliging 
Buell to evacuate central Tennessee and retreat 
to Louisville, where his army arrived September 



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BUELL. 



BUFFINTON. 



94, thus saving that city and Cincinnati, Ohio, 
from capture. Buell was superseded by Gen- 
eral Thomas, September 30, by orders from 
Washington, but reinstated the next day, when 
he pursued Bragg's retreating forces. They 
met at Perry ville. and fought an indecisive battle, 
though Bragg acknowledged defeat by retreat- 
ing to Harrodsburg, and then to Cumberland 
Gap. Buell's management of this campaign has 
been pronounced masterly by military authori- 
ties, but he was censured by the war depart- 
ment, and by orders turned over his command 
to General Rosecrans. The report of the mili- 
tary investigation conmiittee was never pub- 
lished. General Buell was mustered out of the 
volunteer service. May 23, 1864, and resigned his 
commission in the regular army June 1, 1864. 
He became extensively engaged in the iron 
business in Muhlenburg county, Ky. He was 
appointed pension agent in Kentucky by Presi- 
dent Cleveland in 1885. He died near Rockport, 
Ky.,Nov. 19, 1898. 

BUELL, Marcus Darius, educator, was bom 
at Wayland, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1851; son of Enoch 
George and Maria (Brownson) Buell. He was 
graduated from the University of the city of 
New York in 1872, and from Boston university 
school of theology in 1875. He was pastor at 
GlenviUe. Conn., 1875-'77; at Great Neck (L. I.), 
N. Y., 1880-'81, and at Hartford, Conn., 1882-'88. 
In 1884 he studied at Cambridge university, Eng- 
land, and in 1885 at the University of Berlin. On 
his return to the United States he entered upon 
his duties as professoi: of New Testament Greek 
and exegesis at Boston imiversity, to which 
chair he had been appointed in 1884. In 1890 he 
was made dean of the theological faculty. He 
received the degrees of A.M., 1873, and D.D., 
1889, from the University of the city of New 
York, and that of S.T.B. from Boston university 
in 1875. He was elected a member of the Har- 
vard biblical club, the Society of biblical litera- 
ture and exegesis, and the American Oriental 
society. 

BUELL» Richard Hoolcer, engineer, was born 
at Cumberland, Md., Nov. 9, 1842. He was 
graduated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute 
in 1862, served through the civil war as an 
engineer officer in the U. S. navy, and in 1870 
was appointed assistant civil engineer of the 
Tehuantepec survey, assistant professor of nat- 
ural and experimental philosophy in the IT. S. 
naval academy, Annapolis, Md. He opened an 
office as consulting mechanical engineer in New 
York city. He wrote the Cadet Engineer 
(1875) ; Safety Valves (1878) ; The Compound 
Steam Engine and its Steam Generating Plant 
(1884), and ai*ticles on heat, steam and gas 
engines. 



BUFFINGTON, Adelbert Rinaldo, soldier, 
was born at Wheeling, Va., Nov. 22, 1887. He 
was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1861, and was assigned to duty as 
drill master of volunteers at Washington, D.C. 
He was on duty at the St. Louis arsenal as 
assistant ordnance officer and in mustering 
volimteers in Illinois and Missouri. He defended 
Pilot Knob, Mo. ; was assistant adjutant-general of 
the 5th division, army of the west ; organized a 
Missouri regiment from the men in the arsenal, 
of which he was made colonel, and afterwards 
had charge of the ordnance depot at Wheeling, 
W. Va. From September, 1863, to July, 1864, he 
was inspector of rifling sea-coast cannon, and 
from July, 1864, to September, 1866, was in com- 
mand of the New York arsenaL After the close 
of the war he was on leave of absence inspecting 
arms for the Egyptian government until April, 
1866, when he was in charge of the ordnance 
depot at Baton Rouge, La., and then became 
chief of ordnance, department of the Gulf. 
After March, 18|67, he was in command of the 5th 
military district, Texas and Louisiana, until 
1868, when he commanded the Watertown 
arsenaL He was at the Detroit arsenal from 
December, 1870, to February, 1872 ; was superin- 
tendent of southern forts, February, 1872, to 
May, 1873; in charge at Indianapolis arsenal, 
1873 to '75 ; promoted major of ordnance June 
28, 1874, after which he had charge of the Alle- 
gheny and Water vliet arsenals until 1881, when 
he was promoted lieutenant -colonel and placed 
in charge of the national armory Oct. 3, 1882. 
He was in command at the Rock Island, 111., 
arsenal in 1896. Colonel Buffington made num- 
erous inventions in the line of ordnance attach- 
ments and improvements, including a magazine 
firearm, a rod bayonet, a rear sight with adjust- 
ment for fine shooting for military firearms, and 
carriages for light and heavy guns. He was the 
first to use gas furnaces for drop forging. He be- 
came chief of the ordnance department with the 
rank of brigadier-general, April 15, 1899, and re- 
signed in 1901. 

BUFFINTON, James, representative, was born 
in Fall River, Mass., March 16, 1817. He was 
educated at Friends' school in Providence, R. I., 
and engaged in commercial business in his native 
city. He was elected in 1854 a representative 
to the 34th Congress, and was re-elected to the 
35th, 36th and 37th congresses. He then ac- 
cepted a place as special agent of the treasury 
department, and was afterwards made collector 
of internal revenue for Massachusetts by Presi- 
dent Johnson. He was elected in 1868 a repre- 
sentative to the 41st Congress, and was re-elected 
to the 42(1, 43d and 44th confesses. He died at 
FaU River, Mass, March 7, 1875. 



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BUFFUM9 Araold, abolitionist, was bom at 
Smithfield, R. I., in January, 1783; son of Wm. 
Buffum, a prominent anti-slavery advocate. His 
ancestors were Quakers, and had been resident 
in America since its early settlement. He was 
educated at private schools in Smithfield and 
Newport, B. L ; first engaged in the manufacture 
of hats and afterwards in sheep-raising. He 
formed an intimacy with Lafayette in Paris 
in 1880, and on his return to America offered his 
services to William Lloyd Garrison to help 
effect the abolition of slavery. In 1882 the New 
England anti -slavery society was formed. It 
advocated immediate, rather than gradual aboli- 
tion, and its oonstitution was signed by William 
Lloyd Gktrrison, Arnold Buffum and thirteen 
others. He was its second president and its first 
lecturer. He was an active temperance worker, 
and late in life a prominent member of the Re- 
publican party. He was married at Newport, 
R. L, in 1804, to Rebecca Gk)uld, a descendant of 
Daniel Gould, who was whipped on Boston com- 
mon in the (seventeenth century for being a 
Quaker. He died in Eagleswood, N. J., in March, 
1859. 

BUFFUM, Edward Gould, journalist, was 
born in Rhode Island in 1820; son of Arnold 
Buffum, philanthropist. Upon the outbreak of 
the Mexican war he resigned as reporter on the 
New York Herald, joined Colonel Stevenson's 
New York volunteers as lieutenant, and in 1846 
served in southern California and on the Pacific 
coast of Mexico. At the close of the war he 
settled in California, and was an early explorer 
of the gold fields. He l)ecame the editor-in- 
chief of the Alta California upon its establish- 
ment, and served one term in the state legisla- 
ture. In 1859 he resumed his connection with 
the New York Herald, becoming a special foreign 
correspondent with headquarters at Paris. His 
History of Stevenson's Regiment is a vivid 
description of the life of a California pioneer, 
and he published besides. Six Months in the 
Gold Mines (1850) ; A Pocket Guide for 
Americans going to Europe, (1859), and Sights 
and Sensations in France, Germany and Switzer- 
land."' He died in Paris, France, Oct. 24, 1867. 

BUFORD, Abraham, soldier, was born in 
Virginia. He distinguished himself in the early 
part of the Revolutionary war, and was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 11th Virginia regiment, 
May 16, 1778. In the spring of 1780 he was sent 
with his command to relieve General Lincoln at 
Charleston, S. C, but hearing that the Ameri- 
cans had surrendered the place he began his 
return march. He was overtaken by a force of 
seven hundred cavalry and mounted infantry, 
under command of Colonel Tarleton, at Waxhaw 
Creek, S. C. , May 29, 1780. Though having but four 



hundred infantry and a small cavalry force, 
Buford refused to surrender, and was preparing^ 
for defence when the British fell upon the Con- 
tinental troops, and giving no quarter killed 
nearly the entire force. Colonel Buford died 
in Scott county. Ky., June 29, 1838. 

BUFORD, Abraham, soldier, was bom in 
Kentucky about 1820. He was graduated at 
West Point in 1841. He served as lieutenant of 
1st dragoons on frontier duty in Kansas and 
Iowa, and was engaged in the war with Mexico, 
winning at Buena Vista the brevet rank of 
captain. From 1848 to 1851 he was stationed in 
New Mexico, and in 1852 and 1853 was on duty at 
the cavalry school for practice in Carlisle, Pa. 
In 1853 and 1864 he served at the Harrodsburg 
branch military asylum, Kentucky, and on Oct. 
22, 1854, resigned from the army, and retired to 
his farm near Versailles, Woodford county, Ky. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he joined the 
Confederate army and became a brigadier- 
general. He died by his own hand, June 9, 1864. 

BUFORD, John, soldier, was bom in Wood- 
ford county, Ky., March 4, 1826. He was the 
half brother of Gten. Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, 
and was graduated from West Point in 1848. 
As lieutenant of the 1st dragoons he was in 
active service in the expedition against the 
Sioux in 1855; at Bluewater, Kan., in 1856-'57, 
and in Utah in 1857-'58; was promoted to the 
rank of major in 1861, and attached to the corps 
of the inspector-general. In 1862 he was for a 
month on the staff of General Pope in the army 
of Virginia, and on July 27, 1862, was promoted 
to the rank of brigadier-general, commanding a 
brigade of cavalry in Greneral Hooker's army dur- 
ing the North Virginia campaign. He took 
part in the engagement at Madison Court House, 
August 9; pursued Jackson's army across the 
Rapidan, August 12; was present at Kelley's 
Ford, Thoroughfare Gap. and Manassas, being 
wounded in the last-named battle. During the 
Maryland campaign, as chief of cavalry of the 
Army of the Potomac, he was present at South 
^lountain, September 14, and at Antietam, Sep- 
tember 17, where he acted in place of General 
Stoneman on McClellan's staff. He commanded 
the raserve cavalry brigade under Stoneman^ 
and did gallant service at Fredericksburg, Dec. 
13, 1862; in Stoneman's raid, May, 1863, and 
Beverly Ford, June 9, 1863. He was chief of the 
cavalry division of the Army of the Potomac 
and was present at all the principal engage- 
ments, including Gettysburg, where he began 
the attack ; Wolf's Hill, and Round Top, and the 
pursuit of the enemy to Warrenton. He was 
conspicuous at Culpeper and in driving the Con- 
federates across the Rapidan, when he was 
obliged to cut his way in order to rejoin the 



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BULKELEY. 



army, which was on the north side of the Rappa- 
hannock. In 1868 he was assigned to the 
command of the cavalry of the army of the Cum- 
berland, and was commissioned major-general of 
volunteers, the commission being placed in his 
hands a few minutes before his death, which 
occurred at Washington, D. C, Deo. 16, 1868. 

BUFORD, Napoleon Bonaparte, soldier, was 
bom in Woodford county, Ky., Jan. 18, 1807. 
He was graduated from West Point in 1827, 
studied law at Harvard by permission of the gov- 
ernment, was assistant professor of natural and 
experimental philosophy at West Point, 1834-'85, 
and resigned from the army in 1835. He was 
employed by the state of Kentucky as civil engi- 
neer; engaged in the iron business, and became a 
banker and railroad president in Illinois. He 
entered the Union army in 1861 as colonel of the 
27th Illinois volunteers; was present at the en- 
gagement at Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861 ; occupied 
Columbus, Ky., in March, 1862; took Union city, 
was in command of the garrison at Island 10 
after that fort was captured, and was present at 
Fort Pillow, April, 1862. April 15, 1862, he was 
promoted brigadier - general, was present at the 
siege of Corinth, September, 1862; the battle of 
Corinth, October 8 and 4, 1862; the siege of 
Vicksburg, 1868; was stationed in command at 
Cairo, III., from March to September, 1868, and 
from Sept. 12, 1868 to March 9, 1865, at Helena, 
Ark. He was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers, March 13, 1865, and was mustered out of 
the volunteer service the following August. He 
served as special U. S. Indian commissioner in 
1868, having been appointed in 1867 by the gov- 
ernment to inspect the Union Pacific railroad, 
and served until the road was completed in 1869. 
He died March 28, 1888. 

BUIST, Henry, lawyer, was born at Charles- 
ton, S. C, Dec. 25, 1829, son of George Buist, a 
member of the Charleston bar and judge of the 
probate court, and grandson of Rev. Ceorge 
Buist, D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian divine. 
He was graduated from South Carolina college 
and was admitted to the bar. He practised his 
profession at Charleston in association with 
Charles Macbeth ; and on the decease of his part- 
ner took his brother, Hon. G. Buist, into partner- 
ship. Mr. Buist was a member of both the upper 
and lower houses of the state legislature for 
several terms, and served in the Confederate army 
during the civil war as captain in the 27th S. C. 
infantry, being taken prisoner at Petersburg, Va., 
and held for many months. He died June 9, 1887. 
BULFINCH, Charles, architect, was bom, prob- 
ably near Boston, Mass., Aug. 8, 1768, son of 
Thomas Bulfinch, a physician, who in that year 
conducted a smaU-pox hospital in that city. After 
his graduation from Harvard college in 1781, 



he went abroad, and becoming interested in archi- 
tecture, he decided to give his time entirely to 
that work. In 1786 he returned to the United 
States and settled in Boston, where he became a 
successful and widely known architect. He de- 
signed the principal buildings of the city of Boston, 
including the state-house, the dty hall, Faneuii 




^^\..r.J^U^^^ 



hall and many theatres and churches. In 1817 he 
went to Washington, where he drew the plans and 
superintended the construction of the national 
capitol, being engaged upon that work for thirteen 
years. He returned to Boston in 1880, and died 
there April 15, 1844. 

BULFINCH, Stephen Qreenleaf, clergyman, 
was bom in Boston, Mass., June 18, 1809, son of 
Charles Bulfinch, architect. He was graduated * 
from Colimibian college, Washington, in 1826, 
and later from the divinity school at Cambridge, 
Mass. He was ordained to the Unitarian minis- 
try, and in 1830 settled over a parish in Augusta, 
Ga., where he preached for seven years. He 
afterwards removed to Pittsburg, Pa., and in 
1839 to Washington. D. C. , remaining there until 
1845, when he took charge of a church at Nashua, 
N. H., removing to Boston in 1852. He wrote 
numerous religious poems and published Con- 
templations of the Saviour (1832) ; Poems 
(1834) ; The Holy Laiid and its Inliahitanta 
(1834) ; Lays of the Qosiyel (1835) ; Com- 
munion Thoughts (1852) ; The Harp and the 
Cross (1857) ; Honor ^ or the Slave-Dealer's 
Daughter (1864) ; Manual of the Evidences of 
ChiHstianity (1866) ; and Studies in the Evi- 
dences of Christianity (1869). He died in 
Cambridge. Mass., Oct. 12, 1870. 

BULKELEY, Morgan Qardlaer, governor of 
Connecticut, was born at East Haddam, Conn., 
Dec. 26, 1838, son of Eliphalet Adams Bulkeley, 
lawyer and first president of the ^tna life in- 
surance company of Hartford. His direct ances- 
tor, the Rev. Peter Bulkeley, emigrated from 
England in 1634. Another ancestor, the Rev. 
Gershom Bulkeley, was a noted historian. In 
1846 his family removed to Hartford, Conn., where 
he received a high-school education, and in 1853 



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BULKELEY. 



BULKLEY. 



entered commercial life as a clerk in his uncle's 
store in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he was made a 
partner in 1859. Upon the outbreak of the civil 
war he entered the Union army, enlisting as a 
private in the 13th N. Y. regiment, and serving 
through the peninsular campaign under Generals 
Mansfield and Weber. In 1872 upon his father's 
death he removed to Hartford to care for his 
estate, and at once took a prominent part in 
business, political and financial affairs. He or- 
ganized the United States bank of Hartford, of 
wliich he was elected the first president. In 1879 
he resigned to accept the office of president of the 
^tna life insurance company. He was also 
actively connected with other leading financial 
institutions of this city and state, including the 
^tna fire insurance company, the Willi mantic 
linen company, and the ^Etna national bank of 
Hartford. In 1875 he was elected a councilman ; 
in 1876, an alderman; and in 1880 and for the 
four succeeding terms, mayor of Hartford. He 
was elected governor of Connecticut on the Re- 
publican ticket in 1888, and as no candidate for 
election in 1890 received a constitutional major- 
ity of the votes cast, he held the office another 
term as governor de jure. A legislative dead- 
lock followed, and but for the liberal use of his 
own funds in providing for the wants of the 
charitable institutions of the state, much suffer- 
ing would have resulted. The matter was 
carried to the supreme court of the state and he 
was fully sustained in his action, the court 
declaring him to be governor de facto as well as 
dejure. In 1891 he received in legislative caucus 
thirty- five votes as United States senator, Joseph 
R. Hawley being the choice of the party. 

BULKELEY, Peter^ clergyman, was born at 
Odell, Bedfordshire, England, Jan. 81, 1583. He 
was educated at the University of Cambridge, 
and admitted to the priesthood. He suc- 
ceeded to his father's living in his native town, 
which he held for more than twenty years. 
Being accused of nonconformity by Archbishop 
Laud, he was obliged to leave the place, and 
in 1635 came to America, and settled at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. Some years later he removed 
to the place where Concord now stands, and 
founded a town. The nucleus of the library at 
Harvard college was his private collection of 
books. He is the author of The Gospel Cov- 
enant ; or the Covenant of Grace Opened (1646), 
and of several Latin verses. He died at Con- 
cord, Mass., March 9, 1659. 

BULKELEY, William Henry, statesman, was 
born at East Haddam, Conn., March 2. 1840 ; son 
of Eliphalet A. Bulkeley, and a direct descendant 
of the Rev. Peter Bulkeley, founder of Concord, 
Mass. He received a public-school education 
and learned tlie dry goods business in Brooklyn. 



N. Y., from whence, in 1861, he went to the war 
as a private in the 13th regiment, N. Y. S. M., and 
the next year raised a company for the 56th N. Y. 
volunteers, was elected captain, and served in 
General Smith's division until the regiment was 
ordered home during the New York draft riots 
in 1868. He returned to Hartford in 1868, or- 
ganized and became president of the Kellogg 
and Bulkeley company, lithographers; was a 
member of the common council of Hartford five 
years, and vice-president and president one year 
each. He was conmiissary-general of Connecti- 
cut from 1879 to 1881, lieutenant-governor from 

1881 to 1883, and state commissioner to the York- 
town celebration in 1881. He was the Republican 
candidate for governor in 1882, being defeated 
by Thomas M. Waller. At this election he de- 
clined to take advantage of eight thousand black 
ballots, which would have made him governor, 
the courts declaring them illegal. The general 
assembly by joint resolution validated the black 
ballots before declaring Mr. Waller elected gov- 
ernor. He then removed to South Dakota^ 
where he founded Forest City, Potter county. 
He was president of the Forest City and Sioux 
City railroad, and of the Forest City land and 
improvement company. 

BULKLEY, Charles Henry Au^stus, edu- 
cator, was born in Charleston, S. C, Dec. 22, 
1818, son of Ashbel and Ann Eliza (Fanning) 
Bulkley. He was graduated from the University 
of the city of New York in 1839, and from Union 
theological seminary in 1842. In 1842 he was 
home missionary at New Brunswick, N. J., and 
from 1844 to 1846 at Janesville, Wis. From 1848 
to 1882 he preached successively at Malone, 
N. Y., Mt. Morris, N. Y., Ithaca, N. Y., and Port 
Henry, N. Y. During the civil war he served first 
as chaplain of the 70th N. Y. regiment, Sickles's 
brigade, and later as aide-de-camp and assistant 
adjutant-general in McClellan's campaign in the 
peninsula. In 1882 he was a professor in Dr. 
Cullis's training college, Boston, Mass., and from 

1882 to 1891 held a chair in Howard university. 
He received the degree of A.M. in 1842 from the 
University of the city of New York, and that of 
D.D. from Howard university in 1881. He com- 
piled two volumes : Plato's Best Thoughts and 
D'Aubigiids Martyrs of the Reformation. He 
died in Washington, D. C. in 1892. 

BULKLEY, Heory Daggett, physician, was 
born at New Haven, Conn., April 20, 1803, He 
was graduated from Yale in 1821, and after 
spending a few years in business life in New 
York city he adopted the medical profession, 
having been made an M.D. in 1830. He spent 
two years in study in Europe. In his practice 
he made a specialty of diseases of the skin, and 
founded the first dispensary for skin diseases in 



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BULL. 



BULL. 



New York city. He was a prominent member 
of many of the principal medical societies of this 
country, including the New York academy of 
medicine, and the New York county medical 
society. He edited Manual of Diseases of the 
Skin, by Cazenave and Schedel (American edi- 
tion, (1846), and Eruptive Fevers, by Gregory 
(1851). For the last twenty years of his life 
he was attending physician of the New York 
hospital. He died in New York city, Jan. 4, 1872. 

BULL, Heary, colonial governor, was born 
in Wales in 1610, arrived in Boston June 4, 
1635, and took up his residence in Roxbury. In 
May, 1637, he was made a freeman. He espoused 
the cause of Mrs. Hutchinson in the Antinomian 
disputes, and was sentenced to banishment from 
the colony. Before this sentence had been 
passed he, with John Clark, William Coddinglon 
and others, sailed from Boston, and chose a new 
home on the Island of Aquidneck, in Narragan- 
sett Bay. In June, 1638, he was chosen a cor- 
poral of a newly formed militia company, and 
soon after was elected sergeant. He was also 
one of the seven ** Elders," who, on April 28, 
1639, agreed to propagate a plantation in the 
midst of the island, or elsewhere. This planta- 
tion became Newport. He was elected governor 
in May, 1685, serving one year. During the 
regime of Sir Edmund Andros, the general as- 
sembly convened, Feb. 26, 1690, for the first 
time in four years. Governoi*s Walter Clark and 
Christopher Almy were sent for, but each 
refused to serve. Henry Bull, then more than 
eighty years old, was elected and served from 
Feb. 27 to May 7, 1690, declining re-election. He 
died in Rhode Island in 1694. 

BULL, Melville, representative, was born at 
Newport, R. I., in 1854; prepared for college at 
Phillips academy, Exeter, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1^77, and then engaged in farming at 
Middletown, R. I. He was representative to the 
state legislature, 1883-'85 ; state senator, 1885-'92 ; 
lieutenant-governor, 1892-'94; and member of the 
Republican state central committee from 1885. 
He was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention in 1888, and while in the legislature 
took an active interest in establishing the naval re- 
serve militia of the state, and served on the board 
of management of the Rhode Island college of 
agriculture and mechanic arts, and experimental 
station from its establishment in 1888. In 1892 
he was the Republican candidate for representa- 
tive from the first district of Rhode Island to the 
53d Congress, and received a plurality of 640 votes, 
but not a majority, as was necessary for election 
in Rhode Island. In 1894 he was elected to the 
54th Congress by a plurality of 2,863 votes, and 
was re-elected to the 55th, 56th and 57th con- 
gresses, 1895-1903. 




BULL, Ole Bornemann, violinist, was bom 
in Bergen, Norway, Feb. 5, 1810. Both of his 
parents were musical, and he had among liis 
many relatives a number of musicians and poets. 
From his earliest infancy he had an ear for 
nature's music — the songs of the fiowers and 
trees, the winds, 
rivers, lakes and 
mountains — and he 
always thought of 
this music as some- 
thing that might be 
reproduced. At 
home -concerts given 
at his father's house 
he became familiar 
with the best music, 
and absorbed all un- 
consciously the rules 
of the musician's 
art. Without any 
ins t r u c t ion what- 
ever he could play 
the violin at five years of age, at seven took 
his place in a quartette of trained musicians, 
and at nine played first violin in a theatre 
orchestra. He was sent to school, as it was his 
father's intention to fit him for the ministry. 
In 1828 he went to Christiania to take his en- 
trance examinations at the university. The 
afternoon and evening preceding examination 
day were spent in playing at a concert and at a 
private musical, and as a result lie failed to pass 
his examinations. His playing, however, secured 
for him the position of director of the ** Phil- 
harmonic and Dramatic Societies " of the town, 
and he at once entered upon the very congenial 
duties of his new office, spending his leisure in 
musical studies. In 1830 he returned to Bergen, 
where, by three concerts, he earned five hun- 
dred dollars, with which he went to Paris to 
gratify his long-cherished desire of hearing 
DeBeriot. Balliot and Berlioz. At Paris he was 
robbed of his money, and through the assist- 
ance of Vidocq, the famous detective, he won 
eight hundred francs in a gambling establish- 
ment. This money was soon spent, and he was 
in need and despair, when he met Madame 
Villeminot, an elderly lady, whose grand- 
daughter he afterwards married, who took him 
into her home and nursed him through an 
attack of brain fever. Before he had fully 
recovered from this illness his admirers in Chris- 
tiania, hearing of his misfortimes, sent him 
three thousand francs. His wonderful playing 
at a soirde, given by the Duke of Riario, led to 
many concert engagements, which brought him 
both fame and money. He heard Paganini, 
though it was several years afterward that his 



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great friendship with that maestro began, and 
he became acquainted with Chopin, with whom 
he gave a number of concerts. He travelled 
through France, Switzerland and Italy on a con- 
cert tour, studying as he went the native music 
of each country, in order to give true expression 
to the varied melodies of the south. While in 
Bologna his playing was heard, accidentally, by 
Rossini's wife, the celebrated Ck>lbran, and 
through her he secured the opportimity of play- 
ing before a large audience which had assembled 
to hear Malibran and DeBeriot. Ole Bull on this 
occasion so threw his soul into his violin that it 
responded as it had never before done, and from 
that moment his fortune was made, his fame 
assured. He was accompanied to his home by a 
torchlight procession, his carriage being drawn 
by the populace: he was engaged for concert 
after concert, benefits were given in his behalf, 
theatres and orchestras were put at his disposal, 
and kings, dukes and princes delighted to do him 
honor. Soon afterward, upon his return to Paris, 
the doors of the Grand Opera were open to receive 
him, and he gave several concerts there with 
great success. Some of his most beautiful com- 
positions were evolved at this time; among 
others, his famous Concerto in A Major, his 
Quarteito a violino Solo, his Polacca Guer- 
riera, and his Adagio Bdigioso. In 1836 he 
made his first tour through England, playing in 
concerts with Rubini, Tamburini, Lablache, and 
Mile. Assandri, and winning enthusiastic plau- 
dits on every hand. The English tour was fol- 
lowed by one through Germany, and the music- 
loving Germans made this tour one prolonged 
ovation. He continued his travels, giving con- 
certs in Russia, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Hol- 
land, Denmark, Austria and Hungary, and taking 
the people's hearts by storm wherever he played. 
His visit to his native Norway, after an absence 
of seven years, was an occasion of great delight 
to him and to his admiring countrymen, and he 
played the grand and simple Norwegian melodies 
in such an electrifying way that the people 
awoke to a realization of the incomparable beauty 
of their own folk-songs and dances. Preceded by 
his fame he came to America in 1848, and, mak- 
ing an extended tour through the United States, 
Canada and the West Indies, he was everywhere 
received with the same wild enthusiasm which 
had greeted him in Europe. This was followed 
by another European tour, which was a triumph 
from beginning to end, and he amassed a fortune. 
He was a zealous patriot and his efforts in behalf 
of his countrymen were untiring. In 1862 he 
came to America and purchased one hundred 
and twenty -five thousand acres of land on the 
Susquehanna, in Potter county, Pa. , for the pur- 
pose of establishing a *' New Norway consecrated 



to liberty and protected by the Union's mighty 
flag.'* On this land he erected three hundred 
cottages, a church, an inn, a store, and, incident- 
ally, a palace for himself on an eminence over- 
looking the cottages. After sinking a fortune in 
the experiment, he found that he had been swin- 
dled by his agent and that his title to the land 
was defective. Then followed a period of hard- 
ship, struggle, persecution lUid illness; and but 
for the sympathy and assistance of a host of influ- 
ential friends, he would have succimibed under 
the fearful strain. After a time he returned to 
Bergen ; some of his former friends and neighbors 
believed him to be at fault for the failure of his 
colonization scheme, and to this grief was added 
that caused by the death of his wife. A four 
years' tour through Europe mended his shattered 
fortunes, and in 1867-'69 he again visited the 
United States, giving a series of concerts in the 
west and northwest where his countrymen were 
settled. While in Wisconsin, in 1868, he met 
Sara C. Thorpe, to whom he was married in the 
following year. In his later years his winters 
were spent in America and his summers in Nor- 
way. When his death occurred in Bergen the 
world's flags were hung at half mast, and the 
simple Norwegian peasants came by the hun- 
dreds, each bearing a green bough, a fern, or a 
flower to cast into the grave of their ever true 
and loyal friend. Of his compositions, which 
were legion, he would permit only three to be 
published: Variazioni di Bravura^ La Pre- 
ghiera d'una Madre (Adagio Religioso), and 
// Nottumo. See Ole Btill: A Memoir by his 
wife. Sara C, Bull (1883). He died at Bergen, 
Norway, Aug. 18, 1880. 

BULL, Richard Harrison, educator, was bom 
in New York city, Sept. 28, 1817, son of Ben- 
jamin and Eliza (Wade) Bull. He was graduated 
from the University of the city of New York 
in 1839. He studied at the Union theological 
seminary, 1839-'48; was secretary and actuary of 
the Eagle life insurance company, 1847-'48, pro- 
fessor of civil engineering in his alma mater, 1858 
-'85, and professor emeritus 1885-'92. He was 
secretary and president of the New York savings 
bank, 1859-*83. He was associated with Professor 
Morse in the experiments that led to his first elec- 
tric telegraph. He obtained the correct time for 
the use of the New York Central, the Erie and 
other railroads by taking observations of the sun, 
and his time was used imtil the Western Union's 
time ball was erected. He was married March 2, 
1847, to Mary Ann Schonten, and their three 
sons, Richard Henry, Charles C, and J. Edgar, 
were graduates of the University of the city of 
New York. His alma mater conferred on him the 
degree of A.M. in 1842. and Ph.D. in 1885. He 
died in New York city, Feb. 1, 1892. 



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BULL. 



BULLITT. 



BULL, William Tillinsha^t, surgeon, was bom 
at Newport, R. I., May 18, 1849, son of Henry 
Bull, seventh in descent from Henry Bull, gover- 
nor of Rhode Island, a friend of and co-settler 
with Roger Williams in the purchase of ** Aquid- 
neck." He was graduated at Harvard in 1869, 
And at the College of physicians and surgeons. 
New York in 1872. He studied also with Dr. 
Sands; went by merit into Bellevue hospital for 
« year or more, and then to Europe for two 
years' study. In 1875 he began practice in New 
York city. For two years he was in charge of the 
New York dispensary, and from 1877 to 1888, 
of the Chambers street hospital. He was for 
four years attending surgeon, and then consult- 
ing surgeon of St. Luke's hospital. By a success- 
ful laparotomy he helped to revolutionize the 
treatment of gunshot wounds of the abdomen, 
which were formerly fatal in most cases. As 
consulting surgeon to the Manhattan hospital; to 
the OrthopaBdic hospital and dispensary ; surgeon- 
in-charge of the hospital for ruptured and crippled, 
and professor of surgery in the medical depart- 
ment of Columbia college, he won a wide reputa- 
tion for skill and readiness in emergency. 

BULLA RD» Asa, clergyman, was born at 
^orthbridge, Mass. , March 26, 1804, son of Dr. Arte- 
mas and Lucy (White) BuUard. He was gradu- 
ated from Amherst college in 1828, and from the 
theological seminary at Andover in 1831. He was 
ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1832, 
and was made secretary of the Massachusetts 
Sabbath school society in 1 834. This office he held 
for more than forty years, when he was made 
honorary secretary. Amherst made him A.M. in 
1853. He edited the Sabbath School Visitor, 1834- 
'44, and in 1844-'88 The Well-Spring. He pub- 
lislied Sunnybank Stories (1863): Children's 
Album of Pictures and Stories (1867) ; Chil- 
dreus Book for Sabbath Hours (1875) ; Fifty 
Years with the Sabbath Schools (1876), and In- 
eidents in a Busy Life : An Autobiography (1888). 
He died at Sunnybank^ Cambridgeport, Mass., 
April 5, 1888. 

BULLA RD, Henry Adams* jurist, was bom 
in Groton, Mass., Sept. 9, 1781. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1807, studied for the bar in 
Boston and Philadelphia, and while in the latter 
city met General Toledo who was organizing an 
■expedition to revolutionize New Mexico. Bul- 
lard's knowledge of the Spanish language 
-secured for him the position of secretary and aide 
to General Toledo, and as such he accompanied 
the expedition. After its disastrous failure, he 
-established himself in the profession of law at 
Nachitoches, La. In 1822 he was appointed judge 
of the district court of Louisiana, in 1830 was 
elected a representative to the 22d Congress, 
^oid was re-elected in 1882 to the 23d Congress. 



In 1834 he was made judge of the supreme court 
of Louisiana, an office which he held until 1846, 
with an interregnimi in 1839, when he served as 
secretary of state for Louisiana. In 1847 he was 
chosen professor of civil law in the law school of 
Louisiana. He was elected a representative to 
the 81st <Z)ongress in 1850 to fill an unexpired 
term, and served one session. He died in New 
Orleans, La., AprU 17, 1851. 

BULLIONS, Peter, clergyman, was bom at 
Moss Side, Scotland, in December, 1791. When 
he was nineteen years old he began a three 
years* course at the University of Edinburgh, and 
after studying theology he came to America in 
1817, and settled in Argyle, N. Y., where for six 
years he was pastor of a Presbyterian church. 
From 1824 to 1848 he taught languages in the 
Albany academy, and served from 1832 to the 
time of his death as a pastor of the United Pres- 
byterian congregation at Troy, N. Y. He 
published Life of Alexander Bullions ; Princi- 
ples of English Orammar (1834) ; Principles 
of Greek Orammar (1840) ; Analytical and 
Practical English Grammar (1850) ; Principles 
of Latin Orammar (1853) ; Latin Exercises 
(1855), and Latin and English Dictionary 
(1862). He died at Troy, N. Y., Feb. 13, 
1864. 

BULLITT, Alexander Scott, statesman, was 
born in Prince William county, Va., in 1761. In 
1784 he emigrated to Kentucky, then a part of 
Virginia, and settled in what became Shelby 
county; but owing to the annoyances by the 
Indians, he sought a safer home, which he found 
in Jefferson coimty. In 1792 he was elected 
delegate to the convention which met in Danville 
to frame the constitution of Kentucky. In 1799 
he was president of the state senate. The year 
following he was made lieutenant-governor of 
the state and served in public office until 1808. 
He died April 13, 1816. 

BULLITT, John Christian, lawyer, was bom 
in Jefferson county, Ky., Feb. 10, 1824; son of 
William C. and Mildred Bullitt, of the old Ken- 
tucky family to which Thomas and Alex. S. 
Bullitt belonged. He was educated at Centre 
college, Ky., where he was graduated in 1842. 
He then studied law, and settled in Louisville, 
where he built up a large practice. He went to 
Philadelphia in 1849 to take charge of such assets 
of the broken Schuylkill bank as belonged to the 
bank of Kentucky. He was a Whig in politics, 
and took an active part in the discussions of the 
political questions of the day. His opinion on the 
privilege of the writ of habeas corpus under the 
constitution, in answer to Horace Binney, was 
acknowledged to be a masterpiece of logic. He 
extricated the Philadelphia & Reading railroad 
company from its legal complications at the time 



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BULLOCH. 



BULLOCK. 



of the Jay Cooke failure ; secured the reversal 
of the decree against Gen. Fitz John Porter, and 
was one of the leading counsel in the great 
Whi taker will case. He was chiefly instrumental 
in the creation and adoption of the new city 
charter for Philadelphia, and in 1882 prepared 
the Bullitt bill, which was adopted by the Penn- 
sylvania legislature, and which provided for bet- 
ter government of cities of the first class. He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 25, 1902. 

BULLOCH, Archibald, delegate, was bom in 
Charles Town, S.C., in 1730 ; son of the Rev. James 
and Jean (Stabo) Bulloch. He married Mary, 
daughter of Judge De Veaux. He practised law in 
G^rgia, where, in 1760, he was appointed to 
correspond with Benjamin Franklin on the 
affairs of the province. On April 21, 1772, he 
was elected speaker of the commons, and, on July 
7, 1775, was chosen a member of the 1st pro- 
vincial congress and elected its speaker. He 
was re-elected to the 2d congress and again 
served as speaker. This body sent him as a dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress assembled in 
Philadelphia. Had not important affairs called 
him home he would have been present July 4, 
1776, and affixed his signature to the Declara- 
tion of Independence. He was, however, a 
signer at the secret congress of Nov. 9. 1775, and » 
was the first man to read the Declaration to 
the people in Oeorgia. He was made presi- 
dent and commander-in-chief of Georgia on 
April 15, 1776. Bulloch county was named for 
hun. He died in Savannah, Ga., Feb. 22, 1777. 

BULLOCH, William Bellinger, senator, was 
bom at Savannah, Ga., in 1776; son of Archibald 
Bulloch, first president of Georgia. He was 
given an excellent classical education, and 
practised law in his native city. In 1809 he was 
chosen mayor of Savannah, and afterwards held ' 
the office of collector of customs at that port. 
He served as captain of heavy artillery in the 
war of 1812. In 1813 was appointed by the gov- 
ernor to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of William H. Crawford from the United 
States senate, serving from May to December, 
1813. He was one of the founders of the United 
States branch bank in Georgia, and was elected 
its president in 1816, retaining the position 
twenty-seven years. He also held the offices of 
United States district attorney, attorney -general 
of Georgia, and vice-president of the Georgia 
historical society. He died March 6, 1852. 

BULLOCK, Aiexaader Hamilton, governor 
of Massachusetts, was bom in Royalston, Mass., 
March 2, 1816 ; son of Rufus and Sarah (Davis) 
Bullock. He was prepared for college at Leices- 
ter academy, and was graduated at Amherst in 
1836, standing second in his class. He taught 
school for a time, and then entered Harvard law 



school, where he was graduated in 1840. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1841, and began practice in 
Worcester. In 1842 he served as aide on the staff 
of Gov. John Davis. In March, 1842, he became 
editor of the National j^giSy a weekly Whig 
newspaper. He also edited a campaign paper, 
called Old Masaachusetta, during the presidential 
canvass of 1844, and a similar paper, called the 
True Whig, for three months preceding the elec- 
tion of 1848. From 1845 to 1847 he served in the 
Massachusetts house of representatives; was 
elected to the state senate in 1849; in 1853 was 
appointed commissioner of insolvency, and in 1856 
was made judge of the court of insolvency, hold- 
ing the office until 1858, in 1859 being elected 
mayor of Worcester. In 1861-'62-'63-'64^'65 he 
was chosen a member of the state house of repre- 
sentatives, of which he was speaker in 1862. Frona 
1866 to 1869 he was governor of Massachusetts, 
declining a re-election in the latter year. He de- 
clined the position of minister to Great Britain, 
offered by President Hayes, on Dec. 8, 1879. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from Amherst in 1865, 
and from Harvard in 1866. He was a member of 
the Massachusetts historical society and a trustee 
of Amherst college. See Memoir of Alexander 
H, Bullock (1887), by Charles Devens. He died 
in Worcester, Mass., Jan. 17, 1882. 

BULLOCK, Jonathan Russell, jurist, was 
born at Bristol, R. I., Sept. 6, 1815. He wa» 
graduated from Brown university in 1834, and 
was admitted to the bar at Newport in 1836. 
He then opened a law office at Alton, lU. On his 
return to his native city in 1843 he was elected 
to the state legislature, where he served three 
years. In 1849 he was a member of the com- 
mittee to inquire into the validity of the Rhode 
Island revolutionary debt, and was also made 
collector of customs for Bristol and Warren. 
R. I., holding the office five years. In 1859 he 
was chosen a state senator, and the following 
year became lieutenant-governor of Rhode 
Island, retaining the oSice until 1861. He was 
an associate jiistice of the state supreme court 
from 1862 to 1864. and judge of the U. S. district 
court for Rhode Island from 1864 to 1869, retir- 
ing in the latter year, the condition of his health 
forbidding further activity. He is the author 
of Report of Commissioner to Adjust Claims of 
Rhode Island against the United States ^ Jan, 186 J 
(1863) , and Life and Times of Stnkeley IVestcote, 
with some of his Descendants (1886). He died 
in Bristol, R.I., May 7, 1899. 

BULLOCK, Robert, representative, was bom 
in Greenville, N. C, Dec. 8. 1828. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools, removed to 
Florida, and on reaching his majority was 
elected clerk of the circuit court, which office^ 
he held six years. He was commissioned 



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BULLOCK. 



BUMP. 



captain by the govemor, raised a company of 
mounted volunteers to suppress Indian hostili- 
ties ; was mustered into the United States service 
in 1856, and served eighteen months, until peace 
was restored. He was admitted to the bar in 
1859. In 1862 he entered the Ck>nfederate army 
as lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Florida volun- 
teer regiment, was severely wounded at Murf rees- 
boro, Tenn., was promoted brigadier-general in 
1864, and remained in the service until the sur- 
render. He was appointed judge of county 
criminal courts by the governor, was elected 
judge of probate during the state reconstruction, 
and in 1873 was Democratic caucus nominee for 
U. S. senator, being defeated in the election by 
one vote, when he withdrew in favor of Charles 
W. Jones, who was elected senator. He was a 
Tilden elector in 1876, and in 1888 was elected a 
representative to the 51st Congress, and in 1890 
was re-elected, serving through the 52d Con- 
gress, when he withdrew from public life. 

BULLOCK, Rufus Brown, governor of 
Greorgia, was born at Bethlehem, Albany county, 
N. Y., March 28, 1834. He was graduated at 
Albion academy in 1850, entered the service of 
the House printing telegraph company, and was 
the first operator to interpret the printing sig- 
nals by sound. He was then employed in super- 
intending the building of new lines from New 
York south, and was largely responsible for the 
success of an opposition to the original New 
York & Washington company. Adams express 
company then secured his services and sent him, 
in 1857, to organize its business in the southern 
Atlantic state, with headquarters at Augusta, 
Ga., where he formed the Southern express 
company. During the civil war he established rail- 
roads and telegraph lines on interior routes for 
the use of the Confederate army, and at its close 
was acting assistant quartermaster-general, and 
surrendered with Lee's army at Appomat- 
tox. He then resinned his management of the 
Southern express company as its secretary, 
aided to organize the first national bank in 
Augusta, and became president of the Macon 
and Augusta railroad in 1867. As a member of 
the constitutional convention of 1867 and *68 he 
was recognized as a Republican leader, and was 
elected by the people the first governor of Georgia 
under the reconstruction act, after a sharp con- 
test. The Democrats obtained a legislative 
majority, and expelled thirty -three colored mem- 
bers. Bullock was then empowered by Congress 
to restore the expelled negro members. After a 
bitter factional fight this was accomplished. He 
resigned the office in November, 1870. He was 
charged with corruption, tried, and acquitted in 
the state court. Under his administration more 
than six hundred miles of railroad tracks were 



laid in the state, and the value of property was 
increased by over fifty million dollars on the tax 
returns. Upon retiring from political life he 
became president of a large cotton-mill at At- 
lanta, was elected a trustee of the Atlanta uni- 
versity, president of the chamber of conmierce, 
vice-president of the cotton states exposition, 
government director of the Union Pacific rail- 
road, and was one of the foremost directors of 
material afi'airs in the state. 

BULLUS, Oscar, naval officer, was bom in 
1800. He was appointed a cadet at West Point 
when quite young, but did not finish his course 
there, resigning to enter the United States navy. 
He was appointed midshipman, Jan. 1, 1817, and 
served first in the Pacific squadron under Cap- 
tain Biddle, and later in the Mediterranean 
squadron imder Conamodore Elliot. In 1821 he 
was seriously disabled by a fall from the rigging. 
He was promoted lieutenant, March 3, 1827, and 
commanded the Franklin, the St. Louis, the 
Constitution, the Boxer and other vessels. He 
was promoted commander. May 16, 1H48, and was 
assigned to duty on the great lakes. His fall in 
1821, although it had not affected him immedi- 
ately, rendered it necessary that he should be 
plac^ on the reserved list, Sept. 13, 1855. He 
was promoted captain, July 11, 1861, and com- 
modore, April 4, 1867. He died in New York city, 
Sept. 29, 1871. 

BULWBR, William Henry Lytton Earle, 
baron. (See Clayton, John M.) 

BUMP, Orlando Franklin, author, was bom at 
Afton, N. Y., Feb. 28, 1841, and was graduated at 
Yale in 1863. His father having moved to Balti- 
more, Md., he joined him after his graduation, and 
was admitted to the bar Sept. 14, 1865, and ap- 
pointed register in bankruptcy June 1, 1867. He 
was a Republican campaign orator and worker. 
He received the diegree of A.M. from Yale college 
in 1876. In 1868 he published the ** Iaw and 
Practice of Bankruptcy," which became sttmd- 
ard authority, ten editions being exhausted before 
the laws were repealed in 1877. His other works 
include : Annotated Bankrupt Law (1868) ; 
United States Stamp Duties (1870) ; Annotated 
Internal Revenue Laws (1870) ; Kerr on Fraud 
and Mistake (1871) ; Fraudulent Conveyances 
(1872, 3d edition, revised, 1882) ; Patents, 
Trade Marks and Copyrights (1877, new ed., 
1884) ; Composition in Bankruptcy (1877) ; 
Notes of Constitutional Decisions (1878) ; Fed- 
eral Procedure (1881). He was also connected 
editorially with the Baltimore American from 
1866 to 1869, and edited the National Bank- 
ruptcy Register from 1874 to 1876. In 1872 he 
was employed to assist in the preparation of the 
Revised Statutes of the United States. He died 
Jan. 29, 1881. 



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BUMSTEAD, 



BUNCE. 



BUMSTEAD, Freemaa Jo8iah» physician, 
was bom in Boston, Mass., April 21, 1826. He 
was graduated from Williams college in the class 
of 1847, and for two years taught a young ladies* 
school at Roxbury, Mass. In 1851 he took the 
degree of M.D. from Harvard medical college. 
In the fall of 1852 he established himself in New 
York city ; for sometime as surgeon to St. Luke's 
hospital, and later as surgeon to the New York 
eye and ear infirmary, and the Charity hospital 
of Blackwell's Island. In 1866-'67 he was lec- 
turer on materia medica at the Ck>llege of phy- 
sicians and surgeons, New York, and from 1867 
to 1871 he occupied a chair in the same institu- 
tion. In 1867 Ck>l\mibia college conferred upon 
him the degree of M.D., and in 1879 that of LL.D. 
In 1879 he was elected vice-president of the 
Torrey botanical club. His published works are 
a translation of Ricorcfs Notes to Hunter on 
Venereal Diseases (1854) ; Tlie Pathology and 
Treatment of Venereal Diseases (1861), and a 
ti*anslation of Cullerier's Iconographie des Mai- 
ndies Ven. (1867). He died in New York city, 
Nov. 28, 1879. 

BUMSTEAD, Horace, educator, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 29, 1841. He was educated 
in the public schools of Boston, and was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1863. After several months' 
instruction in military science with the Massa- 
chusetts rifie club of Boston, he passed the XJ. S. 

examining board 
at Washington, 
was commissioned 
major of the 43d 
U. S. colored troops 
in April, 1864, and 
served as command- 
ing officer of his 
: regiment in the 
siege of Petersburg. 
; His regiment was 
ordered to Texas 
after the surrender 
of Lee, and was 
miistered out of the 
service in Decem- 
^^^ ber, 1865. He en- 

J^...^(Muu.£A:3C^ tered Andovertheo- 
^ ^"^ logical seminary in 

1866, and was graduated in 1870. He then spent 
a year in European travel and in study as a 
matriculate of the University of Tubingen. He 
was ordained i)astor of the Second Congrega- 
tional church, Minneapolis, Minn., in 1872, and 
preached there until 1875, when he was ap- 
pointed professor of natural science in Atlanta 
university. In 1880 he was transferred to the 
chair of Latin, and became treasurer of the cor- 
poration. In 1886 he became acting president. 




and in 1888 was elected president of the uni- 
versity. He received the degree of D.D. from 
the University of the city of New York in 1881, 
and was a regular contributor to the Bibliotheca 
Sacra and the Andover Beview, 

BUNCE, Francis flarvln, naval officer, was 
bom in Hartford, Ck)nn,, Dec. 25, 1836. He was 
graduated at Annapolis in 1857 and until 1860 was 
midshipman on board the Chtrmantotmi, East 
India squadron. He was promoted passed mid- 
shipman, June 25, 1860 ; master, Oct. 24, 1860 ; 
and lieutenant, April 11, 1861. As executive offi- 
cer of the Penobscot he took part in the engage- 
ment at Yorktown, Va., and in 1862 was active 
at Forts Fisher and Caswell. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-commander, Jan. 16, 1863, and 
removed obstructions from the Stono river, S.C., 
to Morris Island. As aid to General Gillmore he 
had charge of the embarkation and transporta- 
tion of General Strong's five regiments through 
the channels to Morris Island, and on July 10, 

1863, commanded the naval part of the attack 
which resulted in the capture of Morris Island and 
Fort Wagner. He was on the monitor Patapsco 
during the siege of Charleston ; also in a night 
attack on Fort Sumter. He was wounded in 
November, 1883, and in January, 1864, was placed 
on the staff of Admiral Dahlgren. On April 6, 

1864, he was ordered to command the Lehigh of 
the South Atlantic blockading squadron. In 1865 
he commanded the monitor Monadriocfc, taking her 
from Philadelphia to San Francisco, Cal., the first 
extended sea voyage ever made by a monitor. 
For this service he received the thanks of the 
navy department. He was commissioned com- 
mander, Nov. 7, 1871, and captain, Jan. 11, 1883. 
He was senior member of the board on timber 
preservation for naval purposes ; commanded the 
Atlanta, June 1, 1886, to Dec. 1, 1889 ; and was 
placed in command of the naval station at New 
London, Conn., Feb. 12, 1890. He was made 
commodore, March 1, 1895 ; rear-admiral, Feb. 6, 
1898, on the retirement of Rear- Admiml Thomas 
O. Self ridge, Jr., and was retired through the 
operation of the law, Dec. 25, 1898, having at- 
tained the age of sixty-two years. He com- 
manded the North Atlantic station on board the 
flagship New York, 1897, taking part in the naval 
manoeuvres of the new armored battle ships, 
cruisers, rams and torpedo boats. During the 
war with Spain he was commandant of the New 
York navy yard. He died in Hartford, Conn., 
Oct. 19. 1901. 

BUNCB, Oliver Bell, author, was bom in New 
York city, Feb. 8, 1828, At a very early age he 
possessed unusual literary talent. His business 
career commenced as a clerk in a stationery 
store, and later he became senior partner in the 
publishing house of Bunce & Brother. Mean- 



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BXTNCE. 



BURBANK. 



while he wrote several plays^ which met with 
fiome success. He withdrew from the publishing 
business to accept the position of literary reader 
for Harper and Brothers, and in 1867 he entered 
the publishing house of D. Apple ton & Ck>., be- 
coming two years later associate editor of Ap- 
pleton's Jaarnal. In 1872 he became editor and 
manager of the magazine. Among his pub- 
lished writings are : The Romance of the Revolu- 
iion (1852) ; A Bachelor's Story (1859) ; Life 
Before Him (1860) ; Bensley (1868) ; Bachelor 
Bluff: his opinions, sentiments, and disputa- 
tions (1881); Don't: A manual of mistakes and 
improprieties more or less prevalent in conduct 
and Speech (1883) ; My House: an ideal (1884) ; 
Fair Words about Fair Women. Gathered from 
the Poets (Compiled 1884), and Timias Terry- 
stone (1885). Among his plays are: Fate or 
the Prophesy, "Marco Bozzaris (1849), and Love 
in *76 (1856). He died in New York city, May 
15, 1890. 

BUNCE, William Qedney^ artist, was bom at 
Hartford, Conn., Sept. 19, 1842. He pursued 
the study of art in New York city, Mupich, 
Dflsseldorf, Brussels, and later opened a studio 
in Paris. His Venice Night was exhibited at 
the Salon in Paris in 1876, and his Venice Morn- 
ing two years later. In 1878 he also exhibited 
La Luna Veneziana at the society of American 
artists in New York, and Approach to Venice 
at the Paris exposition. Upon his return to 
America, after twelve years abroad, he opened 
his studio in New York city. His later works 
include: Watch Hill, Rhode Island (1880); 
Among the Sail, Venice (1882); Bit of Harbor, 
Venice (1883) ; In the Lagoon, San Giorgio 
<1884) ; Venetian Day (1885) ; and Venetian Night 
(1885). 

BUNDY, Jonas Mills, journalist, was bom at 
Colebrook, N. H., April 17, 1835. When he was 
a child his parents removed to Beloit, Wis. From 
Beloit college, where he was graduated in 1853, 
he went to Harvard law school, and was after- 
wards admitted to the bar, but never practised, 
his tastes leading him to adopt journalism for his 
profession. His first experience in newspaper 
work was on the Milwaukee Wisconsin. There 
he speedily created a new department in the 
market reports, which was of gpreat value to the 
journal; but in a short time the civil war broke 
out and be entered the army in the artillery 
service, in which he acted for a time as aide-de- 
camp to (General Pope, and received a major's 
commission. Subsequent to the civil war he 
settled in New York city, and entered the oflSce 
of the Evening Post as literary and musical 
critic. In 1868 he became chief editor of the 
Evening Mail, which was afterwards bought by 
Cyrus W. Field, who retained Major Bundy as 



its chief editor, which i>oeition he held until 
his death. His vigorous attacks on the Tweed 
ring caused his appointment as a member of the 
committee of seventy which exposed the corrup- 
tion of the New York city government. He 
wrote President Gkirfield's biography in 1880. He 
died suddenly at Paris, France, Sept. 8, 1891. 

SUNN, Benjamin H., representative, was bom 
near Rocky Mount, Nash county, N. C, Oct. 19, 
1844. After a limited academic education he en- 
listTed, at the age of sixteen, in the Confederate 
army, and before the close of the war was promoted 
to the command of the 4th company of sharp* 
shooters of McRae's brigade, army of northern 
Virginia. In 1867 he was admitted to the bar, and 
in 1875 was chosen a member of the constitutional 
convention. He was a state representative, 1883 ; 
presidential elector, 1884, and representative in 
the 51st. 52d and 58d congresses, 1889-'95. 

BUNNBR* Henry Cuyler* author, was bom in 

Oswego, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1855. He was educated at 

the public schools, removed to New York city, 

and engaged in journalism as assistant editor 

of Puck, 1877-'80, and as chief editor, 1880-'96. 

He is the author of : A Woman of Honor (1888) ; 

Airs From Arcady and Elsewhere (1884) ; The 

Midge (1886) ; The Story of a Nexo York House 

(1887) ; Zadoc Pine (1891) ; The Runaway Browns 

(1892) ; Made in France (1893) ; Short Sixes 

(1894) ; Jersey Street and Jersey Lane and Love 

in Old Clothes (1896). He died in Nutley, N. J., 

May 11, 1896. 

BURBANK, Sidney, soldier, was bom in Massa- 
chusetts, Sept. 26, 1807. He was graduated from 
West Point in 1829, and served on frontier duty 
until 1832, when he took part in the campaign 
against the Sac Indians. The following two years 
were spent in recruiting service, and in 1836 he 
was appointed assistant instructor of infantry 
tactics at West Point, holding the position for 
three years. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 
1836, and captain in 1839. In 1840 and 1841 he 
was engaged in the Florida war against the Semi- 
noles, then served on frontier duty at various 
posts until 1859, having been promoted major in 
1855. In July, 1859, he was made superintendent 
of the western recruiting service at Newport Bar- 
racks, Ky., and remained there until the civil war. 
In May, 1861, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 
and the following year, colonel. He took part in 
the battle of Chanoellorsville, Va., in the Pennsyl- 
vania campaign, and in the battle of Gettysburg, 
where for meritorious services he was brevetted 
brigadier -general. From 1 866 to 1867 he was presi- 
dent of the examining board of candidates for 
army appointments, and later was superintendent 
of general recruiting service. He was retired 
from active service. May 1, 1870, and died in 
Newport, Ky., Dec. 7, 1883. 



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BURBECK. 



BURDEN. 



BURBECK, Heary* soldier, was bom in Boston, 
Mass., June 8, 1754. He was appointed a lieu- 
tenant in the army at the beginning of the rev- 
olutionary war, was commissioned as captain, 
September, 1777, and served with great credit at 
Brandywine, Germantown, Valley Forge, and 
Monmouth, as well as in subsequent engagements, 
until 1783, when he retired with the rank of major. 
Three years later he again entered the service 
and was engaged under General Wayne in the 
frontier wars against the Indians. In the war of 
1812 he commanded at New York, Newport, and 
New London, was brevetted brigadier -general, and 
was retired in 1815. He died in New London, 
Ck>nn., Oct. 2, 1848. 

BURBRIDQB, Stephen Qano, soldier, was 
bom in Scott county, Ky., Aug. 19, 1831. He 
acquired a classical and military education and 
studied law with Garrett Davis, U. S. senator. 
For several years he engaged in business in Greorge- 
town, D. C, but later removed to a large planta- 
tion in Logan county, Ky. At the outbreak of 
the civil war he recruited the 26th Kentucky regi- 
ment, and was appointed its colonel. At the 
battle of Shiloh he, by his bravery, gained the 
rank of brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers, and 
defended Kentucky against the invasion of Gen- 
eral Bragg in 1862. He commanded the 1st brigade, 
1st division, 13th army corps before Vicksburg, 
and at the capture of Arkansas Post he was the 
leader of the storming party and planted the 
stars and stripes on the Confederate fort by orders 
of General Smithy in acknowledgment of his gal- 
lantry. He also led the capturing forces at Fort 
Gibson. During the Atlanta campaign in 1864 he 
was in command of the military district of Ken- 
tucky, and drove Morgan back into Tennessee. 
For this service, and particularly for the engage- 
ment at Cynthiana, he received the commenda- 
tion of President Lincoln and the brevet rank of 
major-general of volunteers. At the close of the 
war he returned to Kentucky. 

BURCHARD, Samuel Dickerson, clergyman, 
was born at Steuben, N. Y., Sept. 6, 1812. He 
was educated at an academy in his native state, 
and on the removal of his parents to Kentucky in 
1830 he entered Centre college, Danville, and was 
graduated in 1837. His lectures at this time on 
temperance, abolition, and religious questions 
made him widely known throughout his state. 
In 1837, when Kentucky was smitten with an 
epidemic of cholera, he volunteered as a nurse, 
and won much gratitude for his kindly services. 
He was licensed to preach in 1838, and for seven 
years was pastor of the Houston street Presbyte- 
rian church, New York; the church then moved 
to Thirteenth street, and after serving this 
congregation for nearly forty years, he be- 
came pastor of the Murray Hill Presbyterian 



church. Dr. Burchard was the originator of 
the phrase, *' Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion, ''an 
alliteration with which he stigmatized the Demo- 
cratic party near the end of the Blaine-Cleveland 
campaign in 1884, and which was supposed to 
have cost Mr. Blaine the presidency. Dr. Bur- 
chard was chancellor of the Ingham university, 
and president of Rutgers female college. His 
churches were noted (or the amount of support 
which they gave to the various enterprises of the 
Presbyterian church. This feature was especially 
conspicuous in relation to the work of the Presby- 
terian Bible society and the educational enter- 
prises of the denomination, and in furthering tlie 
Sunday-school work of the communion. He died 
at Saratoga, N.Y., Sept. 25, 1891. 

BURCHARD, Thomas Herring, physician, was 
bom in New York city, March 19, 1850, son of 
Samuel D. Burchard, clergyman. He was gradu- 
ated from the College of the city of New York in 
1869, and from the Bellevue hospital medical col- 
lege in 1872. For a year following his graduation 
he remained at Bellevue as demonstrator of anat- 
omy, and in 1873 became house surgeon m Belle- 
vue. From that time until his death he was at 
various periods attending surgeon of the New 
York dispensary, surgeon of tiie 22d regiment, 
and attending surgeon of the city hospital, of 
which last he was for two years president of the 
medical and surgical board. At the organization 
of the civil service commission, he was made its 
chairman. His most important medical work is 
Operative Interference in Acute Pei'forative 
Perityphlites advocating the removal of the 
vermiform appendix. He was a member of the 
Northwestern medical society, the County medi- 
cal society, the New York pathological society, 
the Neurological society, the New York acad- 
emy of medicine, and other social and professional 
organizations. He died in New, York city, Nov. 
14, 1896. 

BURDEN, Henry, inventor, was bom in Dun- 
blane, Scotland, April 20, 179L He was the son 
of a sheep husbandman, and was educated at a 
school of engineering in Edinburgh. He made a 
number of agricultural implements for use on his 
father's farm, and arranged a water-wheel by 
which they were operated. In 1819, he came to 
America, bringing letters of introduction to 
General Stephen Van Rensselaer, the patroon; 
Hon. John C. Calhoun ; Hon. William C. Preston ; 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton. He interested himself, 
at first, in the manufacture of ag^cultural tools 
and machines, which were exhibited at fairs, 
and to those interested in farming. He built a 
flouring mill, and afterwards a mill for work- 
ing up old iron scraps. At that time no pud- 
dling of iron was done in America. In 1820 
he invented the first cultivator patented in this 



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BURDEN. 



BURDETTE. 



country. In 1822, he went to Troy, and assumed 
charge of an iron and nail factory at that place, 
which developed into Burden's iron works. He 
invented a machine for making spikes, and secured 
a patent for it. May 26, 1825. Five years later he 
invented a machine for making horseshoe nails 
and rolls for creasing horseshoe blanks. In 1834 
he invented and patented a new spike machine, 
the spikes being for the flat rails then used by 
various railroads; but on a visit to England, be- 
coming convinced that the *'T" and **H" rails 
would supersede all others, he, on his return, be- 
gan the manufacture of a new hook-headed spike 
for such rails, and was granted a patent for it in 
1840. A machine for making horseshoes patented 
by him in 1835 was improved in 1845, and in 1857 
a new machine was patented, which he considered 
his greatest invention. He was interested in steam 
navigation; and was the first toadvocatethe plans 
afterwards adopted by both English and American 
shipbuilders in the construction of long vessels for 
ocean sailing. He laid similar plans before the 
Troy steamboat association, and finally they were 
substantially adopted in the building of the steamer 
Hendrick Hudson, In 1 846 a prospectus was issued 
for ** Burden's Atlantic Steam-Ferry Company;" 
the boats were to be 
five hundred feet long, 
with accommodations 
for four hundred first- 
class passengers, be- 
sides steerage accom- 
modations, and to be 
of eighteen thousand 
tons burden. The pas- 
^ sage was to be made in 
>^ eight days, although 
k* Mr. Burden declared it 
r could be reduced to six 
days. He was inter 
ested in all worthy 
'^di/rtCc'*'*^ — public enterprises, and 
gave freely to charit- 
able and other institutions. He died in Troy, 
N. Y., Jan. 19, 1871. 

BURDEN, James Abercrombie, iron master, 
was bom at Troy, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1833; son of 
Henry Burden, a celebrated inventor and iron- 
master. He had special advantages in his theo- 
retical and scientific education for the business 
to which he devoted himself. He not only had a 
private tutor at Yale college, but while pursuing 
his studies under his direction he attended lectures 
in the Sheffield scientific school, and subsequently 
took up a course of study in the Rensselaer poly- 
technic institute. Aside from these studies, he 
liad practical training in learning the trade of a 
machinist and millwright, and he worked at 
this trade until made foreman of a department 




/m. 




^d^^^§t^,^z<^ 



of the Burden iron works, conducted by his 
father, and to which he succeeded as chief owner 
and president of the corporation. He was 
acknowledged as a leader in the industries to 
which he was allied, 
and was elected pres- 
ident of the Hudson 
river ore and iron 
company; president 
of the Engineers* 
club of New York 
city; a member of ^ 
the Civil engineers ^^^ 
society, of the Soci- ^ 
ety of mechanical 
engineers, of the 
Mining engineers, 
and of the Iron and 
steel institute of 
Great Britain, and fellow of the Imperial institute 
of London. He not only proved himself a valu- 
able member of the societies here named, but has 
won a master- workman's recognition by his supe- 
rior inventive skill. Valuable patents were issued 
to him for machinery for making blooms, for in- 
termittent mechanical motion, for an electrical 
machine for separating magnetic ore from its 
gangue, for fettling puddling furnaces, for heating 
furnaces, and for machinery for manufacturing 
horseshoes. This last named machine converts a 
plain bar of iron, in one heat, into hors^hoes with 
nail holes punched and otherwise finished, at the 
rate of seventy shoes a minute. Aside from his 
inventions and the demands of his varied and 
extensive business, he was interested in social 
and public affairs. He was a discreet giver and 
a careful adviser, his advice and financial aid in 
charitable and reformatory matters being uni- 
versally sought, and generously and wisely 
rendered. In 1880, in 1888, and again in 1896 he 
was elected presidential elector on the Republi- 
can ticket of the state of New York. 

BURDBTTB, Robert Jones, humorist, was 
lK)m at Greensborough, Pa. , July 80, 1844. His 
early life was spent in the west, where, at the 
breaking out of the civil war, he joined the 
army as a member of the 47th Illinois volunteers. 
In 1865 he returned to -Peoria, where for several 
years he contributed humorous articles to vari- 
ous newspapers and periodicals. He also worked 
on the editorial staff of the Peoria Transcript, 
removing in 1872 to Burlington, Iowa, where he 
formed a connection with the Hawk-eye, in the 
columns of which paper he caught the popular 
fancy, and won renown as a himiorist. He was 
also a lecturer and was licensed as a Bap- 
tist minister in 1887. Some of his lectures 
were published in b<x)k form, under the title 
of Tlie Rise and Fall of a Mustache^ and 



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SURGES. 



BURGESS. 



Hawkeyetems (1877). His other publications 
include : Hawkeyes (1879) ; Waiiam Penn, 16U- 
1718, in Lives of American Worthies (1882), In- 
nach Garden (1886), and Chimes from a Jester's 
BeU. 

BURQBS, TrUtam* representative, was bom 
at Rochester, Mass., Feb. 26, 1780; son of John 
Burges, a sturdy patriot who served through- 
out the revolutionary war, and who was a 
cooper, farmer, and father of eight children. 
At the age of twenty -one Tristam, who had 



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U4^ 



enjoyed but twelve 
w e e k s' schooling, 
had served his ap- 
prenticeship with 
his father, and de- 
termined to obtain 
a college education. 
This, by hard work 
and in the face of 
untold difficulties, 
he accomplished, 
I and was graduated 
from Rhode Island 
college in 1796, with 
valedictory honors. 
He opened a school, 
known as ** Hack- 
er's Hall," in order to obtain means to fit him- 
self as a lawyer, and in 1799 he was admitted to 
the bar. His eloquence made him the acknowl- 
edged leader of his profession ; the court house 
was thronged when he spoke, and he soon 
became prominent in public affairs. An oration 
delivered in 1810, ** Liberty, Glory, and Union," 
gave him additional celebrity, and in 1811 he 
was elected to the state legislature. In 1817 he 
was made chief justice of the supreme couil of 
Rhode Island, and in the same year was ap- 
ix)inted to the chair of oratory and belles lettres 
at Brown university, a position which he filled 
with distinguished success for fifteen years. In 
1824 he was elected to represent Rhode Island in 
the 19th CJongress, and was re-elected to the 
20th, 21st, 22d and 23d congresses. His first 
speech in the house was on a bill regulating the 
judiciary of the United States, and won him 
national renown. Becaiise of one of the similes 
in this speech he was thereafter known as the 
**Bald Eagle of Rhode Island." When Mr. 
Burges first entered Congress, it was the cus- 
tom of the southern members to revile New 
England ; but these insults grew fewer as one 
by one, Southern representatives came to realize 
that none of them could cope with the fiery 
eloquence of Mr. Burges when his wrath was 
awakened. Even John Randolph of Virginia, 
who was so eloquently sarcastic, so bitter in his 
hatred of New England, could not withstand 



the torrent of fiery indignation and terrible 
bursts of sarcasm which Mr. Burges poured out, 
and some of his replies to Randolph have become 
historic. The most striking of these was in 
reply to Randolph when he applied the words 
**Delenda est Carthago" in denouncing New 
England. ** Let New England be destroyed," 
said Mr. Burges; ** what shall we say of a spirit 
regarding this event as a consimimation devoutly 
to be wished? A spirit without one attribute or 
hope of the pure in heart ; a spirit that begins 
and ends everything, not with prayer, but with 
imprecation ; a spirit which blots from the great 
canon of petition, ' give us this day our daily 
bread, ' that foregoing bodily nutriment he may 
attain to a higher relish for that unmingled food 
prepared and served up to a soul hungering and 
thirsting after wickedness; a spirit which at 
every rising sun exclaims, * Hodie, Hodie, 
Carthago delenda I ' (To-day, to-day, let New Eng- 
land be destroyed!) " Then followed the historic 
sentence: ** Sir, Divine Providence takes care of 
his own universe 1 Moral monsters cannot propa- 
gate; impotent of everything, but malevolence 
of purpose, they cannot otherwise multiply mis- 
eries than by blaspheming all that is piire, pras- 
perous and happy. (Jould demon propagate 
demon, the universe might become a pande- 
monium ; but I rejoice that the father of lies can 
never become the father of liars ; one adversary 
of God and man is enough for one universe ; too 
much! oh, how much too much for one nation." 
Mr. Randolph could not withstand the unparal- 
leled severity of this retort ; he immediately left 
the hall, and his voice was never raised there 
afterwards. In 1836 Mr. Burges was nominated 
on the Whig ticket for governor but failed of 
election, and retired from public life resuming 
his profession. He wrote TJie Battle of Lake 
Erie^ aud published several sj>eeches and ora- 
tions. He died Oct. 13, ia53. 

BURGESS, Alexander, 1st bishop of Quincy 
and 119th in succession in the American episco- 
pate, was born in Providence, R. I., Oct. 31. 
1819; son of Thomas Burgess, chief justice of 
Rhode Island, and brother of George Burgess, 
the first bishop of Maine. He was graduated at 
Brown imiversity, 1838, and from the General 
theological seminary in 1841; was ordained a 
deacon by Bishop Griswold, Nov. 8, 1842, and 
admitted to the priesthood by Bishop Henshaw, 
Nov. 1, 1843. During his diaconate he had 
charge of St. Stephen's, Haddam, Conn. He 
was rector of St. Mark's Augusta, Me., 1843-'54, 
when he removed to Portland, Me., where he had 
charge of St. Luke's church, 1854-'67. His next 
move was to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he was 
rector of St. John's church for two years, and 
afterward of Christ church, Springfield, Mass., 



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BURGESS. 



BURKE. 



where he remained until his advancement to the 
episcopate. He was a deputy to the general con- 
Tention from 1844 to 1877, representing succes- 
sively, Maine, Long Island, and Massachusetts. 
In 1877 he was president of the house of deputies. 
He was also a member of the standing committee 
of Maine, Long Island and Massachusetts succes- 
sively from 1843 to 1868. After his brother's 
death, April 23, 1866, he was elected by the 
clergy of Maine to be bishop, but he declined to 
allow his name to be presented to the laity for 
confirmation. He received the degree of S.T.D. 
from Brown university in 1866, and from Racine 
college in 1881 ; from Oris wold college the de- 
gree of LL.D. in 1889. He was chosen bishop of 
the newly formed diocese of Quincy, 111., and was 
consecrated in Christ church, Springfield, Mass., 
on May 15, 1878. He published a memoir of his 
brother, Bishop George Burgess. He died at 
St. Albans Vt., Oct. 8. 1901. 

BURQBSS, Frederick, 2d bishop of Long 
Island, and 204th in succession in the American 
episcopate, was born at Providence in 1853. He 
was graduated at Brown A.B.,1878, A.M. 1876; 
prepared for the priesthood at the General tlieo- 
logical seminary, New York city, and in Europe, 
and was ordained deacon by Bishop Mills in 1876 
and priest by Bishop Clark in 1877. He was 
rector of Grace churcli, Amherst, Mass., 1877-82 ; 
rector at Pomfret, Conn., 1882-88 ; of St. Asaph 
Bala, Philadelphia, Pa., 1888-95 ; of Christ church, 
Detroit, Mich., 1895-97, and of Grace church, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 1898-1901. He was consecrated 
bishop of Long Island at Grace church, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., Jan. 15, 1902, by Bishops Potter, Doane, 
Worthington, Davies, Homer, and Du Moulin of 
Niagara. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Brown in 1899. 

BURQBSS, George, 1st bishop of Maine and 
49th in succession in the American episcopate, 
was bom in Providence, R. J., June 10, 1809 ; son 
•of Thomas Burgess, chief justice of Rhode Island. 
He was graduated at Brown university in 1826, 
and was for the following three years a tutor 
(there. He studied from 1831 to 1834 at Bonn, 
' Gottingen and Berlin, and on his return to Am- 
' erica in 1834, was ordained a deacon by Bishop 
Griswold, in Grace church. Providence. In 1834 
he was admitted to the priesthood by Bishop 
Brownell, in Christ church, Hartford, he having 
been chosen as rector of that parish. He was 
made doctor of divinity by Trinity college in 1845, 
and by Union college and Brown in 1846. He 
was chosen bishop of the newly formed diocese 
of Maine, and was consecrated in the church of 
which he had been rector for thirteen years, Oct. 
81, 1847. His literary works are numerous and 
Taried in their character, among them the follow- 
ing being conspicuous : The Strife of Brothers, a 



poem ; The Last Enemy Conquenng aiui Con- 
qttered ; The Book of Psalins Iranslated into En- 
glish Verse; Papers from the Ecclesiastical His-^ 
tory of New England, between 1740 and 1840, ser- 
mons, tracts, etc. He died at sea, April 23, 1866. 

BURGESS, John William, educator, was born 
at Connersville, Tenn., Aug. 26, 1844. He waa 
graduated at Amherst A.B., 1867, A.M. 1870, waa 
admitted to the bar in 1869 and was professor of 
logic, rhetoric and English literature in Knox 
college 1869-71. He studied at Gdttingen, Leip- 
zig and Berlin 1871-73, was professor of history 
and political science at Amherst 1873-76, and of 
history, political science and international law at 
Columbia college from 1876, which chair waa 
changed to that of history, political science and 
constitutional law in 1890. He was also professor 
of constitutional and international history and 
law in the school of political science, Columbia 
college. He received the degree Ph.D. from the 
college of New Jersey in 1883, and LL.D. in 1884; 
became a trustee of Columbia and in 1890 a mem- 
ber of the University council and dean of the 
faculty of political science. He is the author of 
TTic Middle Period (1898) in Amencan History 
Series ; Tlie Civil War and the Constitution (1901) ; 
Reconstruction and the Constitution (1902). 

BURKE, Andrew H., governor of North Dak- 
Ota, was born in New York city. May 15, 1850. 
He was left an orplian at an early age, and until 
he was eight years old was cared for by the New 
York charitable aid society, by whom he was 
sent to Indiana. At the age of twelve years he 
enlisted as a drummer boy in the 75th regiment 
Indiana volunteers. At the close of the war ho 
went to Asbury college, Greencastle, Ind., after 
which he followed commercial pursuits until 
1880, when he settled in North Dakota. He be- 
came cashier of the firet national bank of Cassel- 
ton, and treasurer of Cass county. After serv- 
ing three terms in that office he was, in 1890, 
elected by the Republican party governor of 
North Dakota. After the adjournment of the 
legislature of 1891, the grasshoppers began the 
devastation of crops in the northern part of the 
state, when he immediately took such vigorous 
measures to exterminate them through concerted 
action, that, by means of large drafts on his pri- 
vate fortune, in the absence of a state appropria- 
tion, the pest was soon destroyed, and thousands 
of acres of grain were saved. He engaged in 
busine&s in Duluth, Minn., in 1893. 

BURKEf Charles H., representative, was bom 
in Genesee county, N.Y., April 1, 1861. He re- 
ceived a liberal education ; removed to South 
Dakota in 1882, where he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1886. He was married Jan. 
14, 1886, to Caroline Schlosser and engaged in 
practice at Pierre. He was a representative in 



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BURKE. 



BURLEIGH. 



the state legislature 1894-96, and was elected a 
representative at large to the 56th, 57th, and 
58th congresses as a Republican 1899-1905. 

BURKE, Edmund, lawyer, was born in West- 
minster, Vt., Jan. 23, 1809. He received his 
education under private tutors, studied law, and 
in 1829 was admitted to the bar. He removed to 
Newport, N.H., in 1833, and in 1835 established 
tlie New Hampshire Argus^ which he edited for 
many years. He was a representative in the 26th, 
27th and 23th congresses, 1839-'45, serving on the 
.commerce, claims and library committees, of the 
latter of which he acted as cliairman. President 
Polk made him commissioner of patents in 1846, 
and in 1850 he established law offices at Newport, 
N.H., and Boston, Mass. In 1866 he attended the 
national Union convention at Philadelphia as a 
^delegate. He was the author of a pamphlet 
entitled. The Protective System Considered (1846). 
He died at Newport, N.H., Jan. 25, 1882. 

BURKE, Maurice Francis, R.C. bishop, was 
born in Ireland, May 5, 1845. He came to the 
United States with his parents in 1849, settling in 
Chicago, 111. He was educated at iSt. Mary's of 
the Lake, Chicago, 111., and at Notre Dame uni- 
vei'sity, Ind., and was a student in the American 
college at Rome, Italy, 1866-'75. He was or- 
dained May 22, 1875, at Rome, Italy, by Cardinal 
Patrizzi. He was an assistant priest at St. Mary's 
church, Chicago, 111., 1875-78, and pastor of St. 
Mary's church, Joliet, 111., 1878-'87. He was con- 
secrated bishop of Cheyenne, Wyoming, in the 
Cathedral of the Holy Name, Chicago, 111., Oct. 
28, 1887, by Archbishop Feehan, assisted by 
Bishop McClosky of Louisville, Ky., and Bishop 
Cosgrove of Davenport, Iowa, and was trans- 
ferred to the see of St. Joseph, Mo., June 19, 
1893. 

BURKE, Thomas, governor of North Carolina, 
was born in Gal way, Ireland, about 1747. He 
came to America in 1764 ; engaged in the practice 
of medicine in Accomac county, Va., and sub- 
sequently in that of law at Norfolk, Va. He re- 
moved to Hillsborough, N.C., in 1774; wrote 
articles opposing the stamp act and became a 
speaker on revolutionary topics. He was a de- 
legate to the state constitutional conventions of 
1775 and 1776 ; and to the continental congress, 
1776-'81. He was elected first governor of North 
Carolina under its new constitution in 1781, and 
was shortly after seized by a band of Tories and 
detained as a hostage on James Island, S.C. He 
escaped, after four months' imprisonment, and 
resumed his duties as governor. He died at Hills- 
borough, N.C., Dec. 2, 1783. 

BURKE, Thomas Martin Aloysius, R.C. 
bishop, was born in Utica, N.Y., Jan. 10, 1840; 
son of Dr. Aulrich Burke, who immigrated to 
America from Ireland about 1839, and settled in 



Utica, N. Y. In 1856 Thomas was educated at St. 
Charles college, EUicott city, Md., and at Mount 
St. Mary's seminary, Md., where he was ordained 
priest by Bishop McFarland, June 20, 1864. He 
was an assistant at St. John's and St. Joseph's 
churches, Albany, N.Y., 1864-'66; was placed in 
charge of St. Joseph's, serving 1866-'74, and was 
rector of the church, 1874-'87, where he success- 
fully managed the parish affairs and reduced the 
heavy church debt. On March 4, 1887, Bishop 
McNeimy appointed him vicar-general and on 
the death of the bishop, Jan. 2, 1894, he became 
administrator sede vacante of Albany. He was 
consecrated bishop of Albany by Archbishop 
Corrigan, assisted by Bishops McQuade and Lud- 
den, at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Con- 
ception July 1, 1894. He was created Knight of 
the Holy Sepulchre, Jan. 27, 1890, and Knight of 
the Grand Cross in June, 1894. 

BURKETT, Elmer Jacob, representative, was 
born in Mills county, Iowa, Dec. 1, 1867; son of 
H. W. Burkett. He was graduated at Tabor 
college, Tabor, Iowa, in 1890, and at the State 
univei-sity of Nebraska, LL.B., 1893 ; LL.M., 1895. 
He taught school at Leigh, Neb., 1890-'92; was 
married Sept. 1, 1891, to Fannie F. "Wright of 
Glenwood, Iowa, and after being admitted to the 
Nebraska bar, engaged in practice in Lincoln. 
He was a representative in the state legislature, 
1896-'98 ; and wan elected to the 56th, 57th and 
58th congresses from the first Nebraska district 
as a Republican. 

BURLEIGH, Edwin Chick, governor of Maine, 
was bom at Linneus, Me., Nov. 27, 1843; son of 
the Hon. Parker P. Burleigh, and grandson of 
Moses Burleigh, both of whom were conspic- 
uous in the affairs of Maine. Edwin C. Burleigh 
was educated in the 
public schools and 
at the Houlton 
(Me.) academy. 
After leaving the 
academy he taught 
school and practised 
land surveying for 
a few years. In 1861 
he went to Augusta 
and enlisted in the 
cavalry, but was re- 
jected by the exam- 
ining surgeon and 
obtained a position 
in the office of the 
a d j u t an t -general, 
where he served un- 
til the close of the war. He then resumed his 
occupation of land surveying until 1870, when he 
\vas appointed clerk in the state land office at 
Bangor, and removed to that city in 1872. He 




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BURLEIGH. 



BURLEIGH. 



-was subsequently appointed state land agent by 
€k>Temor Connor, and served as such in 1876, 
1877, and 1878, at the same time holding the posi- 
tion of assistant clerk of the Maine house of rep- 
resentatives. In 1880 he accepted a position in 
the office of the treasurer of state which he held 
until his election as treasurer in 1885. He was 
re-elected in 1887. In 1888 he was nominated for 
governor and resigned his position as treasurer. 
He was elected by a large plurality, and in 1890 
was re-elected. During his service as treasurer 
the public debt was reduced more than $400,000, 
and during his administration as governor the 
rate of taxation reached the lowest limit in the 
history of the state, and the entire bonded debt, 
amounting to $3,384,000, and bearing interest at 
six per cent, was refunded by the sale of three per 
cent bonds, thus reducing the interest accoimt 
-one-half. After his retirement from office Gov- 
ernor Burleigh became the principal publisher and 
proprietor of the Kennebec Jownal. He was a 
delegate-at-large to the Republican convention 
in 1896, and was elected to the 56th, 57th and 
58th congresses. 1899-1905. 

BURLEIGH, Walter Atwood* a prominent 
pioneer of Dakota, was born at Waterville, Me., 
Oct. 25, 1820. He studied medicine at Water- 
ville, and in New York city, and was graduated 
at Castleton medical college. He removed to 
Xittanning, Pa., where he acquired a large 

practice, and de- 
voted much of his 
time in the cam- 
paigns of 1856 and 
1860 to the support 
of the Republican 
party as a platform 
speaker. In 1861 
President Lincoln 
appointed him agent 
of* the Yankton 
Sioux Indians of Da- 
kota territory. The 
Indians being i n - 
flamed by previous 
grievances, threat- 
ened to burn the 
warehouse, council 
liouse and other property of the agency. Dr. 
Burleigh despatched two brave and reliable men 
to Fort Randall for a body of U. S. regulars, 
and at daybreak on the following morning just 
as the hostile Indians, armed and in their war 
paint, gathered for an attack ui)on the buildings, 
the troops approached, and their chiefs sued for 
peace. In the latter part of August, 1862, the 
agency was again in danger from the hostile 
^iouz in their retreat from the Minnesota mas- 
;Faore. Dr. Burleigh at once built a substantial 




block house, and called for troops from Iowa, and 
with these and the good offices of Struck-by-the- 
Rees, the head chief of the Yanktons, the agency 
was saved, and South Dakota was spared a bloody 
invasion. Dr. Burleigh was elected a delegate to 
the 39th Congress in 1864, and in 1866 to the 40th 
Congress. In 1877 he was elected a member of 
the legislature of Dakota, and chosen president 
of the oounciL He was a member of the last 
legislature of Montana territory, and was elected 
to the convention of 1889, which framed the con- 
stitution of that state. He also engaged in many 
private enterprises, having at one time a fleet of 
steamboats on the Missouri river, which did a 
large carrying trade between St. Louis and Fort 
Benton. Burleigh county, North Dakota, was 
named in his honor. He graded fifty miles of 
the Northern Pacific railroad and erected the 
first house in Bismarck. He practised law for 
twelve years in the courts at Miles City, and Bil- 
lings, in Montana. He, upon removing to Dakota, 
made his home at Yankton, where he erected a 
magnificent mansion overlooking the Missouri, 
and having a wide range of scenery. He died at 
Yankton, S. Dak., m 1896. 

BURLEIGH, William Henry, poet and jour- 
nalist, was bom at Woodstock, Conn., Feb. 2, 
1812; son of Rinaldo Burleigh, educator, who 
became blind in 1827 and died in 1863. On his 
mother*s side he was lineally descended from 
Governor Bradford. William worked on a farm, 
was apprenticed to a tailor and afterwards to 
a printer, and while working at the case, he fre- 
quently contributed articles to the columns of the 
journals on which he was employed. He was an 
advocate of anti-slavery, temperance and peace, 
and both as editor and lecturer exercised a 
widespread influence in behalf of reform, having 
editorial charge at different times of the Literary 
Journal, the Temperance Banner, the Christian 
Freeman, and the Washington Banner. His fear- 
less denunciation of vice and depravity exposed 
him on several occasions to mob violence. He had 
no taste for controversy, preferring the quiet of 
literary pursuits, and he several times estab- 
lished purely literary journals, which, though 
short-lived, were of a high order of merit, some 
of the poems and prose articles from his own pen 
being gems of exquisite ray. In 1850 he removed 
to Albany and became the general agent and 
lecturer of the New York state temperance 
society, editing its organ, the Prohibitionist. He 
removed to Brooklyn, N. Y. , in 1855, and was ap- 
pointed harbor master of the port of New York, 
and he continued to discharge the duties of that 
office, or of that of port warden, during the re- 
mainder of his life. A small collection of his 
poems was published in 1841, and enlarged editions 
were issued in 1845 and 1850. After his death a 



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BURLESON. 



BURLINGAME. 




^V^^^vi^ 



memoir, accompanied by a choice collection of 
his poems, was published (1871) by his wife, 
Mrs. Celia (Burr) Burleigh. He died at Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., March 18, 1871. 

BURLESON, RUFUS C, educator, was bom 
near Decatur, Ala., Aug. 7, 1823, son of Jonathan 
Burleson. He attended Nashville university, and 
in 1840 was licensed to preach by the First Baptist 
chiirch of Nashville. He was graduated at the 
Western Baptist literary and theological institute 

at Covington, Ky., 
in 1847. A post- 
graduate course of 
seven months com- 
pleted his theolog- 
ical studies, and 
.. he was elected pas- 
> tor of the First 
^ Baptist church, 
yr^ f Houston, Texas, 
|N wliich he built up 
ll until it became the 
largest church in 
the city and the 

/ state. In June, 

1852, he was elected president of Baylor university 
to succeed Dr. H. L. Groves. In 1861, with his 
brother, Richard Burleson, LL.D., vice-president, 
and the entire faculty he removed to Waco, Texas, 
as a more accessible location, and founded Waco 
university, which became one of the leading 
co-educational institutions of the south. As a 
preacher, in his early days. Dr. Burleson bap- 
tized Mrs. Dickenson, the heroine of the Alamo, 
and Gten. Sam Houston, the hero of San Jacinto. 
His interest extended beyond his pastoral and 
educational work, and he joined in advancing the 
political and material interests of Texas. He re- 
ceived the degrees of D.D. and LL.D. He died 
in Waco, Texas, May 13, 1901. 

BURLING AME» Anson, statesman, was bom 
in New Berlin, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1820. His ancestors 
were among the first settlers of Rhode Island. 
His early education was received in the schools of 
Seneca county, Ohio, whither his father had 
removed in 1823, and later in those of Detroit. 
Mich., where the family settled in 1833. His col- 
legiate training was gained at the University of 
Michigan, and he subsequently entered the law 
school at Harvard college, where he was grad- 
uated in 1846. He engaged in the practice of the 
law in Boston, and took an active part in the 
Free Soil movement, attaining some distinction 
as an orator during the political campaign of 1848. 
In 1852 he was elected to the state senate, and in 
1853 was a member of the convention for revising 
the constitution of Massachusetts. In 1854 he 
joined the American party, by whom he was 



elected a representative in the 34th Congress. In 
Congress he was distinguished for his eloquence 
in upholding anti-slavery principles. His de- 
nunciation of Preston S. Brooks, for his assault 
upon Charles Sunmer, called out a challenge 
which he accepted, naming rifles as the weapons, 
and Canada as the place of combat. Mr. Brooks 
objected to these arrangements and the duel was 
never fought. Mr. Burlingame was a represen- 
tative in the 35th and 36th congresses, and hia 
non-election to the 37th. in 1860, terminated 
his congressional service. He was appointed 
minister to Austria by Mr. Lincoln, but that gov- 
ernment refused to receive him because of opin- 
ions expressed by him regarding the politics of 
Austria. He was subsequently sent as minister ta 
China, where his wise diplomacy benefited the* 
commerce of the United States, and where he suc- 
ceeded in framing articles supplementary to the 
treaty of 1858, which was China's first formal 
recognition of international law and was known 
as the Burlingame Treaty. The Chinese regent 
and prime minister. Prince Kimg, appreciated 
Mr. Burlingame's services so highly that when, 
in 1867, he was about to return home that offi- 
cial requested him to act as special envoy to- 
the United States government and the principal 
European i)owers, to establish with them treaties 
on behalf of China, and before the close of 1869 
he had concluded satisfactory treaties with the 
United States, Qreat Britain, Sweden. Prussia, 
Holland, and Denmark, and while negotiating 
one with Russia, at St. Petersburg, he was stricken 
with pneumonia, and after a short illness died oa 
February 23, 1870. 

BURLlNQA.MEt Edward Llvernore, editor, 
was born in Boston, Mass., May 30, 184;^, son of 
Anson Burlingame. He accompanied his father 
on several of his diplomatic missions, thus enjoy- 
ing imusual advantages of travel. He left Har- 
vard before completing his course and became^ 
private secretary to his father, then minister to 
China. The years 1867-'69 were spent in study at 
Heidelberg, where he took the degree of Ph.D., 
and a part of the year 1870 at Berlin. Returning- 
to America in 1870 he was engaged for a time on 
the editorial staff of the New York Tribune^ and 
from 1872 to 1876 he was connected editorially 
with the revision of The American Cyclopcedia^ 
In 1879 he joined the editorial staff of the Scrib- 
ner publishing house, and in 1886 became the^ 
editor of tlie new Scribner's Magazine. He was 
also associated with others in the preparation of 
several historical works and has made numerous 
contributions to periodical literature. He trans- 
lated and edited Art Life and Jlieories of 
Richard Wagner (1875) ; and edited Current 
Discussion : a Collection from the Chief English 
Essays on Qitestions of the Time (2 vols., 1878) ► 



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BURNET. 



BURNET. 



BURNET, David Qouverceur, president of 
Texas, was bom in Newark, N. J., April 4, 1788 ; 
son of William Burnet, surgeon-general of the 
Continental army. He left school before grad- 
uating and in 1806, joining Miranda's expedition, 
took up arms on behalf of Venezuelan liberty. 
He was lieutenant in command of a launch, and 
gave the order for the first shot fired in the cam- 
paign. Returning to the United States he en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits, at Nachitoches, 
La., and some years later commenced the prac- 
tice of law at Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1826 he took 
up his residence in Texas, and his first efforts 
were directed toward freeing the state from 
Mexican rule. He was a member of the San 
Felipe convention of 1888, which presented a 
memorial to the Mexican government, written by 
him, praying that Texas be separated from Coa- 
huila. In 1884 he was appointed district judge 
of Austin, and on March 16, 1886, was chosen 
provisional president of the new republic formed 
upon the declaration of independence. Santa 
Anna drove the new government from Austin, 
and Burnet escaped to Galveston, which he made 
the capital, and though he discharged the onerous 
duties of his position with great skill and pru- 
dence he did not escape the charge of treason. 
On Oct. 22, 1886, he turned the government over 
to Sam Houston, the president elected under the 
new oonstitution. In December, 1888, he was 
elected vice-president of the republic, and during 
the last year of his three years' term of office, 
owing to the illness of President Lamar, he once 
more occupied the presidential chair. He was 
defeated by Ex-President Houston in the presi- 
dential election of 1841. He took an active part 
in the civil war, and though he deplored secession 
he remained in the south with his people. In 1 866 
he was elected to the United States senate under 
President Johnson's plan of reconstruction, but 
was not permitted to take his seat. The latter 
years of his life were spent in retirement on his 
plantation near Houston, and his death occurred 
at Galveston, Texas, Deo. 5, 1870. 

BURNET, Jacob* jurist, was bom in Newark, 
N. J., Feb. 22, 1770; son of William Burnet, 
surgeon -general in the revolutionary war. After 
his graduation at Princeton in 1791, he studied 
law. was admitted to the bar, and in 1796 removed 
to Cincinnati. He was a member of the territor- 
ial councils of Ohio from 1799 until the establish- 
ment of the state government in 1808 ; was a state 
l^islator in 1812 ; a supreme court judge of Ohio 
from 1821 to 1828, and a United States senator 
from 1828 to 1831, having been elected to fill the 
unexpired term of William H. Harrison, resigned. 
He was one of the commissioners to arbitrate the 
'* statute of limitation '* question between Ken- 
tucky and Virginia. As president of the coloniza- 



tion society of Cincinnati, he did much to aid 
western settlers in adjusting their accoimts with 
the government. The debts due to the govern- 
ment for lands amounted to more than twenty 
million dollars, these obligations exceeding the 
amount of currency then in circulation in the 
west, the banks suspended payment, and the 
farmers were threatened not only with bank- 
ruptcy, but with eviction, which they determined 
to oppose by force. In this crisis Judge Burnet pre- 
sented a memorial to Congress, praying on behalf 
of the debtors, that the back interest due be can- 
celled, and that permission be granted the land- 
holders to relinquish such part of their land as 
they were net able to use or pay for. Congress 
granted the desired relief, greatly to the satisfac- 
tion of the settlers of the south, as well as the 
west. In 1830, upon the forfeiture, by the state 
of Ohio, of the land granted by Congress for the 
extension of the Miami canal, Judge Burnet 
entered a forcible protest and secured not only 
the revocation of the forfeiture, but also an addi- 
tional grant of land. He was one of the founders 
of the Lancastrian academy, and of the Cincin- 
nati college, of which he was also president for 
some time. He assisted in the reorganization of 
the Ohio medical college, /tnd acted as the presi- 
dent of its board of trustees for many years. 
Upon the nomination of the Marquis de Lafayette, 
he was made a member of the French academy, 
and he belonged to many prominent literary 
and scientifio associations in the United States. 
In 1847 he published. Notes on the Early Settle- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory, a work con- 
taining much authentic information, especially 
on the growth and progress of the state of Ohio. 
He died in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 10, 1853. 

BURNET, William, colonial governor, was 
bom at the Hague, Holland, in March, 1688, son of 
Bishop Burnet. He relinquished his office of 
oomptroUer of customs in England on being ap- 
pointed governor of the colonies of New York and 
New Jersey in 1720. He was zealous in defend- 
ing and promoting the interests of the British 
crown, established a trading post at Oswego, N. Y., 
and was the first to plant the British fiag on the 
Great Lakes. He secured treaties with the east- 
em Indians, and prohibited traffic with the habi- 
tanta. He became extremely unpopular in New 
York, and his successor, John Montgomerie, was 
sent out in 1728, and Burnet was made governor 
of Massachusetts. He gained odium in that col- 
ony by his endeavor to exact from the assembly a 
fixed income. After much wrangling he was 
forced to withdraw his demand. He was ap- 
pointed governor also of New Hampshire. He 
was fond of astronomical study, and published 
observations in the transactions of the royal 
society. He died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 7, 17S9* 



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BURNETT. 



BURNETT. 



BURNETT, Frances Hodgson, author, was 
born in Manchester, England, Nov. 24, 1849. 
When a mere child she improvised stories and 
plays, and had planned a novel before she was 
thirteen. Upon the death of her father, in 1865, 
the family removed to America, settling first in 
Newmarket, Tenn., and later in Knoxville. Dur- 
ing the five years following, she contributed a 
number of stories to Qodey's Lady's Book and 
Peterson's Magazine, and in 1872 she sent to 
Seribner*s Magazine Surly Tim's Troubles, written 
in the Lancashire dialect, which was accepted, 
and the publishers invited her to send other 
stories. Early in 1873 she contributed to Peter- 
son's Magazine a serial, entitled DorotJiea, and 
this was afterward published in book form, as 
Vagabondia, In this same year she was mar- 
ried to Dr. L. M. Burnett, an oculist and otologist, 
of Knoxville, and after a European tour the 
young couple settled in Washington, D.C. Some 
four years of literary silence followed Mrs. Bur- 
nett's marriage, and then That Lass of Low- 
He's serial, appeared in SciHbner's Magazine. 
The story created a pronounced sensation, and 
when published in book form it ran through many 
editions in England and America, was twice 
•dramatized, and netted for its author a large 
amount of money. Then followed, in leisurely 
succession, HawortlVs JarVs Daughter, Lou- 
isiana, A Fair Barbarian^ and Through One 
Administration, In 1886 she wrote a story 
suggested to her by the character and sayings 
of one of her own sons; and Little Lord 
Fauntleroy, published as a serial in St. Nicholas, 
achieved for her greater triumph than she had 
won by any of her stories for adults ; and when 
the tale was dramatized by her and put upon the 
stage, thousands of people who had never before 
entered a theatre, laid aside their prejudices to 
witness the performance. She obtained a divorce 
from Dr. Burnett and was married in London, in 
1900, to Stephen Townsend, an English author. 
A number of books for children succeeded Little 
Lord Fauntleroy, including : Sarah Crewe, or 
What Happened at Miss Minchin's, Little St. 
Elizabeth, and Other Stories, and Giovanni 
and the Other, while among her other popular 
and later stories are: Miss Defarge, Editha's 
Burglar, Piccino (1894) ; A Lady of Qual- 
ity (1896); The One I Knew Best of All, The 
Making of a Marchioness (1901); and The Meth- 
ods of Lady Walderhurst (1902). 

BURNETT, John Lawson, representative, was 
bom at Cedar Bluff, Ala., Jan. 20, 1854 ; son of 
W. E. 'Burnett. He worked on the farm and in the 
mines ; attended the district school, and studied 
law at Vanderbilt university, Tennessee. He was 
admitted to the bar and engaged in practice in 
Chuisden ; was a representative in the state legis- 



lature in 1884, and a state senator in 1886. He 
was married in 1896 to Bettie Reader of Cleveland, 
Tenn. He was elected a representative in the 
56th, 57th and 58th congresses, from the 7th 
Alabama district, 1899-1905. 

BURNETT, Peter Hardeman, governor of Cali- 
fornia, was born in Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 15, 
1807. He engaged in the practice of law in Mis- 
souri ; was an organizer of the territorial govern- 
ment of Oregon in 1843 ; served in the legislature 
in 1844 and 1848, and became a judge of the 
Supreme court. He went to California in 
1849 ; worked in the mines for a short time, 
and became agent for the Sutter estate. He 
advocated the organization of a state govern- 
ment without awaiting the action of congress, 
and was elected first governor under the new 
constitution, holding ofifice until September, 1850, 
when California, was admitted to the Union. 
He practised law ; was a judge of the Supreme 
court of the state, 1857-'58, and president of the 
Pacific bank of San Francisco, 1863-^80. He 
published: The Path which led a Protestant 
Lawyer to the Catholic Church (1860); The 
American Theory of Oovemm^nt considered 
with Reference to the Present Crisis (2d ed. 
1861); RecoUeciions and Opinions of an Old 
Pioneer (1880); and Reasons why toe should 
Believe in God (1884). He died in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.. May 16, 1895. 

BURNETT, Waldo Irving, naturalist, was born 
in Southboro, Mass., July 12, 1828, son of Dr. Joel 
Burnett. His studies were directed by his father, 
who from earliest childhood fostered his interest 
in science. When sixteen years of age, he was 
thrown upon his own resources by the death of 
his father and he taught school and studied medi- 
cine. He was graduated at the Treniont medical 
school, Boston, in 1849, studied at the European 
universities, devoting especial attention to nat- 
ural history and microscopy. Ill-health prevented 
him from accepting active i)ositions on his return 
to America, and he devoted hioiself to literary 
work. He contributed to many scientific publi- 
cations. His prize essay, Tlie Cell, its Physiol- 
ogy, Pathology and Philosophy, as deduced from 
Original Observations ; to which is added its His- 
tory and Criticism (1852), was published by the 
American medical association, of which he was 
an honored member. His translation of Siebold'S 
Anatomy of the Invertebrate passed through 
two editions, and at the time of his death he 
was engaged in translating the Comparative 
Anatomy of Siebold and Stannius. He died in 
Boston, Mass., July 1, }854. 

BURNETT, Ward BeQlamln, soldier, was 
bom in Pennsylvania in 1811. He was gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1882, and after serving 
in the Black Hawk war and on garrison duty at 



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BURNHAM. 



BURNHAM. 



Fort Jackson, La., he returned to the military 
academy and served for a year as assistant 
instructor of infantry tactics. He resigned his 
commission in 1886 to engage in civil engineer- 
ing. He re-entered the service in 1846, and 
distinguished himself in the Mexican war as 
colonel of the 2d N. Y. volunteers, receiving in 
recognition of his gallantry a brevet brigadier- 
generalship and a vote of thanks from the 
leg^islature of New York, a silver medal from 
the city of New York, and from the surviving 
members of his regiment a gold medal and 
the gold snuff-box in which the freedom of the 
city of New York had been presented to Gen. 
Andrew Jackson forty years before. From 1849 
to 1854 General Burnett was engaged in dry 
dock construction at the Brooklyn and Phila- 
delphia navy yards, from 1858 to 1856 on the 
Brooklyn and Norfolk waterworks, and from 
1858 to 1860 as surveyor-general of Kansas and 
Nebraska. He was an invalid during the later 
years of his life, and died at Washington, D. C, 
June 24, 188i 

BURNHAM, Daniel Hadson, architect, was 
born in Hendei-son, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1846; son of 
Edwin and Elizabeth (Weeks) Burnham ; grand- 
son of Nathan Burnham, and a descendant of 
Lieut. Thomas Bumbam, who immigrated to 
Massachusetts in 1685. He removed to Chicago, 
111., with his parents in 1856, and was educated in 
various schools there and in Massachusetts. He 
studied architecture in Chicago, and settled in 
practice there in 1880. He was the architect of the 
Rookery, the Calumet club house, The Temple 
and Masonic Temple, Montauk block. Insurance 
exchange, Women's building. Northern hotel and 
several churches in Chicago, 111., the Mills build- 
ing, San Francisco, Cal., the EUicott Square 
building, Buffalo, N. Y., the Society for Savings 
building, Cleveland, Ohio, and the Land Title 
building, Philadelphia, Pa. He became an au- 
thority on office buildings. He was chief architect 
and director of works of the World's Fair build- 
ings, 1890-'98, and was president of the American 
institute of architects, 1894. 

BURNHAM, Henry Eben, senator, was born 
in Dunbarton, N. H., Nov. Q. 1844 ; son of Henry 
L. Burnham, and a descendant of John Burnham 
who came from Norwich, England, in 1685, and 
settled in what is now Essex, Mass. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth college in 1865 ; studied 
law in the office of Minot and Mugridge at Con- 
cord, N.H., and in the offices of E. S. Cutter and 
Judge Lewis W. Clark at Manchester, N.H. He 
was admitted to the New Hampshire bar in 1868 ; 
engaged in practice with Judge David Cross at 
Manchester, later with George I. McAllister, and 
subsequently became a member of tlie firm of 
Bumliam, Brown & Warren. He served as judge 




of the probate court in Hillsborough county, 
1876-79, and presided over the Republican state 
convention in 1888. He was elected to the UiS. 
senate from New Hampshire as a Republican for 
the term 1901-'07. 

BURNHAM, Michael, clergyman, was bom at 
Essex, Mass., June 28, 1889. In 1860, he entered 
Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., and was 
graduated from Amherst college in 1867, and 
from the Andover theological seminary in 1870. 
In 1868'-69, he was licensed to preach, and in 

1870 was ordained and 

installed pastor of the 
Central Congrega- 
tional church. Fall 
River, Mass., resigning 
in 1882 to accept the 
pastorate of Immanuel 
church. Boston High- 
lands, where he re- 
mained three years. 
On Feb. 27, 1885, he as- 
sumed charge of the 
First Church, Spring- 
field, Mass., and in 1894 
accepted a call to the 

Pilgrim church. St. %,C^CU d*.tJU»M. 
Louis, Mo., and was * 

installed as its pastor June 1. He received from 
Amherst the degree of A.M. in 1877, and the 
degree of D.D. from Beloit college in 1887. He 
served several years on the board of trustees 
of Hartford theological seminary, of Wheaton 
seminary, of the French Protestant college, and 
of the School for Christian workers, at Spring- 
field, Mass. In 1885 he was made corporate mem- 
ber of the A. B. C. F. M., and in 1888 was elected 
trustee of Amherst college. He was made 
trustee of the Chicago theological seminary in 
1894, and of the newly organized American 
university at Washington, D. C. , in 1895. 

BURNHAM, Sherburne Wesley, astronomer, 
was bom at Thetford, Vt., in 1840. He was 
educated at Thetford academy, adopted steno- 
graphy as a profession, and during the civil war 
was with the army at New Orleans as shorthand 
reporter. At a book auction there he chanced 
to buy BurritVn Geography of the Heavens, 
and, becoming interested in the charts, the next 
clear night he traced out the constellations and 
principal stars in the heavens. This served to 
heighten the fascination of the study, and he pur- 
chased a cheap telescope, which he used until he 
exchanged it for a larger instrument. At the 
close of the war he removed to Chicago, where 
for many yeai-s he acted as court stenographer. 
On reading Webb's Celestial Objecta for Com- 
mon Telescopes, he determined to devote all his 
leisure time to astronomical investigations. 



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BURNHAM. 



BURNHAM. 



When AlTan Clark & Sons of Cambridge, Mass.. 
set up the great telescope in the Dearborn obser- 
vatory in the University of Chicago, Bumham 
ordered from them a telescope with a six-inch 
object glass, costing eight hundred dollars. For 
an observatory he erected a large piece of timber 
in his back yard, around which he built what 
his friends called a ** cheese box,'' surmounted 
by a dome, which could be easily turned. It 
wa 5 here that he made his first discoveries of 
double stars. Every clear night he spent in his 
** cheese box," leaving it only when the dawn 
sent the stars from his vision. He found his 
pro ;ress somewhat impeded by his lack of meas- 
uring instrimients, but he OTercame this diffi- 
culty by sending a list of his discoveries to Baron 
Dembowski, then the greatest living star meas- 
urer. These stars the baron took pleasure in 
verifying and measuring, and this resulted in a 
friendly correspondence, which lasted imtil the 
baron's death in 1881. Soon after this Mr. Webb 
began a correspondence with the American 
astronomer, resulting in his election as a fellow 
of the Royal astronomical society, his work 
creating great excitement among European 
astronomers. In March, 1878, his first cata- 
logue, comprising eighty-one newly discovered 
double stars, was published in England, and at 
intervals he published four more catalogues, 
making three hundred new double stars, all close 
and difficult, discovered and catalogued in less 
than two years by an amateur astronomer, who 
worked with a six-inch telescope. This was 
more than all the observations of the previous 
twenty years had contributed to this part of 
astronomy. Mr. Bumham was corresi)onding 
with many of the leading astronomers of Europe, 
and when M. Angot came to the United States 
to visit the principal American observatories, 
he was amazed to find the crudity of the working 
place of Bumham. Later, however, he was 
given access to the great 18i inch telescope at 
the Dearborn observatory, and he became as 
great an expert in the measurement of double 
stars as Baron Dembowski. He was dissatisfied 
with the micrometer in general use, and invented 
one which was afterwards almost universaUy 
adopted. He had for four years been a regular 
contributor to many prominent European jour- 
nals, and had published nine catalogues, embra- 
cing nearly five hundred of his new double stars, 
when it was proposed that he be permitted to use 
the telescope in the Dearborn university, and then 
the president of the Chicago astronomical society 
asked, **, Who is Mr. Bumham? " He kept persis- 
tently on with his work, and achieved enviable 
fame in the world of science ; he discovered and 
measured more than one thousand double stars. 
In 1879 he was reconmiended by Prof. Simon 



Newcomb, and employed by the tmstees of the 
Lick observatory to test the atmospheric and other 
conditions of Mount Hamilton, the proposed site 
of the observatory. He received a gold medal 
from the Royal Astronomical society, London, in 
1894, and became an associate of that society in 
1898. He was professor of practical astronomy 
at the University of Chicago and published a 
general catalogue of stars discovered by him, 
which was Issued in volume I. of the publications 
of Yerkes Observatory, 1900. 

BURNHAM, Theodore Frellnghuysen, di- 
vine, was born at Deckertown, N. J., Aug. 81, 
1845; son of Abner and Elizabeth Linn (Whit- 
aker) Bumham. He was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of the city of New York in 1871, and 
at the Union theological seminary in 1874. He 
was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, and 
preached in Freeport, N. Y., from 1874 to 1878; 
in South Amenia, N. Y., from 1878 to 1890; in 
Millerton, N. Y., from 1890 to 1892, and in the 
last named year became pastor of a Presbyterian 
church at Vallejo, CaL In 1893 he foimded the 
naval union for the men of the U. S. navy, at 
Mare Island, Vallejo, of which he became super- 
intendent. He was founder and first president 
of the Passaic free library, and a life director 
of the American Bible society. He received the 
degree of A.M. in 1878 from the University of the 
city of New York. His published writings 
include sermons, addresses, and contributions to 
periodicals. 

BURNHAM, Thomas Oliver Hazard Perry, 
bookseller, was born in Essex, Mass., in 1813. 
His father, Thomas M. Bumham, founded the 
** Antique Bokestore " on Comhill, Boston, 
about 1825. Perry began business as a peddler 
of apples and candies, and as an assistant of his 
elder brother, Thomas, who had a little bookstall 
at one end of Faneuil Hall market. In 1884 he 
entered the Comhill shop, where he was associ- 
ated with his father and two brothers. The shop 
was soon enlarged, and they continued to do 
business there until about 1860, when Perry 
removed to Washington street, his brother, La- 
fayette, retaining the Comhill stand. At the 
close of a twenty years' lease he removed to the 
comer of School and Tremont streets, and his 
shop became familiar to every antiquary in New 
England. In 1883 he sold the land on which his 
house stood to the Parker house for one dollar 
per square inch, and removed his stock of books 
to the basement of the Old South church. '' The 
Old Honest Publisher, Bumham,*' as he was 
called, was a constant attendant at book auc- 
tions and many quaint and curious volumes could/ 
be found on his dusty shelves. His knowledge 
of books was marvellous. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Nov. 14, 1891. 



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BURNSt Anthony, fugitive slave, was born 
in Virginia about 1830. When twenty years 
old he made his escape and reached Boston, 
where he worked during the years 1858-'54. 
The fugitive slave law which had recently been 
signed by President FiUmore made possible his 
arrest. May ^, 1854. Bums was confined in 
the court house and his trial was opened on the 
morning of ll^ay 25, Richard H. Dana, Jr., 
Charles M. Ellis, and Robert Morris volunteering 
as his counsel. The case was adjourned to the 
27th, and on the 26th a mass meeting was held 
in Faneuil Hall, which was addressed by Judge 
Russell, Theodore Parker, and Wendell Phillips; 
when news that a mob had gathered around the 
court house reached Faneuil Hall the meeting 
dissolved and its excited members rushed there. 
A door was forced, and in the struggle that 
followed one Bachelder was killed, while others 
were wounded, among them Rev. Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson. Finding the court house 
garrisoned by marines and soldiers, the besiegers 
retreated. On the 27th overtures were made to 
Colonel Suttle for the purchase of Bums. The 
colonel agreed to part with him for the siun of 
twelve himdred dollars, provided the money was 
tendered before 12 o'clock, P.M., May 27. The 
money and pledges were provided by the exer- 
tions of L. A. Grimes, pastor of the church for 
colored people, and the deed of manumission 
needed only the signature of the marshal, which 
he was prevented from affixing by District- 
Attorney Hallett. A decision was given by the 
commissioners, June 2, in favor of the slave- 
owner, and Bums was marched to the wharf 
surrounded by soldiers. There were fifty thou- 
sand spectators, but no attempt at rescue was 
made, the streets being lined with soldiers. In 
State street the windows were draped with black, 
a coffin inscribed with the legend, ** The Funeral 
of Liberty,*' was suspended from a window oppo- 
site the old state house, and a U. S. flag was hung 
across the street draped with black and with the 
Union down. Bums was placed on board a U. S. 
cutter and taken to Richmond, when he was 
fettered and confined in a slave pen for four 
months, and treated with loathsome cruelty. He 
was then sold to a Mr. McDaniel, of North Caro- 
lina, who is entitled to credit for the kindness 
with which he treated Bums, and the resolute 
help he gave in restoring him to his friends at the 
north. The twelfth Baptist church in Boston, of 
which Bums was a member, purchased his free- 
dom through the contributions made by the 
citizens. He returned to Boston, and by the 
benevolence of a lady was given a scholarship at 
Oberlin in 1855; from there he entered Fairmont 
institute. In 1860 he was put in charge of the 
colored Baptist church in Indianai)olis, but under 



the threat of the enforcement of the Black lawa^ 
with penalty of fine and imprisonment, he re- 
mained there only three weeks. Not long after 
he found a field of labor at St. Catherine's, 
Canada, where he worked with commendable 
zeal until his death, July 27, 1862. 

BURNSy Francis, M. £. bishop, was bom in 
Albany, N. Y., Dec. 5, 1809; of free negro par- 
ents, who bound him out as a servant when he 
was but five years old. At the age of fifteen he 
entered the academy at Lexington Heights, 
where he studied for the ministry. After years 
of service in the home field was sent out as a mis- 
sionary to Liberia, where the greater part of his 
remaining years were spent. He returned to the 
United States for a short visit in 1844, and was 
ordained deacon and elder. Soon after his return 
to Africa he was appointed presiding elder of the 
Palmas district, and in 1851 became superinten- 
dent of the missionary settlement at Monrovia, 
opening an academy at the latter place, imder the 
auspices of the board of missions. He was or- 
dained bishop in 1858, returning to the United 
States for the ceremony, which was performed 
by Bishops Janes and Baker. The five years fol- 
lowing his ordination were spent in laboring in 
the African field, and in 1868, returned to Amer- 
ica, and died at Baltimore, Md., April 18, 1868. 

BURNS, James Austin, educator, was bom at 
Oxford, Me., Jan. 25, 1840. He studied at Bow- 
doin college in the class of *62, and at the opening 
of the civil war became a lieutenant of the 7th 
Connecticut volunteers, August, 1861, and was 
promoted to a captaincy in 1862. He served on 
the staffs of Cenerals Viele, Stevens, Seymour, 
Strong and Terry ; was present at the sieges of 
Forts Pulaski, Sumter, and Wagner, and the in- 
vestment of Petersburg. He resided in Atlanta 
after the civil war, and was for many years pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the Southern medical col- 
lege. He is the author of a series of Juxtalinear 
TranslatiouH of the Classics. He received the 
degree of A.B. in 1882, and of Ph. D. in 1885 from 
Bowdoin college. 

BURNS, John, soldier, was bom in Burling- 
ton, N. J., Sept. 5, 1793. He was among the 
earliest volunteers in the war of 1812, and was a 
member of Colonel Miller's regiment, which 
turned the tide of battle in favor of the Ameri- 
cans at Lundy's Lane. He served during the 
Mexican war, and again volimteered his service 
in 1861, and when not accepted, owing to his 
advanced age he became a teamster in the army, 
in time of battle taking a place in the ranks. He 
was constable of Gtettysburg when Elarly*s troops 
occupied the town, and single-handed assumed 
his official prerogative, and was locked up by 
the Confederates. While the battle was at its 
height he took musket and ammunition from a 



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BURNSIDE. 



BURNSIDE. 



wounded soldier and kept up a deadly fire dur- 
ing the whole day, when he was wounded and 
captured, narrowly escaping execution as an 
ununiformed combatant. As the Confederates 
retreated he was left behind. He afterwards 
made his home on the battle-field, and was 
placed beyond want through the generosity of 
thousands of visitors. The **hero of Gettys- 
burg " finally lost his mind, wandered to New 
York city, and in December, 1871, was found 
in the streets nearly frozen. He was cared for 
and sent to his home in Gettysburg, Pa., where 
he died Feb. 7, 1872. 

BURNSIDE, Ambrose Everett, soldier, was 
bom in Liberty, Ind., May 23, 1824; fourth son 
of Edgehill and Pamelia (Brown) Bumside. 
His first American ancestor, Robert Bumside, 
settled in South Carolina about 1746, having fled 
from Scotland upon the final defeat of the 
"Young Pretender,'' 
whose cause he had 
espoused. Of his three 
sons bom in America, 
James during the 
period of the revolu- 
tion remained loyal 
to the crown, and was 
captain of a regiment 
^of loyalists, who op- 
*erated with the Brit- 
ish army in the south- 
em campaigns. As a 
Tory he fied to the 
^y ,. island of Jamaica, but 

W'^-'t^yi.^^^C^ in 1786 retumed to 
South Carolina, where 
he died in 1798. His widow, with four sons then 
grown, joined a band of Quaker emigrants bound 
for a free state, and before setting out gave free- 
dom to all her slaves. She crossed the Ohio river 
and located in Indiana. The third son, Edgehill, 
made his home in Liberty, a new town then just 
forming. Here he married and brought up a 
family of nine children. His life was a constant 
struggle with poverty, and Ambrose, when seven- 
teen years old, was apprenticed to a tailor. The 
business was irksome and he showed his inclina- 
tion to a military life by reading stories of heroes 
and talking with the old soldiers who had served 
in the war of 1812. This trait was made the sub- 
ject of comment by the patrons of the shop, and 
one of these, Caleb B. Smith, at the time a rep- 
resentative in Congress, offered to procure for 
him an appointment to West Point, which he 
obtained in 1843, and upon his graduation with 
the class of 1847, Lieutenant Bumside was or- 
dered to the city of Mexico, then under military 
occupation by United States troops. He did gar- 
rison duty there imtil the return of the army, 




when he served at Fort Adams, at Las Vegas, 
N. M., where he was woimded, and at Jefferson 
Barracks, Mo. He resigned his commission as 
1st lieutenant of the dd artillery in 1858, and 
established at Bristol, R. L, a factory for the 
manufacture of a breech-loading rifie, which he 
had invented, and which had received the ap- 
proval of a board of commissioners api)ointed by 
Cong^ress to test its merits in competition with 
some eighteen different breech-loading arms 
which had been submitted. This decision justi- 
fied him in expecting an order from the govern- 
ment, which not being forthcoming he went to 
Washington and was informed that he could 
have the contract upon the payment of a bonus 
of five thousand dollars to a lobbyist who enjoyed 
the favor of the war department. This proposi- 
tion he indignantly refused, and he was there- 
upon obliged to make an assignment for the 
benefit of his creditors, and with fifteen dollars 
in his pocket he started west to retrieve his for- 
tunes. With the assistance of old friends in 
Indiana he secured a position in Chicago as cash- 
ier of the land department of the Illinois Central 
railroad, of which his classmate, Capt. Oeo. B. 
McClellan, was vice-president, and after a year's 
service became treasurer of the road, with an 
office in New York city. By practising the 
strictest economy he paid his debts in fulL In 
1861 he was appointed, by Governor Sprague. 
colonel of the 1st Rhode Island volunteers, which 
he had organized. He led the regiment to Wash- 
ington by way of Annapolis, Md., and was one 
of the first to assist in its defence. He after- 
wards participated in the first battle of Bull Run> 
where he commanded a brigade at the com- 
mencement of the engagement, and succeeded to 
the command of General Hunter's division after 
that officer was wounded. He was promoted 
brigadier -general and received many public testi- 
monials for his part in that battle. In the winter 
of 1861-62 General Bumside was entrusted with 
the organization of an expedition designed to effect 
a lodgment upon the shores of North Carolina, 
and to carry a force into the interior in the rear 
of the Confederate army in Virginia, to cut off 
communication with the south. The attack was 
to be made by sea, and the first move proposed 
was the capture of Roanoke Island. Some twelve 
thousand troops were recruited and organized, 
sixty -five vessels collected and armed, and on 
Jan. 12, 186?, the fieet put to sea from Hampton 
Roads, arriving in Pamlico Sound on the 25th, 
after a most tempestuous voyage. The island 
was captured on February 8, after several sharp 
engagements. Control of Pamlico and Albe- 
marle sounds being thus secured, the next step 
was the capture of the town on the mamland 
A series of brilliant manoeuvres resulted in the 



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BURNSIDE. 



BURR. 



capture of Newbem, Beaufort, Fort Macon, and 
a number of less important points of vantage to 
the north, and ui)on General Bumside's return 
to the north he was presented with a handsome 
sword, together with a vote of thanks by the 
state of Rhode Island, congratulatory resolutions 
from the Biassachusetts and Ohio legislatures, 
and was promoted major-general of volunteers 
by nomination of President Lincoln and confirma- 
tion of the senate. Oeneral Bumside was next 
attached to the Army of the Potomac, and with 
his famous 9th corps assisted Oeneral McClellan 
in withdrawing from the peninsula. He marched 
into Maryland in command of the right wing 
of the army, reaching Frederick on September 
12, and, pushing on in pursuit of the retreating 
enemy, came into collision on the 14th with the 
Confederate rear in the passes of South Moun- 
tain. The engagement was spirited ; the enemy 
was driven at all points and a signal advantage 
gained. Three days later Bumside's troops pre- 
vented the battle of Antietam from being alto- 
gether a decisive victory for the Confederates by 
carrying and holding the stone bridge which 
crossed the Antietam. When Oeneral McClellan 
was deprived of his command and ordered to 
report at Trenton, N. J., General Bumside, on 
Nov. 10, 1862, assumed command of the Army 
of the Potomac. Then foUowed the disaster at 
Fredericksburg, all responsibility for which was 
generously assumed by Bumside, and after the 
occurrence of several minor misfortunes he was 
superseded, Jan. 26, 1868, by Oeneral Hooker. 
The president refused to accept his resignation, 
and appointed him to the conmiand of the depart- 
ment of the Ohio, where he rendered conspicuous 
servioe, clearing the country of guerillas, en- 
forcing stringent measures against the southern 
sympathizers on both sides of the river, and 
affording protection to the loyal population. In 
Aug^ust, 1868, he marched a force of eighteen 
thousand men across the Cumberland mountains, 
captured Cumberland Gap, and advancing toward 
KnoxvUle resisted an attack by Longstreet as 
he proceeded. He occupied Knoxville, which 
had been evacuated by General Buckner upon his 
approach. Here he entrenched himself and sus- 
tained a terrific assault made by Longstreet, 
and held his position in the face of fearful odds, 
until relieved at the end of a month by Oeneral 
Sherman *s approach. Again assigned to the 
command of his old 9th corps, Oeneral Bumside 
was actively engaged in the closing operations 
of the war under General Grant in the Wilder- 
ness, Cold Harbor and Petersburg campaigns. 
The losses in his corps in the Petersburg mine 
explosion were very heavy, and General Meade, 
whom he had outranked, but to whom he had 
magnanimously yielded the ccnnmand when the 



exigencies of the occasion seemed to indicate 
that a jimcture of forces would be effective, 
preferred charges of disobedience against him 
and ordered a court martial General Grant dis- 
approved of this method of procedure, but at 
Bumside*s request a court of inquiry was held. 
He was judged " answerable for the want of suc- 
cess,'* but subsequently it was determined by a 
congressional committee appointed to investigate 
the matter, that General Bumside*s plans had 
been well laid and would without doubt have 
been crowned with success had they been carried 
out according to his orders. At the close of the 
war Oeneral Burnside resigned his commission 
and retired to private life. In 1866 he was elected 
governor of Rhode Island, and being twice re- 
elected served until 1869, when he refused a 
fourth nomination, and once more engaged in 
railroad construction and management. He was 
in Paris at the time of the Franco- Prussian 
war, and was requested to act as envoy between 
besiegers and besieged. The attempted negotia- 
tions were not consummated, but General Bum- 
side won the respect of both armies through the 
incident of his offices. In January, 1875, he was 
elected to the United States senate from Rhode 
Island, and soon gained prominence in that body. 
He proved himself an able statesman, was ap- 
IK>inted a member of several imi)ortant commit- 
tees, and in 1880 was reelected. See Life and 
Public Services of Ambrose E. Bumside^ by 
Ben Perley Poore (1883). He died in Bristol, 
R. L, Sept. 8, 1881. 

BURR» Aaron, educator, was bom at Fair- 
field, Conn., Jan. 4, 1716; son of Daniel and Eliza 
Burr, and grandson of Jehu (2d) and Mary (Ward) 
Burr. He was graduated from Yale in 1785, and 
awarded one of the Berkeley scholarships, which 
enabled him to pursue his theological studies. 
In 1787 he was admitted to the Presbyterian 
ministry, and installed as pastor of the church at 
Newark, N. J. There he opened a school for 
boys, which he managed successfully for. some 
years, and in 1748 he was chosen president of the 
College of New Jersey, which had grown from 
the school started by William Tennent at Nesh- 
aminy, N. J., in 1726, which became known as 
the **Log College." The school was removed 
to Newark, N. J., so that he might attend to the 
duties of the presidency without resigning his 
parish. The first class was graduated in 1748, 
and was composed of six young men. In 1752 
President Burr married Esther, daughter of Jona- 
than Edwards. The fruit of this union was a 
daughter, who married Tapping Reeve, chief 
justice of the supreme court of Connecticut, 
and a son, Aaron, who became vice-president of 
the United States. President Burr resigned his 
pastorate at Newark in 1756, and removed the 



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BURR. 



BURR. 




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-college to Princeton, N. J. He published Tht 
Newark Qrammar, which was used for a num- 
ber of years at Princeton, and The Supreme 
Deity of Oar Lord Jesus Christ, a small volume 
{new edition, 1791), and several sermons. He died 
of overwork at Princeton, N. J., Sept. 24, 1757. 

BURR, Aaron, vice-president of the United 
States, was born at Newark, N. J., Feb. 0, 1766; 
son of Aaron and Esther (Edwards) Bmr. His 
father came of a distinguished stock and was 
president of the College of New Jersey. His 
mother was a daughter of Jonathan Edwards. 
Both of his parents died 
while he was still an 
infant, and from them 
he inherited a consid- 
erable estate, of which 
his uncle acted as guar- 
' dian during his minor- 
ity. He was gradu- 
ated from the College 
of New Jersey in 1772, 
and he was about to 
commence the study of 
law when the revolu- 
tionary war broke out. 
In July, 1775, he rode 
to Cambridge, Mass., 
and enlisted as a pri- 
vate in the Continental army, and for the next 
flve years he was a successful soldier. He ac- 
companied Benedict Arnold to Canada, and in 
the storming of Quebec displayed so much dash 
and brilliancy that he was made a major and 
^ven a place in General Washington's military 
family. Owing to disagreements with Washing- 
ton, however, he was soon transferred to the staff 
of General Putnam, whom he assisted in the 
defence of New York. In 1777 he was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, and distinguished himself at 
Hackensack and at Monmouth. For a portion 
of the winter of 1778-'79 he was in conmiand at 
West Point, and in January of the latter year he 
was put in charge of Westchester county, at 
that time the most exposed district in New York 
state. Although but twenty-three years of age, 
he displayed in this difificult position such skill 
and valor that he won the admiration both of his 
soldiers and of the people of the state. But in 
March, 1779, ill-health forced him to withdraw 
from the army and he sent in his resignation to 
Washington, who in accepting it remarked that 
** he not only regretted the loss of a good officer, 
but the cause which rendered his resignation 
necessary." Three years later he was admitted 
to the bar at Albany, N. Y., and his success as 
a lawyer was as brilliant and rapid as his suc- 
cess as a soldier. At this time he married a 
Mrs. Prevost, who is described as a very charm- 



ing and highly cultivated woman, the widow of 
an English officer. She was ten years older than 
Burr, and had two sons, but neither of these 
facts detracted from the felicity of the marriage, 
in the first year of which Burr's only child, 
Theodosia, was bom. The following ten years 
witnessed the climacteric of his happiness and 
prosperity. He was at the head of his profession, 
a leader in i)olitical life, happy in his domestic 
relations at Richmond Hill, his beautiful man- 
sion, the scene of a luxurious hospitality, which 
had for its guests, besides the distinguished per- 
sonages of the republic, Louis Philippe, Volney 
and Talleyrand. In 1788 he was appointed 
attorney -general of the state. In 1791, when he 
was elected United States senator by a Federal 
legislature, having in the meantime served as a 
Republican representative to the assembly, he 
had but one rival as a lawyer in New York, 
Alexander Hamilton. He was a skilful and 
adroit political manager, who understood how to 
hold and use the balance of power in his own 
party (the Republican) by keeping in the favor 
of both the Schuyler and Clinton factions, with- 
out swearing entire allegiance to either, and at 
the same time to maintain friendly relations with 
his opponents, the Federalists. In 1794 Mrs. 
Burr died, and thenceforth Aaron Burr centred 
the whole affection of his passionate nature 
upon his daughter, then eleven years old. 
He personally superintended her education, and 
made her his companion, a devotion which was 
repaid in full measure in later years. In the 
presidential election of 1800 he secured the vote 
of New York state to the Republicans, and there- 
fore the national election — Jefferson and him- 
self both receiving seventy -three votes, Adams 
sixty-five and Pinckney sixty -four — being at this 
time ** the chosen head of northern Democracy, 
idol of the ward of New York city, and aspirant 
to the highest offices he could reach by means 
legal or beyond law." After an exciting contest 
in the house of representatives, in which the 
Federalists attempted to elect Burr to the presi- 
dency, and in which Burr himself has been ac- 
cused of intriguing with them to elect himself, 
Jefferson was made President and Burr became 
vice-president. For his alleged treachery, Burr 
was deserted by his party. In 1804 he was the 
candidate of the Federalists for governor of New 
York, and would probably have been elected but 
for the opposition of Alexander Hamilton, who 
had also been instrumental in keeping him out 
of the presidency. This opposition, aggravated by 
certain uncomplimentary epithets, which Hamil- 
ton is alleged to have applied to Burr, gave rise to 
quarrel between them, which culminated in a duel 
at Weehaw ken -on -the -Hudson, July 7, 1804, Burr 
being the challenging party. Hamilton was 



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BURR. 



BURR. 



killed. As the news spread, it carried a wave 
of emotion over the stat^ and roused every- 
where sensations strangely mixed. In New York 
the Clinton interest, guided by James Cheetham, 
editor of the American Citizen, seized the mo- 
ment to destroy Burr's influence forever. Cheet- 
ham affected to think the duel a murder, and pro- 
cured Burr's indictment, which drove him from 
the state. Charges were invented to support 
this theory and were even accepted as history. 
In the south and west, on the other hand, the 
duel was considered a simple affair of honor, in 
which Burr appeared to better advantage than 
his opponent. Burr spent some time with his 
daughter, who was happily and prosperously 
married to Mr. Joseph Allston, and was living at 
her husband's estate in South Carolina, but later 
he returned to Washington and resumed his 
duties as vice-president. His resolution and 
fortitude stood him in good stead ; the loss of his 
prestige and popularity did not affect him as it 
would have done a weaker man, and his active 
mind had already formulated new courses of 
action. Failing in his effort to procure from the 
administration an office suitable to his talents, at 
the expiration of his presidential term in 1805, 
he made a journey through the southwest, in 
the course of which he developed what seems to 
have been a scheme of empire dependent partly 
on conquest and partly on the secession of the 
southwest from the Union. Just before setting 
out on this journey, he wrote to his son-in-law : 
** In New York I am to be disfranchised, and in 
New Jersey hanged. Having substantial objec- 
tions to both, I shall not for the present hazard 
either, but shall seek another country." With 
forty thousand dollars, which Blennerhassett 
put into his hands for that purpose, he bought 
four hundred thousand acres of Red River land, 
with a somewhat doubtful title, as a rendezvous 
and base of operations, and then proceeded to 
secure co-operators. He did this so successfully 
that many men of prominence at Washington, 
as well as in the southwest, became implicated 
in the enterprise to a greater or less extent. 
As nearly as can be judged in the lack of positive 
knowledge, this was the scheme: Burr was to 
become ruler of Louisiana under British protec- 
tion, in which capacity he would give validity 
to the disputed land-title; the western states 
were to secede from the Union, and join the new 
government; Spanish possessions to the south- 
ward were to be conquered ; then the enfeebled 
Union of the seaboard states would fall to pieces. 
Burr would get an empire, and Blennerhassett 
fabulous wealth in return for his forty thousand 
dollar investment. But before this elaborate 
programme could be carried out, the American 
p^ple became so suspicious and alarmed that 



President Jefferson ordered Burr's arrest. He 
was indicted for high treason. His trial, which 
lasted from March 27 to Sept. 7, 1806, is one of 
the most remarkable events in American history. 
Chief Justice Marshall presided. Wirt, Rodney 
and Hay took jpa,tt in the prosecution, and Luther 
Martin and Edmund Randolph in the defence. 
The presence and devotion of his daughter, then 
in the fuU height of her beauty and intellectual 
I)ower, awakened much sympathy and interest, 
and doubtless had an influence in procuring his 
release. The jury brought in the following 
carefully worded verdict : ** We of the jury say 
that Aaron Burr is not proved to be guilty under 
the indictment by any evidence submitted to us. 
We, therefore, flnd him not guilty." Later Burr 
and the principal conspirators were tried for 
misdemeanor n fitting out an expedition against 
Mexico, but were acquitted on technical grounds. 
Burr went to Europe in 1808, hoping to obtain 
there the means of making an attack upon 
Mexico. It was a bootless mission, however, and 
after four years of disappointment and privation 
he returned to New York, disguised and poverty- 
stricken, to meet the severest blow fortime had 
yet dealt to him. A few faithful friends had 
scarcely welcomed him to their midst, when the 
death of Theodosia's only child was announced 
to him ; the faithful and grief -stricken daughter 
hastening to greet her idolized father perished 
a few months later in a storm off Cape Hatteras. 
Burr, who attained only moderate success in his 
practice in New York, after twenty-three years 
married, in his seventy -eighth year, Madame 
Jumel, a French woman, a widow of means, 
but later he separated from her. Burr was the 
most fascinating and brilliant man of his time. 
Perhaps no better suilimary of his character has 
been made than that of Thomas Jefferson, who 
called him *' a great man in little things, a small 
man in great things. " He is remembered chiefly 
for his adventures and misfortunes. (See Life 
and Times of Aaron Burr, by James Parton ; 
Life of Burr by M. L. Davis ; Burr's Eu- 
ropean Diary and The Report of the Trial 
ftrr Treason,) He died at Staten Island, N. Y., 
Sep. 14, 1836. 

BURR, Enoch Pitch, lecturer, was bom at 
Green's Farms, Conn., Oct. 21, 1818; a member of 
the same family as Aaron Burr. He was fitted 
for college, and was graduated class orator at 
Yale in 1839. The next three years he spent in 
post-graduate studies, including theology, 
science, higher mathematics and physical as- 
tronomy. In 1850 he became pastor of a Congre- 
gational church in Lyme, Conn. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from London, and in 1868 
the degree of D.D. from Amherst college, and 
he was chosen lecturer on the scientific evidences 



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BURR. 



BQRRALL. 



of religion in that institution. At the request 
of a large number of the leading clergymen and 
laity of New York and Boston, he delivered, in 
1874, a course of lectures in both cities on ** The 
Latest Astronomy against the Latest Atheism,'' 
and later repeated the course before the Shefifield 
scientific school, Williams college, and other 
institutions. He was a voluminous writer on 
scientific and theological subjects. Among his 
published works are : Application of the Cal- 
culus to tJie tJieory of Neptune (1848) ; Pater 
Mundi (1870) ; Ad Fidem (1871) ; Ecce 
Coleum, or Parish Astronomy (six lectures, 
1878) ; Doctrine of Evolution (1873) ; A 
Song of the Sea (poem 1878) ; Hie Voyage 
(1874) ; Toward the Strait Gate (1875); In 
the Vineyard (1876) ; Dio, the Athenian 
(1881) ; Celestial Empire (1885) ; Universal 
Beliefs (1887) ; Long Ago (1888) ; Practi- 
cal Relations (1889) ; Aleph, the Chaldean 
(1891) ; and Tempted to Unbelief. 

BURR, Prank A., journalist, was bom Nov. 
24, 1843. When but three years old his father 
consigned him to the care of a band of Chippewa 
Indians, who, when he was eight years of age, 
took him to Detroit, where he was a newsboy. 
Senator Chandler, on whose front steps he was 
accustomed to fold his papers, became interested 
in him, and gave him an opportunity to advance 
himself. When he was eighteen years old he 
went to the war as a private, and was advanced 
to the rank of colonel of cavalry. Afterward he 
became a locomotive engineer, an unsuccessful 
candidate for representative in Congress, United 
States district attorney, an official in the patent 
office, and a journalist. He published a memor- 
able interview with Jefferson Davis, and claimed 
to have induced James Q. Blaine to write his 
letters on the distribution of the surplus among 
the states. He wrote a life of (General Grant, 
and one of Glen. James A. Beaver. For many 
years he was connected with the Philadelphia 
Press, but toward the close of his life wrote 
mainly for syndicates. He died at Camden, 
N. J., Jan. 15, 1894. 

BURR, Qeorge Lincoln, educator, was bom 
at Oramel-on-the-Genesee, N. Y., Jan. 80, 1867 ; son 
of Dr. William Josiah and Jane (Lincoln) Burr. 
He prepared for college at Homer, N. Y., and in 
1873, to gain means for his further education, 
he taught school, then learned the printer's trade 
at Cortland, N. Y., and in 1877 entered Cornell 
university, where he had charge of the presi- 
dent's library, and, at his graduation in 1881, 
President White made him his secretary. In 
1884 to 1886 he studied abroad, and was for two 
years engaged with Mr. White in historical 
research on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1888 
he became an instructor in history at Cornell, 



and later was raised to a professorship, still retain- 
ing his charge of the White historical library, 
afterwards transferred to the university. The 
commission appointed by President Cleveland 
in 1896 to investigate and rei)ort upon the true 
divisional line between Venezuela and British 
Guiana made Professor Burr its historical expert, 
and sent him abroad to search in European 
archives for further light upon the disputed 
boundaries. His reports and maps, together with 
the transcripts brought by him from EuroQie, 
were published by the conmiission. Besides 
portions of a catalogue of the White historical 
library, he published several studies of the witch- 
persecution. 

BURR, Theodosia, daughter of Aaron Burr. 
(See Allston, Theodosia. ) 

BURRAQE, Henry Sweetser, author, was 
born at Fitihburg, Mass., Jan. 7, 1837. He was 
graduated at Brown university in 1861, and at 
Newton theological institution in 1867, after 
which he studied at the University of Halle, 
Germany, 1868-'69; was pastor of the Baptist 
church, Waterville, Me., to October, 1878, when 
he became editor and proprietor of Zton*s Advo- 
cate, Portland, Me. While a divinity student, 
in 1862, he enlisted in the 36th Massachusetts 
volunteers; was commissioned 2d and Ist lieu- 
tenant and captain; was wounded at Cold 
Harbor, June 3. 1864 ; prisoner of war from Nov. 
1. 1864. to Feb. 22, 1865; was appointed assistant 
adjutant-general on the sta£f of the 1st brigade, 
2d division, 9th army corps; brevetted major; 
mustered out of service June 8, 1865, and re- 
turned to his studies. He became a member of 
the Maine historical society and of the military 
order of the Loyal Legion, and of the Sons of 
the American revolution. He published numer- 
ous review articles, and also. The Act of Bap- 
tism in the History of the Christian Cliurch 
(1879) ; History of the Anabaptists in Switzer- 
land (1882) ; and Baptist Hymn Writers and 
their Hymns (1887) ; History of the Baptists 
of New England (1894) ; The First Mention 
ofPemaquid in History (1894) ; The St, Croix 
Commission (1895). He also edited Brown 
University in the Civil War (1868) ; Henry 
Wadsu^orth Longfellow, Seventy-fifth Birthday 
(1882) ; History of tlie SSth Mass, VoU, (1884); 
Hosier's Relation of Waymouth's Voyage to 
the Coast of Maine in 1605 (1887). He re- 
ceived the degree of D.D; from Brown university 
in 1883, and was elei*ted a trustee in 1889. 

BURRALL, William Porter, railroad presi- 
dent, was bom in Canaan, Conn., in 1806. He 
was graduated at Yale in 1826, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1829. Ten years of successful 
practice followed, and in 1889 he became the 
preoideiit of the Housatonic railroad company, 



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BURRILL. 



BURRITT. 



retaining that office for fifteen years. He was 
treasurer and afterward president of the Illinois 
central railroad company, vice-president and 
subsequently president of the Hartford and New 
Haven railroad company, and ui)on the consoli- 
dation of the two roads he became vice-president 
of the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
company. In 1859 he took up his residence in 
Salisbury, Conn., and served several terms in the 
assembly and for one term in the state senate. 
He died in Hartford, Conn., March 3, 1874. 

BURRELLt* David James, clergyman, was 
born at Mount Pleasant, Pa., Aug. 1, 1844. His 
father was one of the early settlers of Illinois, 
having located at Freeport in 1850. In 1860 he 
entered Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., and 
was graduated from Yale college, in 1867 being 
awarded the De Forest gold medal for oratory. 
He then entered the Union theological seminary, 
where he was graduated in 1871 and at once 
entered upon the work of the ministry in con- 
nection with the city missions of Chicago. He 
accepted the pastorate of the Second Presby- 
terian church at Dubuque, Iowa, in 1876, where 
he remained eleven years. He then accepted a 
call from Westminster Presbyterian church at 
Minneapolis, Minn., and also the presidency of 
Macallister college. In 1891 he assiuned the 
pastorship of the Marble collegiate church of 
New York city. He contributed liberally to 
current literature, both secular and religious, 
and published, The Great Religions^ The 
Gospel of Gladness, and The Morning Cometh, 
and in connection with his brother, Rev. Jos. 
Dunn Burrell, Hints and Helps, for the years 
1892, '93 and '94. He had charge of the interna- 
tional lesson colunm of the Chicago Interior 
for eleven years, filled the chairs of Greek and 
Hebrew in the German theological seminary of 
the northwest, and had a seat on the board of 
trustees of the United society of the Dutch re- 
formed churches. 

BURRILL, James, senator, was bom in Provi- 
dence, R. I., April 25, 1772. He was graduated 
at Rhode Island college in 1788, and that insti- 
tution conferred on him the degree of LL.D. in 
1813, he serving as trustee 1818-'20. He studied 
law and became eminent at the bar. In 1797 he 
was attorney -general of the state of Rhode Is- 
land; in 1813 he resigned his office and was 
elected to the state legislature, serving as speaker 
of the house; in 1816 he was appointed justice 
of the supreme court, in 1817 was elected to the 
United States senate, and died, while in office, 
at Washington, D. C, Deo. 25, 1820. 

BURRILL, Thomas Jonathan, naturalist, 
was bom at Pittsfield, Mass., April 25. 1889. In 
1867 he went with Maj. J. W. PoweU on his 
famous Rocky Mountain expedition. He was 



graduated from the State Normal university, 
Normal, 111., in 1868. In 1871 he was elected to 
the chair of botany and horticulture in the uni- 
versity ; in 1877 was made dean of the depart- 
ment of natural sciences, and held the office 
seven years, meanwhile making imi)oi'tant inves- 
tigations and discoveries. In 1882 was elected its 
vice-president, and was acting president 1891-4. 
He served as president of the Illinois state horti- 
cultural society, vice-president of the American 
horticultural society, vice-president of the bio- 
logy department of the American association for 
the advancement of science, and from 1885 to 
1886 as president of the American society of 
microsoopists. He is the author of Uredinece, 
or Parasitic Fungi of Illinois (\SSo) and many 
periodical articles, addresses and papers. 

BURRITT, BlihUy philanthropist, was bom in 
New Britain, Conn., Dec. 8, 1810: son of Elihu 
Burritt and grandson of Elihu Burritt. both sol- 
diers in the Revolu- 
tion. He was brought 
up on the farm and 
upon the death of his 
father in 1828 he ap- 
prenticed himself to 
a blacksmith. He 
was extremely studi- 
ous and was assisted 
by his brother who 
conducted a small 
academy which Elihu 
for a time attended. 
With his brother's 
help he mastered 
Greek, Latin, mathe- 

matics and the mod- ^li4^ ^tlu^v^^OtT. 
em languages. He 

became a grocer but the financial crisis of 
1837 wrecked his business, whereupon he re- 
moved to Worcester, Mass., where he resumed 
his work at the anvil and his study of the lan- 
guages in the library of the Antiquarian society. 
In 1839 he commenced the publication of 
the Literary Gemince, a monthly periodical, 
printed in French and English, and designed 
principally as a guide to students of the French 
language. His translation of the Icelandic sagas, 
relating to the discovery of America, drew atten- 
tion to his scholastic achievements. He acquired 
the sobriquet of The Learned Blacksmith, and 
during the season of 1841-42 delivered his lecture, 
Application and Genius, in not less than sixty 
cities and towns, and attracting unusually large 
audiences. He argued that all attainment was 
the natural result of persistent application, of the 
possibilities of which he was himself an exponent, 
since he had mastered some thirty-two languages 
during the course of his busy life. His next 




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BURROUGHS. 



BURROUGHa. 



lecture, ** Uniyersal Peace." was delivered before 
a large audience at Boston. He was warmly wel- 
comed as an able co-worker by the prominent little 
band of peace advocates at Boston, and, upon his 
return to Worcester, established and edited The 
Christian Citizen, a journal advocating, among 
other reforms, the peaceable settlement of inter- 
national disagreements. In 1846 he sailed for 
England, where he accomplished much good 
work in conjunction with the peace advocates of 
that country, and while there be laid the founda- 
tion for the international association., called 
** The League of Universal Brotherhood," with 
which his name is indissolubly linked. He edited 
and published for many years The Bond of 
Brotherhood, a periodical which he established 
while in England, and he was prominently instru- 
mental in organizing the first peace congress, 
held in 1848, and also those held in 1849 and 1850. 
In the latter year he returned to America, lec- 
turing on p^ce, temperance, anti-slavery and 
self -culture. In 1852 he assumed editorial charge 
of the Citizen of the Worlds a Philadelphia paper, 
and in its columns he strenuously advocated the 
emancipation of the slaves by purchase. The fail- 
tire of this project caused him bitter disappoint- 
ment. He was successful in his efforts to secure 
cheap ocean postage. In 1865 he was appointed 
U. S. consul at Birmingham, retaining that office 
until the inauguration of President Grant. The 
later years of his life were spent in retirement on 
his farm at New Britain, where he devoted himself 
to study, to literary work, and to the moral, 
religious, and educational development of his 
fellow-citizens. A list of his books includes 
some thirty -two volumes, among which the more 
notable are : Sparks from the AnvU (1847) ; 
Peace Papers for the People (1848) ; dive 
Leaves (1850-'53) ; Thoughts and Things at 
Home and Abroad (1854) ; Year Book of 
Nations (1856) ; Walk from London to John 
aOroaVs, with Notes by the Way (1864) ; 
Walk from London to Land's End and Back 
(1865) ; Lectures and Speeches (1866) ; TJte 
Mission of Great Sufferings (1867) : Walks 
in the Black Country and its Oreen Border- 
land (1868) ; Ten Minute Talks on all Sorts 
of Subjects: with Autobiography (1878) ; Why 
I left the AnvU (1877) ; and Chips from Many 
Blocks (1878). See Elihu Burriit ; A Sketch 
of His Life and Labw^s, by Charles Nortliend 
(1879). He died in New Britain, Conn., March 
9, 1879. 

BURROUGHS, John, naturalist, was bom in 
Roxbury, Delaware county, N. Y., April 3, 1837, 
son of Chauncy A. and Amy (Kelly) Burroughs ; 
grandson of Eklmund Burroughs; and a remote 
descendant of the Rev. George Burroughs ; bora 
about 1650 ; graduated at Harvard, 1670 ; minister 




JIm< A^a/^. 



at Falmouth, 1672-*80, and at Salem, 1680'*90 ; 
tried for witchcraft, Aug. 6, 1692, for tormenting 
one Mary Wolcott ; condemned to death and exe- 
cuted at Salem, liass., Aug. 19, 1692. John 
Burroughs's boyhood 
was passed on his 
father's farm, and his 
education was ac- 
quired at the district 
school and in the 
neighboring acade- 
mies, after which he 
taught school for sev- 
eral years. In 1864 ,-.^ 
he was employed in'/^|^ 
the treasury depart- "^ 
ment at Washington 
as clerk in the office 
of the comptroller of 
the currency, and 
later as chief of the 
organization division^ 
of that bureau. In 1872 he resigned, having been 
appointed receiver of the Wallkill national bank 
at liiddletown, N.T., and afterward national 
bank examiner. He settled on a fruit farm at 
Esopus-on Hudson, Ulster county, N.Y. A lover 
of nature from childhood, he early learned to 
record his observations, his most congenial study 
being the habits and peculiarities of birds, animals, 
trees, flowers and insect life. His first magazine 
article Expression, was published in the At- 
lantic Monthly, in 1860, His published books 
include: Notes on Walt Whitman, as Poet and 
Person (1867) ; Wake Robin (1871) ; Winter 
Sunshine (1875) ; Birds and Poets (ld77) ; Locusts 
and Wild Honey (1879) ; Pepacton (1881) ; Fresh 
Fields (1884) ; Signs and Seasons (1886) ; Indoor 
Studies (1889); WJiitman: a Study (1896); 
Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers, ' 

BURROUGHS, John Curtis, educator, was 
born in Stamford, Delaware county, N. Y., Dec. 7, 
1818. After graduation at Yale college in 1842, 
and at Drew theological seminary in 1846, ho 
preached for a year at Waterford, N. Y., i^nd for 
five years held a pastorate at West Troy. In 185^ 
he accepted a call from the First Baptist church 
of Chicago, 111., and helped to foimd the ChiriS' 
tian Times, afterwards the Standard. In 1855, in 
connection with Senator Douglas, who donated 
ten acres of ground for the university site, he in- 
augurated a movement which resulted in the 
establishment of the Chicago university, and in 
1856 became its first president and after 1876 its 
chancellor. For many years he devoted his entire 
time and energies to the interests of the institu- 
tion, and to him is largely -due its continued ex- 
istence. He resigned the chancellorship in 1878, 
subsequently beconung a member of the Chicago 



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BURROWES. 



BPRROVVS. 



board of education, and later serving as assistant 
superintendent of the Chicago public schools. 
The degree of S.T.D. was conferred upon him by 
the University of Rochester, in 1858, and that of 
LL.D. by Madison University in 1869. He died in 
Chicago, 111., April 21, 1892. 

BURR0WE5. Qeorge, educator, was bom in 
Trenton, N.J., April 8, 1811. He was graduated 
at the College of New Jersey in 1832 and in the- 
ology at Princeton in 1885. He was tutor at the 
College of New Jersey, 1884-'85; was ordained by 
the presbytery of New Castle. Dec. 13, 1836, and 
was pastor at West Nottingham, Md., 1836-'50. 
He was professor of Latin and Greek languages at 
Lafayette, 1850-'55; and pastor at Newtown, Pa., 
1857-'59. In 1859 he connected himself with the 
Presbyterian board of education and removed to 
the Pacific slope where he determined upon 
San Francisco as the seat of the first Presbyterian 
institution of learning on the coast and founded 
City college, commencing the school with four 
pupils and an empty treasury. He resigned the 
presidency of the college in 1865, leaving two 
hundred pupils, two teachers and property valued 
at |200«000. He returned east and was professor 
of Biblical instruction at Lafayette, 1865-*69, 
founder and principal of University Mound 
school, 1869-^73; and professor of Hebrew and 
Old Testament literature, San Francisco Presby- 
terian theological seminary, 1872-'94. He re- 
ceived the degree of D.D. from Washington 
college. Pa , in 1853. He read the Greek t^ta- 
ment through over three hundred times. He is 
the author of : Conimeniary on the Songs of Sol- 
omon (1853) ; Octiyrara .(1855) : and Advanced 
Chrotcth in Orace (1885). He died in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., April 19, 1894. 

BURROWES, Thomas H., educator, was bom 
at Strasburg, Lancaster county. Pa., Nov. 16, 
1805. He was educated at Queb^, Canada, and 
at Trinity college, Dublin, Ireland. In 1831 and 
1882 he was elected to the house of representa- 
tives of the Pennsylvania legislature, and in 1885 
Governor Ritner appointed him secretary of the 
commonwealth, in which office he may be said to 
have initiated the free-school system of education 
in Pennsylvania. In 1851 he began the publica- 
tion of the Pennsylvania School Journal, which, 
by act of the legislature, was, in 1855, made the 
organ of the school department of the state. In 
1854 he prepared for the state the descriptive mat- 
ter for •• Pennsylvania School Architecture," and 
after 1856 he drafted most of the important school 
laws passed by the Pennsylvania legislature, in- 
cluding the normal school law. In 1858 he was 
elected mayor of Lancaster, and in 1860 was ap- 
pointed state superintendent of common schools 
of Pennsylvania. In 1864 he was made superin- 
tendent of the soldier's orphan schools of Penn- 



sylvania, and estaMislied similar institutions 
througliout the state. Five years later he was 
elected president of tiie Pennsylvania agricultural 
college. He died at State College, March 25, 1871. 

BURROWS, Julius C, senator, was bom at 
Northeast, Erie county. Pa., Jan. 9, 1837. He 
received a common-school and academic edu- 
cation, studied law, and during the civil war 
served as an officer in the Union army, 1862-'64. 
At the close of the war he removed to Michigan, 
and was prosecuting attorney of Kalamazoo 
county, 1865-'67. He declined the position of 
supervisor of internal revenue for Michigan and 
Wisconsin in 1867. He was elected in 1872 to 
represent his district in the national hoa% of 
representatives in the 43d, and was again elected 
to the 46th and 47th cox^gresses. President 
Arthur appointed him solicitor of the United 
States treasury department, but he declined to 
serve. He was a delegate-at-large from liichigan 
to the national Republican convention at Chicago 
in 1884; was again a representative in Congress, 
serving in the 49th, 50th, 51st, 52d, 53d, and 54th 
congresses. He resigned his seat Jan. 23, 1895, to 
become U. S. senator, beinj^ elected to fill the un- 
expired term of Francis B. Stockbridge, deceased. 
He was re-elected in 1898 for the term expiring 
March 3, 1905. He served on the house commit- 
tee on ways and means, supported the McKinley 
tariff bill and was chairman of the senate com- 
mittee on revision of the laws, and a member of 
the finance and other committees. 

BURROWS, William, naval officer, was bom 
in Kensington, Pa., Oct. 6, 1785, son of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Burrows, a marine naval officer. He 
received a midshipman's warrant in 1799, was as- 
signed to the Portsmouth, and in 1803 he was trans- 
ferred to the Constitution, as acting lieutenant, 
serving in that capacity throughout the Tripolitan 
war. In 1808, in command of a gunboat, he was 
engaged on the Delaware river in enforcing the 
embargo law, and in 1809 was appointed 1st lieu- 
tenant of the Hornet, Finding himself outranked 
by his former subordinates, he resigned his com- 
mission, but it was not accepted, Secretary Ham- 
ilton granting him a furlough of a year, during 
which he visited India, and at its close was 
assigned to the command of the sloop Enterprise, 
On Sept. 1, 1813, while off the coast of Portland, 
Me., he fell in with the British brig Boxer, and 
captured her after an engagement of forty -five 
minutes. Burrows was mortally wounded, but 
lived long enough to receive the surrender of the 
Boxer, whose commanding officer. Captain Bly the, 
had fallen in the early moments of the action. 
Blythe and Burrows were buried in adjoining 
graves in Portland, and Cong^ress recognized his 
gallantry by awarding a gold medal to his nearest 
male relative. His death occurred Sept. 6, 1818. 



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BURIvUS. 



BURT. 




BURRUS, John Houstoot educator, was born 
near Murfreesboro, Tenn., in 1849; son of William 
C. Burrus, a wealthy planter, lawyer, and politi- 
cian; his mother, Nancy, was a slave of mulatto 
and Indian extraction. On the death of Mr. Bur- 
rus in 1860, Nancy and her three surviving sons 

were divided with his 
other property among 
his heirs. President 
Lincoln's emancipa- 
tion piroclamation 
gave them freedom, 
and John with his 
mother and brothers 
settled in Nashville, 
Tenn. He entered the 
I University as a stu- 
I dent in 1867, and was 
f graduated in 1875. He 
was engaged for two 
years as an instructor 
^ H> ^klAA/iJLy^ in Fisk university, but 
(/ in 1^ 7ft ^ 9 resigned to 

devote himself exclusively to his legal studies. 
He was admitted to the bar in January, 1881, and 
in September, 1883, became president of Alcorn 
agricultural and mechanical college at Rodney, 
Miss. 4 

BURT, ArmUtead, representative, was bom 
in Edgefield district, S.C, Nov. 16, 1802. He 
was educated as a lawyer and practised in Abbe- 
ville and Willington, Abbeville district, S.C. He 
was a representative in the 28th, 29th, 30tli, 81st 
and 32d congresses, 1843-'53, and was elected 
speaker pro tempore of the 30th congress, serving 
during the absence of Speaker Winthrop. He 
was a secessionist, but held no office under the 
Confederate government. He was a delegate to 
the Democratic national convention in New York 
in 1868. He died at Willington, S.C, Oct. 30, 1888. 
BURT, John Otis, physician, was bom at Syra- 
cuse, N.Y., April 27, 1835. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1858, and at the New York college 
of physicians and surgeons in 1864. He was ap- 
pointed an assistant surgeon in tlie U.S. navy 
July 30, 1861 ; served on the Colorado of the Gulf 
squadron ; at the naval hospital at the mouth of 
the Mississippi and on the iron-clad Cairo until 
slie was destroyed by a torpedo on the Yazoo river. 
He resigned Nov. 23, 1863, studied medicine in 
Paris and Vienna 1863-4, and subsequently became 
professor in the medical department of Syracuse 
university. He died in 1894. 

BURT, Nathaniel Clark, clergyman, was bom 
in Fairton, N. J., April 23. 1825. He was gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1846, from the theological 
seminary in 1849, and was ordained to preach in 
1850. He served as pastor of churches at Spring- 
field, Ohio, 1850-'55; at Baltimore, Md., 1855-'60; 



and at Cincinnati, Ohio, l860-'66. The years 
1866 and 1867 were spent in travelling through 
Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land, where he 
made investigations and observations of much 
value to Bible students. In 1868 he became 
president of the Ohio female college, but, after 
two years' service, his ill-health constrained 
him to seek a permanent home in southern 
Europe. He received the degree of S.T.D. from 
Hanover college, Ind., in 1861. He was a fre- 
quent contributor to denominational periodicals, 
and he was the author of Hours Among the Gos- 
pels (1865) ; The Far East (1867) ; and The Land 
and its Story (1869). He died in Rome, Italy, 
March 4, 1874. 

BURT, Stephen Smith, physician, was bom in 
Oneida, N. Y., Nov. 1, 1850, son of Oliver T., and 
Rebecca (Johnston) Burt, and grandson of Aaron 
Burt, identified with the early history of central 
New York, one of the founders of the city of Syra- 
cuse, and a lineal descendant of Henry Burt, who 
came to New England 
in 1635. He was edu- 
cated at the English 
and classical school, 
West Newton, Mass., 
the Eagleswood mili- 
tary academy in New 
Jersey, the Edwards 
Place school at Stock- 
bridge, Mass., and had 
two years* tuition at^ 
Cornell university. He ; 
was graduated from the 
College of physicians 
and surgeons of New 
York, in 1875, valedic- 
torian of his class, and 
from Roosevelt hospital in 1877. He was elected a 
member of the state and county medical societies, 
and of the New York academy of medicine, and 
was professor of thoracic diseases at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont in 1884 and 1885. In 1882 he 
became a teacher, and in 1884 was made professor 
of physical diagnosis and clinical medicine in the 
New York post-graduate medical school and hos- 
pital, and attending-physician to the New York 
post-graduate hospital. He was a charter member 
of the Hospital graduates' club of New York. In 
1890 he received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
Yale university. He published in pamphlet 
form : A Clinic on Heart Disease (1886) ; Pieurtsy 
(1887) ; Views on the Prevention and Treatment 
of Typhoid Fever (1889) ; Some of the Limita- 
tions of Medicine (1889) ; Pulmonary Consump- 
tion in the Light of Modem Research (1890) ; 
Bacteriology and Preventive Medicine (1891) ; 
The Ethics of Experimentation Upon Living 
Animals (1891). 




^f/&»i^. nc^ 



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BURT. 



BURTON. 



BURT, William AustlOt surveyor, was bom 
in Woroester, Mass., June 18, 1792. He acquired 
some experience as a civil engineer in Erie 
county, N.Y., and became U.S. deputy-surveyor 
at Detroit, Mich., in 1840. He surveyed the entire 
northern part of Michigan. The solar compass 
was originated by him, and he introduced a 
number of important improvements in geological 
surveying. At the time of his death he was en- 
gaged in perfecting an equatorial sextant, which 
he had patented in 1856. He served several terms 
in the territorial council of Michigan and in the 
state legislature, and he was for some years a 
judge of the circuit court. As a member of the 
legislature he was largely instrumental in secur- 
ing the Sault Ste. Marie canal. He^died at De- 
troit, Mich., Aug. 18, 1858. 

BURTON, Henry S., soldier, was bom in New 
York city in 1818. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1839; served as lieutenant in the 3d 
artillery in the Florida war, and as an assistant 
instructor of infantry and artillery tactics 1842- 
45. He was lieutenant-colonel of New York vol- 
unteers in the Mexican war ; prominent at the 
defense of La Paz and Todos Santos. He served 
in garrison duty in the south and west 1847-61 ; 
was promoted major in 1861 and had charge of 
the Fort Delaware prison, 1861-'3. He com- 
manded the artillery reserve of the army of the 
Potomac 1863-'4 ; was inspector of artillery in the 
Richmond campaign and in the department of 
the East, and a member of the retiring board in 
1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general in 
March, 1865; commanded the 5th artillery at 
Fort Monroe, Va. ; at Columbia, S.C. ; at Rich- 
mond, Va. ; and at Fort Adams, R.I. ; and was 
on court-martial duty in New York city from » 
October, 1868, to March, 1869. He died in Fort 
Adams, Newport, R.I., April 4, 1869. 

BURTON, Joseph Ralph, senator, was born 
near Mitchell, Ind., Nov. 16, 1851, son of Allen C. 
and Elizabeth (Holmes) Burton. He attended 
Franklin college three years, and De Pauw uni- 
- versity one year ; studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1875. He was married in 1875 to 
Mrs. Carrie (Mitchell) Webster of Princeton, Ind., 
and removed to Kansas, engaging in practice at 
Abilene. He was elected a representative in the 
Kansas legislature, serving three terms, and was 
a member of the World's Columbian commission 
from that state. He was prominent as a speaker 
in political campaigns and was elected to the 
U.S. senate as a Republican for the term 1901-'07. 

BURTON, Lewis William, first bishop of Lex- 
ington, Ky. , and 178th in succession in the Amer- 
ican episcopate, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, 
Nov. 9; 1852 ; son of the Rev. Lewis and Jane 
(Wallace) Burton ; grandson of John and Hannali 
(Miller) Burton; great-grandson of Solomon 



Burton, who settled in Stratford, Conn., amd 
married thei-e, Mercy Judson, Aug. 1, 1687 ; and 
on his mother's side, great-grandson of James and 
Margaret (Chambers) Wallace. He was gradu- 
ated from Kenyon college, Ohio, with first 
honors in 1873. and from the Philadelphia divin- 
ity school in 1877. He was ordained deacon in 
1877, and priest in 1878, and was an assistant and 
rector at All Saints' church, Philadelphia, Pa., 
1877-80, and assistant and rector at St. Mark's 
church, Cleveland, Ohio, 1881-'84. He was rec- 
tor of St. John's church, Richmond, Va., 1884-'93, 
and of St. Andrew's church, Louisville, Ky., 
1893-'96. He was consecrated bishop of Lexing- 
ton, Ky., Jan. 30, 1896, by Bishops Dudley, 
Peterkin, Leonard, Randolph, Vincent, White 
and Nelson. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Kenyon college in 1896, and from the University 
of the South in 1896. He was married, Jan. 15, 
1883, to Georgie Hendree Ball of Atlanta. Ga. 

BURTON, Theodore Elijah* representative, was 
born in Jefferson, Ashtabula county, Ohio, Dec. 
20, 1851. He removed to Iowa in 1865, and in 1867 
began his collegiate studies at Iowa college. In 
1870 he removed to Oberlin college, Ohio, where 
he was graduated in 1872, and remained as tutor 
two years. He was admitted to the bar in 1875, 
and began practice at Cleveland, Ohio. In 1888 
he was elected a representative to the 5l8t Con- 
gress from the twenty-first district of Ohio ; was 
defeated for election in 1890, and was re-elected 
to the 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th and 58th congresses. 
He gave special study to problems pertaining to 
currency and economic subjects, and as a mem- 
ber of the committee on river and harbor im- 
provements advanced the development of trafiQo 
on the Great Lakes. Oberlin conferred on him 
the degree of A.M. in 1875, and LL.D. in 1900. 

BURTON, Williani Evans, comedian, was 
born in London, England, Sept. 24, 1804 ; son of 
William George Burton, a printer, and author 
of Biblical Researches. He was educated at 
St. Paul's school, London, and at Oxford uni- 
versity, and intended to en£er the church, but 
before he had taken orders his father's death 
forced him to undertake the management of the 
printing establishment in order to support his 
mother. He also edited The Cambridge (Quarterly 
Review^ which he established, and which intro- 
duced him to members of the theatrical profes- 
sion. He joined a company of amateur actors, 
and in 1825 made his debut, appearing in low 
comedy with a provincial company. He devoted 
himself to comedy with such earnestness that he 
soon b^ame the leading comedian of the company. 
In 1831 he made his first professional appearance 
before a London audience as Wormwood in ** The 
Lottery Ticket,*' and won much praise from critics 
and audiences. He played Marall to Edmund 



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BURTON. 



BURTSELL. 




Kean's Sir Giles Overreach, and Mrs. Glover^s 
Meg in ** A New Way to Pay Old Debts." H.s 
American debut was made in 1834, at the Ai'ck 
street theatre. Philadelphia, in the characters of 
Dr. OUapod, in. **.The 
Poor Oentleman," and 
Wormwood in "The 
Lottery Ticket/'. In 
the four years oi' his 
stay in Philadelphia 
he won for himself a 
substantial popularity. 
For nine years follow- 
ing he appeared in 
nearly all the large cit- 
ies of the United States. 

^^ ' In 1841 he was mana- 

^J^^^^^^^^/0^5^ . S^^ o^ **^® Church street 
theatre of New York, 
when the theatre was consumed by fire, and all 
his scenery, books and manuscripts were de- 
stroyed. In 1848 he leased Palmo's opera house in 
Chambers street, N. Y., and changed its name to 
Burton's theatre. For eight years this house was 
known as the home of comedy in America, and 
Burton achieved the richest triumphs as its mana- 
ger. Here many a highly popular play was .first 
produced, and here Shakespeare's comedies were 
revived on a scale of great magnificence. The 
most famous actors of the time appeared on his 
boards, and many, afterwards famous, gained here 
their first experience and belonged at various 
times to his stock company. His Shakespearian 
roles were among his masterpieces. ** His Cali- 
ban, Dogberry, Autolycus. Verges, Touchstone, 
Nick Bottom, and his Falstaff are by impartial 
judges said to have been among the most com- 
plete embodiments of the great poet's ideas that 
his works have ever seen,'* says Lawrence Hut- 
ton in " Plays and Players." '* Among his other 
creations, his * Timothy Toodles' and his * Amin- 
adab Sleek,' were so absolutely his own tliat 
when an actor nowadays essays either character, 
he plays the Toodles and Sleek of Burton." His 
repertoire included one hundred and eighty - 
four characters. In 1856 Mr. Burton became the 
manager of the Metropolitan theatre, but the 
venture was so meagrely successful that in 1858 
he abandoned it, and began a starring career, 
which ended two years later with his untimely 
death. His last appearance was made Dec. 16, 
1859, at Hamilton, Canada, where he played 
** Aminadab Sleek " and ** Guy Goodluck." Mr. 
Burton wrote several farces and a number of 
plays. His ** Ellen Wareham," a play published 
in 1833, liad the extraordinary fortune of being 
produced in five different London theatres on the 
same evening. He contributed stories and 
sketches to the periodicals of the time, and 



edited the Literary Souvenir and the Oenfle- 
nians Magazine. Tliis latter periodical he estab- 
• lislied, and Edgar Allan Poe was at one time hia 
^Assistant in its editorial management. Among 
-his writings. The Adores Alloquy, Waggctr 
.rien and VatjarieSy .and A Cyclopaedia of Wit 
and Humor. (1858). are notable. See WHUatit 
E, Burton: a Sketch of Ids Career, by Wni. L. 
•Keese. Mr. Burton died in New York city, Feb. 
JO, 1860. 

BURTT, John, clergyman, was bom in Knock- 
tmarloch, Ayrshire, Scotland, May 26, 1789. 
After receiving a classical education and serving 
an apprenticeship to a weaver, he was pressed 
-into the navy, and was five years before the 
-mast. He then effected his escape, and taught 
school at Kilmarnock and Paisley for a time. In 
1816 he attended medical lectures at the Glas- 
gow university, and in 1817, becoming involved 
in political disturbances, he fled to the United 
States. He studied for a year at Princeton theo- 
logical seminary, and served as a city missionary 
at Trenton and at Philadelphia until 1824. when 
he was ordained by the presbytery of Philadel- 
phia, and was pastor over churches at Salem, 
N. J., at Cincinnati, Ohio, and at Blackwood- 
town, N. J. He edited the Philadelphia Presby- 
terian fro 1 1830 to 1833, and the Cincinnati 
Standard from 1833 to 1835. A collection of his 
verses was published in Glasgow in 1817, and 
republished, with additions, in Bridgeton, N. J., 
in 1819, under the title "Horse Poetics." In 
1859 he resigned his pastorate, and spent his re- 
maining years in retirement at Salem, N. J., 
where he died, March 24, 1866. 

BURTSELL, Richard Lalor, clergyman, was 
born in New York city, April 14, 1840. He 
studied theology at the Propaganda in Rome, and 
was ordained priest, Aug. 10, 1862. He returned 
to New York, was first assistant pastor of St. 
Ann's R. C. church, and in 1868 was given 
charge of the new parish of the Epiphany. In 
1884 the office of ** The Defender of the Marriage 
Tie " was introduced into the United States by 
the third plenary coimcil of Baltimore, the office 
having been originally created by Pope Benedict 
XrV. in 1741. The duty of the incumbent is to 
act as guardian of the tie in cases of dispute 
concerning marriages. Archbishop Corrigan ap- 
pointed Dr. Burtsell to this office in 1886. The 
next year he acted as counsel and adviser to the 
Rev. Dr. Edward McGlynn in his controversy 
with Archbishop Corrigan. In April of the 
same year his office was taken from him. In 
1888 he appeared under subpoena at the lawsuit 
over the Maguire burial, and in 1889 celebrated 
mass at the fimeral of Miss Kelly, a member of 
the anti-poverty society. Archbishop Corrigan 
ordered him to retire to a parish in Rondout» 



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BUSBEE. 



BUSEY. 



N. Y. Appealing from the archbishop^s order 
to the congregation of the Propaganda at Rome, 
he was ordered to submit to the archbishop's 
decree. He therefore preached his farewell ser- 
mon at the church of the Epiphany, July 27, 
1890, and obeyed his ecclesiastical superior, tak- 
ing charge of St. Mary's church in Rondout, Nov. 
8, 1890. 

BUSBEE, Charles Manly, lawyer, was born 
in Raleigh, N. C, Oct. 28, 1845; son of Perrin 
Busbee, lawyer, grandson of Johnson Busbee, 
jurist, and maternal grandson of James F. Tay- 
lor, attorney -general of North Carolina. He was 
a student at Hampden Sidney and in 1868, when 
just eighteen years of age, left college and vol- 
imteered in the Ck>nfederate service, and from 
the rank of private rose to the position of ser- 
geant-major in the 5th North Carolina infantry. 
In the battle of Spottsylvania Court House he was 
captured by the Union forces, sent to the prison 
at Fort Delaware, subsequently transferred to 
Fort Pulaski, and afterwards to Morris Island, 
where, to retaliate on the Confederate govern- 
ment for placing five hundred Union prisoners 
within that portion of the city of Charleston, 
which was being bombarded by the Union gims, 
he was one of a lik« number of Confederate 
prisoners placed in front of the redoubts on Mor- 
ris Island, directly in the face of the fire from 
the Confederate batteries on Sullivan's Island. 
He was afterward allowed to return home on 
parole, and a few months later was exchanged. 
Shortly afterwards he entered the North Caro- 
lina state university, where he was graduated in 
1867, and admitted to the bar. He practised his 
profession in his native city, and in 1874 was 
elected a member of the state senate. In 1884 
he was elected a member of the lower house of 
the state legislature, and was for many years a 
member of the Democratic state executive com- 
mittee. In 1890 he was elected grand sire of the 
sovereign grand lodge of the I. O. O. F.. the high- 
est honor of this great fraternal order, and Mr. 
Busbee was the youngest man ever selected for 
the position. 

BUSBEE, Fabius Haywood, lawyer, was 
bom at Raleigh, N. C, March 4, 1848; son of 
Perrin and grandson of Johnson Busbee, well- 
known members of the North Carolina bar. His 
early education was received at the Lovejoy 
academy at Raleigh, and at the age of fifteen 
he entered the University of North Carolina, but 
withdrew in February, 1865, to volimteer as a 
private in the 71st N. C. regiment. He was a 
lad of only sixteen years, but his bravery and 
good conduct so won the admiration of his com- 
rades that they elected him to a lieutenancy. He 
acquitted himself with credit in the battles of 
Einston and the struggle at Bentonville, N. C, 



on March 19, 1865. After Johnston surrendered, 
young Busbee re-entered the university, where he 
was graduated with first honors in 1868. In 
June of that year he passed examination for ad*- 
mission to the bar, but his license was withheld 
until the following year as he had not reached 
legal age. He practised law at Raleigh, and in 
1875 was elected attorney for the city, a position 
he held until 1884. In 1876 he was an elector for 
the fourth N. C. district on the Tilden and Hen- 
dricks ticket. In 1880 he was chosen elector for 
the state at large on the Hancock and English 
ticket. During the administration of President 
Cleveland he was United States attorney for the 
eastern district of North Carolina. During the 
years 1885 and 1886 he was grand master of Ma- 
sons in North Carolina. He received the degree 
of A.M. from the University of North Carblin^ 
in 1869, and a like honor from Princeton coUeg^ 
and from Trinity college, Hartford, Cohn., in 
1871. He was elected in 1892 one of the trusteed 
of the University of North Carolina. 

BUSEY, Samuel Thompson, soldier, was bom 
at Greencastle, Ind., Nov. 16, 1885. When but 
a child he was taken by his parents to Urbana. 
111., where he labored on a farm, attended a dis- 
trict school at intervals, and was clerk in a store. 
In 1862, as 2d lieutenant in the recruiting ser- 
vice, he organized a company of volunteers, of 
which he was elected captain, and on the organi- 
zation of the 76th Illinois regiment was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel; in the ensuing 
January he succeeded to the command of the 
regiment, and in May was mustered in as colonel. 
He was on several occasions mentioned in 
general orders for meritorious services and 
distinguished bravery, and was brevetted briga- 
dier-general for leading the assault on Fort 
Blakeley, Ala., on April 9, 1865, when he scaled 
the enemy's works alone, and engaged, unsup- 
ported, in a hand-to-hand encounter with a gun 
squad, killing the gunner and wounding two 
others of the squad. Though severely wounded 
himself, he received in person the surrender of 
the Confederate officer and his staff. He was 
mustered out of service in August, 1865, with 
the rank of brevet brigadier-general. In 1867 he 
organized Busey's bank at Urbana, which he 
successfully managed for twenty-one years, 
when he retired from business in 1888. In 1880 
he was elected mayor, and president of the board 
of education of the city of Urbana, by five 
successive elections held those offices for nine 
years, and in 1890 was elected a representative 
to the 52d Congress as a Democrat, defeating 
Joseph G. Cannon, the Republican inctunbent, 
in a district that had been Republican for years, 
and had been reoresented by Mr. Cannon con- 
tinuously from 1878. ... .» 



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BUSH. 



BUSHNELL. 



BUSH, Qeorge, educator, was born at Nor- 
wich, Vt., June 12, 1796. He was graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1818, and pursued a theological 
course at Princeton seminary, where he was 
a tutor in 182^^24. After his ordination as a 
minister of the Presbyterian church, he gave 
four years' service to missionary work in Indi- 
ana. From 1831 to 1846 he held the cliair of 
Hebrew language and literature at the Uni- 
'^ersity of the city of New York. He was liberal 
and progressive in the Presbyterian church, 
which he left in 1845 and joined the New Jeru- 
salem church. He issued in 1844 tlie Hierophant, 
a monthly periodical, and in 1845 became editor 
of the New Church Repository, a Swedenborgian 
publication. He published a Treatise on the 
Millennium (1832) ; Kotes CHtical and Practi- 
cal on the Book of Genesis (1838) ; Notes on 
the Book of Exodus (1841) ; Notes on the 
Book of Leviticus (1842) ; Notes on the Book 
of Joshua^ and Notes on the Book of Judges 
(1844) ; The Soul, or an Inquiry into ScHptu- 
ral Psychology, and Anastasis (1845) ; Mes- 
mer and Swedenborg (1847) ; The Resuirection 
of Christ, New Church . Miscellanies (1855) ; 
Priesthood and Clergy unknown to Chinstianity 
(1857) ; Notes Critical and Practical on the 
Book of Numbers (1858) ; The Life of Mohammed 
(1H58). He died in Rochester, N. Y., Sept. 19, 
1859. 

BUSH, Norton, artist, was born at Rochester, 
N. Y., Feb. 22, 1834. He studied art. first with 
James Harris in his native city, and then with 
J. F. Cropsey in New York. In 1852 he went to 
California by way of the Isthmus, and his first 
ideas of tropical scenery were received while 
crossing Nicaragua, and made a lasting impres- 
sion on his after career. As an amateur he 
painted Mount Diablo in 1857, his picture being 
exhibited at the Mechanics' institute in San 
Francisco. In 1868 he opened a studio in San 
Francisco, and the same year visited the Isthmus 
of Panama, where he obtained the material for a 
series of pictures. In 1875 he extended his jour- 
ney to Ecuador and Peru, crossed the Andes 
three times and made sketches of Moimt Chim- 
borazo ; visited Lake Titicaca, in southern Peru, 
making sketches of the volcano El Miste and 
Moimt Meiggs. On his return to California he 
painted a series of pictures of the scenery of 
Ecuador and Peru for John G. Meiggs, of Lon- 
don, which were exhibited at the rooms of the 
San Francisco art association in 1876, of which 
society he was in the same year made a director, 
having been elected a member in 1874. He re- 
ceived four gold medals from the state fair of 
California. Among his notable works are : 
Lake Nicaragua, Bay of Panama, Summit 
of the Sierra, and River San Juan, Nicor 




ragua. Mount Chimborazo, Volcano El Miste, 
and Mount Meigijs. Andes of Peru, Wes- 
tern Slope of Cordilleras, Cordilleras of Ecua- 
dor, 

BUSHNELL, Asa Smith, governor of Ohio, 
was bom at Rome, Oneida county, N. Y., Sept. 
16. 1834; son of Daniel Bushnell, and grandson 
of Jason Bushnell, a soldier of the revolution, and 
a member of a Connecticut family. He removed 
to Springfield, Ohio, in 1851, where, without 
friends or money, he 
entered upon his busi- 
ness career, being suc- 
cessively a dry -goods 
clerk, book-keeper, 
and employee and 
member of a manu- 
facturing firm. In 
1885 he was made 
chairman of the Re- 
publican state execu- 
tive committee, which 
elected Joseph B. 
F o r a k e r governor, 
and re-elected John 
Sherman to the 
United States senate. 
In 1895 he accepted 
from the Republican state convention the nomina- 
tion for governor, and was elected by a plurality 
of 92,622 over James E. Campbell. He was re- 
elected for a second term serving 1897-9. He 
was a delegate-at- large to the Republican national 
conventions at Minneapolis in 1892, and at St. 
Louis in 1896. 

BUSHNELL, David, inventor, was bom in 
Saybrook, Conn., about the year 1742. Upon the 
death of his father, he sold his interest in the 
farm and devoted the proceeds to his education. 
Assisted by the village pastor, he fitted himself 
for college, and was graduated at Yale in 1775. 
He made a study of submarine warfare and navi- 
gation, and constructed a diving boat, which 
resembled two tortoise shells, and was for that 
reason called The American Turtle. A full de- 
scription of the boat and torpedo will be found 
in the Transactions of the American philosophi- 
cal society, and in Silliman's American Journal 
of Science (1820). In addition to this torpedo, 
Mr. Bushnell invented a number of devices for 
the destruction of the enemy's ships, but his 
** infemals," as they were called by the British, 
failed of accomplishing their purpose, owing to a 
series of imfortunate accidents. In 1777 he 
attempted to destroy the Cerberus, a frigate at 
anchor off New London, Conn. The machine, 
becoming fixed to a schooner at anchor astern 
the frigate, exploded, demolishing that vessel and 
killing several men. In I>ecember, 1777, he 



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BU81INELL. 



BQSoEY. 



arranged and set adrift kegs charged with pow- 
der, so as to destroy the British ships, which held 
possession of the Delaware river. In the dark- 
ness he made a miscalculation as to the distance, 
and the explosion did not occur until the follow- 
ing day, when it caused slight damage, though 
creating consternation among the officers and 
sailors aboard the ships. A humorous poem, 
The Battle of the Kegs written by Hon. 
Francis Hopkinson, was founded on this inci- 
dent. Though the principles on which Mr. 
Bushneirs machines were constructed were 
shown to be correct, the accidents attending 
his experiments and his disappoint me ut at not 
receiving government support, rendered him 
very dejected, and at the close of the war he 
went to France. Years passed without his 
friends hearing from him, and it was supposed 
that he had perished during the French revolu- 
tion. He returned to America and for years had 
charge of a large school in Georgia, after which 
he practised medicine, under the name of Dr. 
Bush. The tidings of his death was the first news 
his friends had had of him in forty years. His 
death occurred at Warren ton, Ga., in 1826. 

BUSHNELL, Horace, tlieologian, was bom 
in New Preston, Litchfield county. Conn., April 
14, 1802. In boyhood he worked on his father's 
farm and in a fulling and carding mill. When 
he was nineteen years old he began to de- 
vote himself to study, and he was graduated 
from Yale with honor in 1827. He taught school 
in Norwich, Conn., and then engaged as literary 
editor of the New York Journal of Commerce, 
He returned to Yale in 1829, to take a course in 
law, and accepted a tutorship in the college. In 
1831, when about to be admitted to the bar, a 
religious revival in the college led him to enter 
the Yale divinity school, and upon completing 
tlie course and receiving his license he was 
unanimously chosen as pastor of the North Con- 
gregational church, Hartford, May, 1833. He 
was married on Sept. 18, 1833, to Mary Apthorp 
of Neiiv Haven. In 1839 he delivered an address 
on Revelation, before the society of inquiry, 
at Andover theological seminary, and his views 
upon the doctrine of the Trinity awakened sus- 
picions as to his orthodoxy, as they did again 
in 1849, upon the publication of his Qod in 
Christ, and he was called before a committee, 
appointed by the Hartford central association, 
of which he was a member, to answer to a charge 
of heresy. Among his accusers were the leading 
theological authorities, but they did not agree 
as to what the heresy was. Dr. Bushnell made 
a spirited defence, and the committee reported 
through its chairman, Dr. Noah Porter, that 
** though there were in the views presented 
variations from the historic fornmlas of faith. 



the errors were not fundamental.*' He re- 
signed his pastorate in 1859. Bushnell Park 
at Hartford, which he was influential in se- 
curing, was named in his honor. His prin- 
cipal works are : Christian Nature (1847) ; Ood 
in Christ (1849) ; Christ in Theology (1851) ; 
Nature and the Supernatural (1858) ; Sermons 
for the New Life (1858); Character of Jesus 
(1861) ; Work and Play, a collection of Ad- 
dresses (1864) ; Christ and his Salvation (1864) ; 
TTte Vicarious Sacrifice (1865) ; Moral Uses 
of Dark Tilings (1868) ; Woman Suffrage, tlie 
Reform against Nature (1869) ; Sermons on 
Living Subjects (1872), and Forgiveness and 
Law (1874). He received the degree of D.D. from 
Wesleyan univei-sity in 1842, and from Harvard 
in 1852, and Yale gave him the degree of LL.D. in 
187 1 . His daughter, Mary Bushnell Cheney, pub- 
lished Life and Letters of Horace Bushnell (1880). 
He died at Hartford, Conn., Feb. 17, 1876. 

BUSIEL, Charies Albert, governor of New 
Hampshire, was born in Meredith, N.H., Nov. 24, 
1842 ; son of Jolm W. and Julia (Tilton) Busiel ; 
grandson of Moses F. Busiel, and a descendant of 
William Buswel, the immigrant. He was edu- 
cated at Gilford, Belknap county, N.H., and en- 
tered on a business career in 1863, becoming the 
head of a large manufacturing plant at Lacoiiia, 
N.H., in 1873. He was chief engineer of the 
Laoonia fire department, 1872-'85 ; a representa- 
tive in the New Hampshire legislature, 1878-79, 
and a delegate to the Democratic national con- 
vention in 1880. In 1890 he became president of 
the Lake Shore railroad, and a director of the 
Concord and Montreal railroad. He was elected 
first mayor of Laconia by the Republican party, 
serving, 1883-*94, and was governor of New Hamp- 
shire, 1895-'96. He was president of the Laconia 
national bank and of the City savings bank. He 
died at Laconia, N.H., Aug. 29, 1901. 

BUS56Y, Benjamin, philanthropist was bom 
at Canton, Mass., March 1, 1757. At the age of 
eighteen he enlisted in the continental army. At 
the close of the war ho engaged in business as 
a silversmith and acquired a large fortune. In 
1806 he retired from business and devoted liis 
life to agricultural pursuits on his estate in Rox- 
bury. By his will he provided that upon the 
death of his last survivor, one-half of his estate 
should go to Harvard college to endow a farm 
school, for promoting a knowledge of scientific 
agriculture, and the other half to endow the law 
and divinity schools of the university. In 
compliance with the terms of his will. Harvard 
college in 1869 established a school of practical 
agriculture and horticulture on his estate at 
Jamaica Plain. The value of the property thus 
distributed exceeded three himdred and fifty 
thousand dollars. He died Jan. 13, 1842. 



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BUTLER. 



. BUSSRY* Cyrus, soldier, was born at Hub- 
hard, TrumbuU county. Ohio, Oct. 5, 1888; son of 
Rev. A. Bussey, a prominent. Methodist clergy- 
ipan. At sixteen he commenced business on his 
own account at Dupont, Ind., baring acquired 
two years' experience in a dry-goods store. In 
1JB55 he removed to Bloomfield, Iowa, established 
l^mself in a mercantile business, and became 
prominent in politics. In 1858 he was elected as 
a Democrat to the Iowa senate, and in 1860 was 
chosen a delegate to the national Democratic con- 
tention which nominated Stephen A. Douglas 
for the presidency. In 1861 he was appointed 
aid- de-camp on the sta£f of Governor Kirkwood, 
apd was charged with the defense of the southern 
borders of the state. Hearing, in July, that the 
Qonfederates were massing near the northern 
frontier of Missouri preparatory to entering Iowa 
and taking Keokuk by storm, he seized a con- 
signment of a thousand guns, in transit from the 
war department to some point in the west, and 
arming the 4th Iowa infantry, he forestalled the 
proposed movement by advancing into Missouri 
and dispersing the invaders. He was appointed 
colonel of the 8d Iowa cavalry, a vohmteer regi- 
ment, which he had raised, and being ordered 
to join the army of the southwest, then stationed 
at Sugar Creek, Ark., he covered the distance of 
two hundred miles in four days. He commanded 
a brigade at the battle of Pea Ridge, and after 
the engagement pursued the defeated foe as far 
as the Boston mountains. His gallantry on this 
occasion won the enthusiastic admiration of his 
ipen, who presented him with a handsome sword. 
In the Arkansas campaign of 1862 he conmianded 
a brigade, and in 1868 was assigned first to the 
conmiand of the district of east Arkansas, and 
later to the command of the 2d cavalry division 
of the army of the Tennessee. In the Vicksburg 
campaign he led the advance, under General 
Sherman, in pursuit of Johnston, whom he over- 
took and defeated in an engagement at Canton, 
Miss., finally forcing him to retreat across Pearl 
river. His conduct in this engagement was 
rewarded in January, 1864, with promotion to 
the rank of brigadier-general, and he was given 
command of a division of the 7th corps, and also 
of the district including western Arkansas, and 
the Indian territory. At the close of the war he 
retired to private life with the rank of brevet 
major-general, and engaged in the oommisgion 
business at St. Louis, later removing to New 
Orleans, where he was president of the chamber 
of commerce for six years, and was conspicuously 
identified with the procuring of the congressional 
appropriation for the Eads jetties at the mouth 
of the Mississippi river. He was a delegate to 
the Republican national convention, 1868, and in 
the oonvention of 1884 he was an active sup- 



porter of Mr. Blaine's candidacy. In 1889 be 
was appointed assistant secretary of the interior, 
and in adjudicating the appeals from the adverse 
decisions of the pension commissioners some of 
his rulings attracted great attention, and the 
department collected and published these rulings 
in four large volumes. General Bussey resigned 
from the interior department in 1898, and opened 
an office in Washington, D. C. where he con- 
ducted a general law practice before the district 
courts, the departments and congressional com- 
mittees. 

BUSTEED, Richard, lawyer, was bom in 
Cavan, Ireland, Feb. 16, 1822; son of George 
Washington Busteed, a colonel in the British 
army, and afterwards a barrister at Dublin. The 
father was a strong emancipationist, which fact 
caused his removal from his office as chief secre- 
tary of the island of St. Lucia in 1829. He left 
Ireland and settled in London, Canada, where he 
published the True Patriot, During his boyhood 
Richard worked as a compositor in the office of 
his father and followed the same trade subse- 
quently at Cincinnati, Ohio; at Hartford, Conn., 
and at New York, where he also engaged in local 
preaching, by license of the Methodist church. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1846, and his able 
defense of a number of extradition cases assured 
his success as a lawyer. From 1856 to 1859 he 
was corporation counsel of New York city. He 
supported Douglas in the presidential campaign 
of 1860, and joined the Union army in 1861. He 
was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and commanded a brigade at Yorktown, Va., but 
he sent in his resignation to President Lincoln 
March 10, 1868, hearing that the strong combina- 
tion likely to be brought against him on account 
of his attitude in the slavery question would pre- 
vent the confirmation of his appointment by the 
senate. In the following year he was appointed 
U. S. district judge for Alabama by President 
Lincoln; his appointment being unanimously 
confirmed by the ^nate. His decisions', especially 
as to the unconstitutionality of the test oath 
prescribed by Congress, as applied to attorneys 
practising in U. S. courts, which were after- 
wards confirmed by the U. S. supreme coiurt, 
and his rulings in regard to the habeas corpus 
act in 1875, are- noteworthy. In 1874 he resigned 
his office and returned to New York. He died 
in New York city, Sept. 14, 1898. 

BUTLER, Andrew Pickens* senator, was bom 
in Edgefield district, S. C, Nov. 17, 1796; son of 
William Butler, revolutionary soldier. He was 
graduated at South Carolina college in 1817, was 
admitted to the bar in 1819, and soon rose to a 
prominent position in his profession. He became 
a member of the state legislature in 1824, com- 
manded a cavalry regiment during the nullifioa^ 



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BUTLER. 



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tion troubles of 1881 ; was a judge of the general 
sessions in 1833, and of the state court of com- 
mon pleas in 1835. In 1847 he was chosen by the 
^vemor of South Carolina to fill the vacancy in 
the U. S. senate, caused by the death of Senator 
HcDuifie. Subsequently he was twice elected by 
the legislature as United States senator, and 
retained his seat during the remaining years of 
his life. The memorable assault made by Pres- 
ton S. Brooks on Charles Sumner was provoked 
by some remarks which the latter addressed to 
JHidge Butler; who was a relative of Mt; Brooks. 
The ability, eloquence and humor of Judge But- 
ler made him a conspicuous figure in the senate^ 
where he took an active part in all debates, 
^especially those bearing on the interests of South 
CSarolina and the other southern states. He died 
■at his home near Edgefield Court House, S. C, 
May 25, 1857. 

BUTLER, Benjamin Pranklint governor of 
Massachusetts, was bom in Deerfield, N. H., 
Nov. 5, 1818; son of Capt. John Butler. He first 
Attended a district school, later studied at 
Phillips Ehceter academy and was gpraduated at 
Waterville college in 1888. In 1840 he was 

admitted to the bar, 
began the practice 
of law at Lowell, 
Mass. , and early ob- 
tained distinction as 
Ki ^ a criminal lawyer, 
f!;! Ills readiness of re- 
tort and his quick- 
ness to perceive and 
take advantage of a 
^ lep^alflawin his op- 
^^.f, poneiit's case render- 
" > / ing him a formidable 
adversary. He was 
a member of the 
Democratic party 
and early became prominent in political life. He 
was elected to the Massachusetts house of rep- 
resentatives in 1853, and in 1859 took his seat in 
the state senate. He served in the Massachusetts 
delegation to the Democratic national convention 
held in Charleston, S. C, in 1860, was active in 
the proceedings, but later refused to sit in a con- 
vention which "approvingly advocated the 
African slave-trade." He received the Demo- 
<;ratic nomination for the governorship of Massa- 
chusetts in 1860, but was defeated. At the 
opening of the civil war, as brigadier-general of 
militia he offered his services on the first call 
for troops, and was assigned to the command of 
the 8th Mass. regiment. On April 17, 1861, he 
proceeded to Annapolis, Md., and was placed in 
command of the district, which included the city 
of Baltimore, and on May 13, 1861« he entered 




Baltimore and held possession of that city. On 
May 16 he was promoted to the rank of major- 
general of volunteers, in command of Fort Mon- 
roe and tha department of eastern Virginia. In 
June his troops engaged in the battle of Big 
Bethel, Va., which resulted disastrously to the 
Federal army, and in August he was relieved of 
his command. In the same month he commanded 
the expedition that captured forts Hatteras and 
Clark on the North Carolina coast. He returned 
to Massachusetts to recruit an expedition to 
operate against the Confederates on the Virginia 
peninsula, which a misunderstanding, first with 
Governor Andrew and afterwards with the 
commanding general, prevented. It was finally 
decided to send him with his six thousand 
men on an expedition to co-operate with Ad- 
miral Farragut from the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river, and he reached Ship Island, March 23, 
1862. On April 17, he followed Farragut s fieet, 
which captured New Orleans, April 24, and on 
May 1 General Butler took possession of that city. 
He obtained much odiimi by his vigorous military 
government, by arming free colored people, by 
causing a man named Mumford, who had pulled 
down the U. S. flag from the mint, to be hanged, 
and by promulgating an obnoxious order in- 
tended to prevent insults being offered to the 
soldiery by women. President Davis proclaimed 
him an outlaw, and set a price upon his head. 
On May 11, 1862, he seized a large sum of money 
which had been intrusted to the Dutch consul, 
claiming that it was intended for the purpose of 
purchasing arms for the Confederates. The 
matter being investigated, the United States 
government restored the money. On Dec. 16, 
1862, General Butler was recalled, and late in 
1863 was placed in command of the department 
of Virginia and North Carolina, afterwards 
known as the army of the James. On March 12, 
1864, Grant planned his great campaign, on ^ 
assuming command of all the armies of the 
United States, and in the simultaneous move- 
ment to be begun May 4, 1864, gave to General 
Butler the direction of the army of the James. 
He was to operate south of the James river, 
move westward towards Petersburg, and attack 
Lee's army in the rear, while Grant personally 
directed the operations of the army of the 
Potomac against the front. Butler moved cau- 
tiously and was opposed in his march by General 
Beauregard, who occupied Petersbm-g and had 
entrenched the peninsula from the Appomattox 
to the James. 3utler adopted similar tactics, 
and imdertook to take Petersburg by siege. 
This left his troops inactive, except as builders 
of fortifications and diggers of canals, and Lee 
had no foe in his rear. Grant ordered Butler to 
make a demonstration against the enemy's line 



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BUTLER. 



BUTLER. 



on October 37, which was ineffectual, and on 
Deoember 14 he was given command of the land 
forces to operate against Fort Fisher, N. C. They 
landed at Fort Fisher, December 26, and, after a 
vigorous bombardment of the fort by Porter's 
fleet, the troops were ordered to assault the 
works. Just as they had gained the outposts, 
and success seemed assured, they were ordered 
to fall back and re-embark, and on his return to 
Fort Monroe Butler was refnoved from his com- 
mand by order of General Grant. He resumed 
the practice of his profession, and became promi- 
nent in political life. In 1866 he was elected as 
a representative from Massachusetts to the 40th 
Congress on the Republican ticket, and was re- 
elected to Ave of the six succeeding congresses. 
In 1868 he took an active part in the impeachment 
trial of President Johnson. In 1871 he was the 
unsuccessful Republican candidate for guberna- 
torial honors, and he was in 1879 on the Demo- 
cratic and Greenback tickets. In 1882 he was 
elected governor of Massachusetts on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. The principal act of administration 
was the charge brought by him against the 
management of the Tewksbury almshouse, which 
resulted in an investigation of the matter before 
the legislature. In 1883 he was renominated, 
but was defeated, and 1884 was nominated for 
the presidency of the United States by the Anti- 
monopolist and Greenback parties. Ck>lby imi- 
versity conferred on him the degree of A.M. in 
1852 andLL.D. in 1862; Williams college giving 
him the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1868. He 
was married to Sarah, daughter of Dr. Israel 
Hildreth of Lowell, Mass., in 1842, and their 
daughter married Gen. Adelbert Ames. General 
Butler died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 11, 1893. 

BUTLERy Benjamin Frankliny statesman, was 
born at Kinderhook Landing, N.Y., Dec. 17, 
1795 ; son of Medad Butler and a descendant of 
Jonathan Butler of Ireland, who settled in Say- 
* brook, Conn., in 1724. He studied law in the 
office of Martin Van Burcn ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1817, and practised with Mr. Van Bureri at 
Albany, N.Y., 1817-'21. He became district attor- 
ney of Albany county in 1821 ; a member of the 
state assembly in 1828, and a commissioner to fix 
the boundary between New York and New Jersey 
in 1838. He was U.S. attorney-general under Pres- 
ident Jackson, 1833-'87, and under President Van 
Buren, 1837-'38, and U.S. secretary of war in 1837. 
He was U. S. district attorney for the southern 
district of New York, 1838-41 ; organized the law 
department of the University of the City of New 
York in 1835, where he served as chief instructor 
several years. He was married in 1824 to Harriet 
Allen of Albany, N. Y. He died in Paris, France, 
Nov. 8, 1858. 

BUTLER Charles, philanthropist, was born at 



Kinderhook Landing, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1802 ; brother 
of Benjamin Franklin Butler (q.v.). He studied 
law in the office of his brother, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1824. He practised at Lyons and 
Geneva, N.Y. ; invested heavily in Chicago real 
estate in 1833, and was agent for the holders of 
foreign and domestic bonds in Indiana, 1844-72, 
aided in founding Union theological seminary in 
1835, becoming its president, and was a member 
of the council of the University of the City of 
New York, l836-*48 ; its president, 1849-*51 and 
1886, and vice-president, 1882-'86. He also 
founded and was president of the Protestant 
half-orphan asylum, and gave $100,000 to Union 
theological seminary and also to the University 
of the City of New York in 1889. He received 
the degree LL.D. from Wabash in 1853, and 
from the University of the City of New York 
in 1887. He died in New York city, Dec. 18, 
1897. 

BUTLERt Clement Moore, clergyman, was 
bom in Troy, N. Y., Oct. 16, 1810. He was 
graduated at Washington college, Hartford, 
Conn., in 1833, and at the Gleneral theological 
seminary, New York, in 1836, was ordained to 
the priesthood of the Episcopal church, and held 
reotorates succepsively in New York city; at Pal- 
myra, N. Y. ; Georgetown, D. C. ; Boston, Mass., 
and Washington, D. C. In 1847 he received the 
degree of D. D. from Kenyon college. He was the 
chaplain of the United States senate from 1849 to 
1853. Dr. Butler was rector of Christ church, 
Cincinnati, from 1854 to 1857, and from 1857 to 
1861 had charge of Trinity church, Washington, 
D. C. In 1861 he was appointed rector of Grace 
church, Rome, Italy, and became chaplain to the 
U. S. minister there. Upon his return to the 
United States in 1864 he accepted the professor- 
ship of ecclesiastical history in the divinity school 
of the P. E. church, at Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained until 1884, when ill-health compelled his- 
resignation. He published : The Year of the 
Church (1840) ; The Flock Fed: Instructions pre- 
paratory to Confirmation (1845); The Book of 
Common Prayer interpreted by its History (1846 ; 
enl. ed. 1849) ; Old Truths and New Errors 
(1849) ; Ritualism of Law (1859), St. Paul in 
Rome (1865) ; Inner Rome : Politieal, Religious 
and Social (1866) ; Manual of Ecclesiastical 
History from the First to the Nineteenth Century 
(2 vols., 1868-72) ; History of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer (1880), and Tlie Reformation of 
Sweden under Charles IX, (1883). He died in 
Crermantown, Pa., March 5, 1890. 

BUTLER. Cyrus, philanthropist, was bom in 
1767 ; son of Samuel Butler, shoemaker, who after- 
wards acquired wealth in the shipping business in 
Providence. Cyrus inherited a fortune which he 
greatly increased, and, in 1844, at the suggestion 



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BUTLER. 



BUTLER. 



of Dorothea Dix, gave $40,000 to found a hospital 
in Providence. The Butler hospital for the insane 
was opened in 1847. Mr. Butler's heir, Alexander 
Duncan, continued to patronize the hospital, 
giving fifteen acres of land, the porter's lodge, 
Ray hall, the David Duncan ward, and Duncan 
lodge. Mr. Butler died in Providence, R. I., Aug. 
22, 1849. 

BUTLER, Ezra, governor of Vermont, was 
horn in Lancaster, Mass., Sept. 24, 1768, son of 
Asaph and Jane (McAllister) Butler. He was 
engaged in farming in early life, and served as a 
soldier in the patriot army when seventeen years 
old. In 1785 he was married and went with his 
hride through the wilderness to Vermont, where 
he had built the first house in Waterbury. In 1791 
he joined the Baptist church, and in 1800 did his 
first preaching in the neighboring town of Bolton, 
later becoming pastor of the newly established 
church at Waterbury, where he continued as elder 
and preacher until within a few years of his death. 
He was the town clerk, a member of the legisla- 
ture for eleven years, and a member of the council 
sixteen years. In 1818-' 14 he was a representative 
to the 13th Congress, and served as county judge 
and chief justice until 1825, when he was elected 
first assistant judge. In 1822 he was a delegate 
to the state constitutional convention. In 1826 
be was elected governor of the state and was re- 
elected in 1827 without opposition. During his 
administration he was ac^tive in forwarding the 
cause of education and in suppressing lotteries. 
He was a presidential elector in 1804, 1820 and 
1880, a member of the committee that fixed the 
site for the first state house, and planned the 
state's prison and state arsenal. From 1810 to 
1816 he was a trustee of the University of Ver- 
mont. He died in Waterbury, Vt., July 12, 1838. 

BUTLER, Francis Eugene, clergyman, was 
bom in Suflfolk, Conn., Feb. 7, 1825. In early 
manhood he was a merchant in New York city, 
and interested himself in religious work. He was 
made secretary of the New York Bible society, 
was active in establishing the Young Men's Chris- 
tian association, and engaged in the management 
of several philanthropic enterprises. In 1854 he 
determined to devote his life to the work of the 
ministry, and after his graduation at Yale an 
A.M., in 1857, and three years at the Princeton 
theological school and one year at Andover, he 
preached at Bedford Springs, Pa., and in the sec- 
ond Presbyterian church, Cleveland, Ohio. He 
was ordained as a Congregational minister, April 
16, 1862, and preached in Paterson, N. J. In 1868 
he joined the 25th New Jersey volimteers as chap- 
lain, and while attempting to relieve the suffer- 
ings of a wounded soldier of another regiment on 
a battlefield near SufiFolk, Va., he was shot by a 
aharpehooter, and died May 4, 1868. 



BUTLER, James Davie, educator, was bom in 
Rutland, Vt., March 15, 1815, son of James Davie 
and Rachel (Maynard, born Harris) Butler. He 
was prepared for college at the Wesleyan semin- 
ary in Wilbraham, Mass., and was graduated at 
Middlebury college in 1836. After studying a 
year in the theological school of Yale college he 
became a tutor at Middlebury college, and in 
December, 1888, acting professor. In 1840 he was 
graduated at Andover theological seminary, and 
being elected an Abbott resident he remained at 
Andover until 1842. From June, 1842, he trav- 
elled and studied in Europe. He was engaged as 
a supply for Congregational churches in West 
Newbury, Mass., and Burlington, Vt. From 1845 
to 1847 he was professor and acting president of 
the imiversity of Norwich, Vt. From 1847 to 1852 
he was pastor at Wells River, Vt., Norwich, Vt., 
and South Danvers, Mass. From 1852 to 1855 
he was pastor of the Congregational church in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, resigning to accept the chair 
of Greek in Wabash college in Indiana. In 1858 
he aocepted a similar position in the university 
of Wisconsin, where he remained until 1867. 
After a year of fore|^ travel he spent a winter 
on the lecture platform. From 1869 to 1878, in 
the interest of a western railroad company, he 
explored, studied and described the region through 
which the road ran. He then took up his residence 
at Madison, Wis. , and engaged in literary work, lec- 
turing and preaching. In 1854 he was elected 
a member of the American antiquarian societj, 
the fifth to receive that honor, and delivered an 
address before that society in April, 1894, con- 
cerning the journal of Sergeant Lloyd. He also 
became a member of the Wisconsin state histor- 
ical society, of which he was acting president in 
1897. Middlebury college conferred upon him 
the degree of LL.D. in 1862. His publiKhed 
writingH include Deficiencies in Our History 
(1846) ; Incentives to MentcU Culture among 
Teachers (1852) ; Nebraska (1873) ; Tlie Nam- 
ing of America (1874) ; Oovemmental Patron- 
age of Knowledge (1877) ; American Pre-Revolu- 
tionary BU^iography (1879) ; First French Foot- 
prints beyond the Lakes (1882) ; The Hapax 
Legomera in Shakespeare (1882) ; Portraits of 
Columbus (1883) ; The words once used in 
Shakespeare (1886) ; Alexander Mitchell, the Fi- 
nancier (1888) ; Butleriana, Genealogica et Bio- 
graphica {\SSS) ; Prehistoric Pottery (1894), and 
British Convicts sliipped to American Colonies 
(1896). 

BUTLER, John Jay, educator, was bom at 
Berwick, Me. , April 9, 1814. He was graduated at 
Bowdoii) college in 1837, and at Andover theologi- 
cal seminary in 1844, when he was elected profes- 
sor of systematic theology in Whi teste wn (N.Y.) 
seminary. He was ordained a minister in the Free 



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Baptist ohurch, Jan. 28, 1846. From 1854 to 1870 
he was professor of theology in the New Hampton 
(N. H.) theological school; held the same chair in 
the theological department of Bates college, 
Maine, from 1870 to 1878, and was professor of 
sacred literature at Hillsdale college, Michigan, 
from 1878 to 1883. Under his forty years of 
preaching, about five hundred students entered 
the ministry. In 1834 he assumed partial editorial 
direction of the Morning Star, the Free Baptist 
denominational organ. He published : Natural 
and Revealed Theology (1861) ; Commentary 
on the Gospels (1870), and Commentary on the 
Acts, Romans f and First and Second Corinthians 
(1871). He received the degree of A.M. from 
Hamilton college in 1849, and D.D. from Bowdoin 
college in 1860. He died at Hillsdale, Mich., 
June 16, 1891. 

' BUTLER, Josiaht jurist, was bom in Pelham, 
N. H., in 1779. He graduated at Harvard college 
with honor in 1803, studied law, and was admitted 
to practice about 1807. In 1809 he was elected a 
member of the legislature from Deerfield, and be- 
came a leading member of the Democratic party. 
He was appointed sheriff of the county of Rock- 
ingham in 1810, and was removed from office in 
1813 by the ascendant Federalist party and 
resimied the practice of his profession. He 
was clerk of the court of common pleas, and 
in 1815 was returned a member of the state legis- 
lature, and again elected in 1816. He was elected 
a representative to the 15th Congress in 1816, and 
was re-elected to the 16th and 17th congresses. 
In 1825 he was appointed by Oovemor Morrill 
associate justice of the State court of common 
pleas of New Hampshire, remaining on the bench 
until 1833, when the court was abolished. He 
died at Deerfield, N. H., Oct. 29, 1854. 

BUTLER, Matthew Calbraith, senator, was 
bom in Greenville, S.C, March 8, 1836; son of 
William and Jane Tweedy (Perry) Butler and 
grandson of William Butler, soldier and repre- 
sentative in Congress, and nephew of Andrew 
Pickens Butler, jurist. His father was a physician 
a naval officer, and a representative in the 27th 
(Congress, and his mother was a sister of Oliver 
Hazard and Matthew Calbraith Perry, the naval 
heroes of the war of 1812. He received his prepar- 
atory education in the schools of Edgefield and at 
Liberty Hall, and entered South Carolina college 
in 1854, remaining there until 1856, when he began 
the study of law in the office of his uncle, Hon. 
A. P. Butler. He was admitted to the bar in 1857, 
commenced practice al Edgefield Court House, 
was elected to the legislature from that district 
in 1859, resigning the office in 1861 to enter the 
Confederate service. He served with honor and 
(distinction through the entire war, passed 
through the usual grades of promotion, and in 



1868 received a major-general's oommission. Hel 
lost his right leg at the battle of Brandy Station. 
He resumed the practice of law after the war, 
was returned to the state legislature in 1866, and 
in 1870 stood for election to the office of lieuten* 
ant-governor and to that of U. S. senator, but 
was defeated, the state being overwhelmingly 
Republican. In 1876, when South Carolina had 
two legislatures, hd was elected to the U. 8. 
senate by one faction, and David T. Corbin by 
the other, Butler winning the seat after a notable 
contest before the senate conmiittee. He was re- 
elected in 1882 and again in 1888. He was com- 
missioned major-general of volimteers. May 28, 
1898, and served in the war with Spain. 

BUTLER, Marion, senator, was bom in Honey- 
cutts township, Sampson county, N. C, May 
35, 1863. He received the greater part of his 
preparatory education from his mother, and was 
graduated from the University of North Carolina, 
in 1885. He commenced a law course, but the 
death of his father obliged him to return home to 
assist in the support of his mother and his six 
brothers and sisters. He taught in a local acad- 
emy, worked the home farm, and saved suffi- 
cient money to buy the Clinton Caucasian, a 
weekly newspaper, the only one published in the 
county. Later he removed the Caucasian to 
Raleigh, where it acquired a large circulation and 
became influential. He was elected a trustee of 
his alma mater. He joined the Farmers' Alli- 
ance movement in 1888, was appointed president 
of the coimty lodge, and became prominent in 
the Alliance work. In 1890 he was elected to the 
state senate, where he held the Alliance forces, 
and succeeded in bringing about a number of 
much-needed reforms. He became the president 
of the State Farmers' Alliance in 1891, was re- 
elected in 1892, became first vice-president of the 
national organization in 1893, and its president in 
1894. Immediately after the adjournment of the 
Chicago convention of 1892 he severed his con- 
nection with the Democratic party, and began 
the work of organizing the People's party, con- 
ceiving and carrying out the successful campaign 
of 1894. He was elected to the United States 
senate in 1895, and in 1896 was chairman of the 
executive committee of the People's party at the 
national convention at St. Louis, July 24, where 
he declined the nomination as vice-presidential 
candidate on account of not having reached the 
legal age. 

BUTLER, Moses, surveyor, was bom in Ber- 
wick, Me.*, July 13, 1702 r son of Thomas Butler, 
descended from the house of Ormond in Ireland. 
Moses is first mentioned in the colonial records in 
connection with the seizure of logs by the king^s 
Surveyor of woodsj which aroused such a spirit 
of resistance that sixty pounds was voted at a 



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town meeting in 1729 to defray the expenses of 
an aggressive campaign against him, and Mr. 
Butler was chosen to represent the remonstrants 
of the colonists before the general court at Bos- 
ton, whence the complaint had come. Upon his 
return to Berwick, the town paid his expenses, 
and in 1788 elected him to the board of selectmen 
until 1738. From 1734 to 1756 he held the office 
of crown surveyor, and from 1747 to 1756 again 
served on the board of selectmen. In the latter 
year he was chosen moderator of town meeting. 
In 1744 he was among the first to recruit a com- 
pany for the service of the Louisburg campaign 
which he commanded, under Sir William Pepper- 
•ell, during the siege and captured the fort. In 
1748 he again attended the general court in Bos- 
ton to reply to a petition executed against the 
town of Berwick, and in the following year was 
chosen a representative to the general court. In 
1754 he again took the field and served through 
the campaign of 1754-*55. See Thomas Butler 
and his Descendants, by Geo. H. Butler.. M.D. ■ 
<.1886). His death occurred at Berwick, Me., 
between Sept. 15 and Dec. 18, 1756. 

BUTLER, Nathaniel, educator, was born at 
ISastpor^ Me., May 22, 1853. He was graduated 
from Colby univeraity A.B., 1873. A.M., 1876. and 
taught school in Illinois, 1873-'83. lie was ])ro- 
fessor of rlietoric and English literature in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, 1884-'86 : professor of L;itin and 
of rhetoric and Eng- 
lish literature in the 
University of Illinois, 
1886-»91; associate 
professor of English 
literature and subse- 
quently director of 
the university exten- 
sion department of the 
University of Cliicago, 
1892-'95, which he 
represented at the uni- 
versity extension con- 
gress in London in 
1894. He was president 
of Colby university, 
1896-1900, received the degree D.D. from there in 
1896, and returned to the Univei-sity of Chicago in 
1900. He was an editor of Johnson's Cyclopcedia, 
and published a Latin text book. 

BUTLER, Nicholas Murray, educator, was 
bom in Elizabeth, N.J., April 2, 1862 ; son of 
Henry L. and Mary J. (Murray) Butler ; grand- 
^>n of the Rev. Dr. Nicholas Murray (** Kir wan"). 
He was graduated from Columbia college, A.B., 
1^882, A.M., 1883, Ph.D., 1884; and was a uni- 
versity fellow in letters there, 1882-'84. He 
studied at Berlin and in Paris, 1884-'85, and was 
an assistant instructor of philosophy, ethics and 




JVJ*rfaiWift34Aitt^ 



psychology at Columbia, 1886-'87, tutor, 1887-'89, 
and adjunct professor, 1889-'90 ; became dean of 
the faculty of philosophy and professor of phil- . 
osophy and education in 1890, and president of 
Columbia in 1902. He founded in 1866 and was -. 
president of the New York college for the train- 
ing of teaxjhers, 1886-*91 ; was a member of the 
New Jersey state board of ed negation, 1887-'95 ; 
special commissioner from New Jersey to the 
Paris exposition in 1889, and president of the 
Paterson, N.J., board of education, 1892-'93, and » 
of the National educational association in 1895. i 
He established and became editor of the Edvr . 
cational Review in 1891 ; and became editor of the 
Great Educators series (Scribners) in 1888 ; of the 
Teaclier's Professional Libi'ary (Macmillans) in . 
1898 ; of the Columbia university contributions 
to Philosophy and Education in 1894 ; and of 
monographs on Education in the United States in 
1899. He received th^ degree LL.D. from Syra- 
cuse, 1898, and Johns Hopkins, 1902. He wrote 
•*The Meaning of Education " (1898). 

BUTLER» Pierce^ senator, was born in Ireland, 
July 11, 1744 ; son of Sir Richard Butler. He re- 
moved from Boston, Mass., to Charleston, S.C. ; 
sold his major*s commission in the British army 
in 1773, and was a delegate to the Continental 
congress, 1787-*88, and a member of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1787. He was a U.S. senator, 
1789-'96, when he resigned, and 1803-'05, when he- 
again retired. He was a director of the U.S. 
bank. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 15, 
1822. 

BUTLER, Pierce Mason, governor of South 
Carolina, was bom in Edgefield district, S. C.,. 
April 11, 1798; son of William Butler, soldier in 
the American revolution. He was educated for 
the army, and entering the service in 1819 he 
soon displayed ability which led to rapid promo- 
tion. In 1829, having attained the rank of cap- 
tain, he resigned his commission and engaged in 
the banking business at Columbia, S. C, return- 
ing to the army in 1836 upon the commencement 
of the Seminole disturbances in Florida, and win- 
ning renown by his gallantry on several hotly 
contested fields. In 1836 he became governor of 
South Carolina, and upon the expiration of his 
term of office in 1838 ^sls appointed by J*resident 
Van Buren agent for the Cherokees west of the 
Mis^ssippi, retaining the office imtil the beginning 
of the Mexican war in 1846, when he entered the 
army as a colonel of the ** Palmetto" regiment, 
which he had organized. He distinguished him- 
self by his bravery at the battle of Cerro Gordo 
and afterwards at the battle of Churubusco, when* 
he was twice wounded, in spite of which he con- 
tinued to lead his men into the thickest of the. 
fight until he was shot through the head. He^ 
died on the battlefield Aug. 20, 1847. 



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BUTLER. 



BUTLER, Richard, soldier, was born in Ire- 
land, the eldest of tlie four Butler brothers, all 
celebrated soldiers in the American revolution. 
William was also bom in Ireland, and Thomas 
and Percival in Pennsylvania. He came to 
America with his parents at some time prior to 
1754, and in 1776 entered the patriot army as 
lieutenant-colonel in a Pennsylvania regiment. 
He served with distinction through the entire 
war, and at its close had attained the rank of 
colonel. From 1787 to 1791 he was agent for In- 
dian affairs in Ohio, and in the latter year was 
made a brigadier-general and commanded the 
right wing in the St. Clair expedition against the 
Indians. He was tomahawked and scalped in the 
disastrous engagement of Nov. 4, 1791. 

BUTLER, Thomas Belden, jurist, was born in 
Wethersfield, Conn., Aug. 22, 1806. He was 
graduated at Yale medical school in 1828 ; prac- 
tised medicine until 1837, when he was admitted 
to the bar and engaged in practice at Nor walk. 
He was a representative in the state legislature, 
1832-*45; a state senator, 1848-'53, and was 
elected to the 31st Congress. He became judge 
of the superior court of Connecticut in 1855 ; of 
the supreme court in 1861, and chief justice in 
1870. He is the author of a speech on the slave 
question (1850); and of **The Philosophy of the 
Weather" (1856). He died in Norwalk, Conn., 
June 8. 1873. 

BUTLER, Thomas S., representative, was born 
in Uwchland, Pa,, Nov. 4, 1855. He was educated 
at the Normal school. West Chester, Pa., studied 
law, and on being admitted to the bar engaged 
in practice at West Chester, Pa. He was elected 
a representative in the 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th and 
58th congi-esses, 1897-1905. 

BUTLER, Wentworth S., librarian, was born 
in Deerfield, N.H., in 1826 ; son of Josiah Butler. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1848. From 

1850 to 1853 he pur- 
sued a course in tlie- 
ology with a view to 
holy ordei-8. In 1855 
Mr. Butler became 
temporary assistant 
to the librarian of 
the New York society 
library, and remained 
« , . until the spring of 
k X. 1856. when he super- 
i \r intended the removal 
of the library to the 
new building in Uni- 
versity place, and on 
the resignation of 
Mr. MacMuUen, the 
librarian, Mr. Butler was elected to the vacant 
office. Tlie collection of books known as the 




io$.T;:^^^s.t3a/i^. 



** Publick Library," from its foundation in 1700 by 
the Earl of Bellomont, was merged in the New 
York society library, which was organized in 
1754, and a royal charter was soon after granted 
to the consolidated institution by King George III. 
The membership of the library corporation, from 
its foundation, embraced members of the oldest 
families of New York, and many of the shares 
have descended in the same families from 1754 
and 1790. Among its trustees before the Revolu- 
tion were the Rt. Hon. James DeLancey, gov- 
ernor of the province, its fii-st chairman in 1754 ; 
the Rev. Dr. Auchmuty, rector of Trinity 
church ; Chancellor Livingston ; and after the 
revolution, the Baron von Steuben, Edward Liv- 
ingston, Gulian C. Verplanck, Bishop Wainright^ 
Washington Irving, Frederick de Peyster, and 
other distinguished men. Mr. Butler was per- 
sonally instrumental in securing an endowment 
for the library of $70,000. and in 1880 had been 
successful in obtaining $71,000 in gifts and be- 
quests. After forty years' service he retired from 
the active duties of librarian, and was made 
librarian emeritus by the shareholders at their 
annual meeting in 1896. 

BUTLER, Williani, soldier, was bom in Prince 
William county, Va., in 1759 ; son of James But- 
ler, and moved with his father from Virginia into 
South Carolina about the year 1772. He was 
graduated in medicine at South Carolina college, 
and in 1779 entered tlie patriot army as lieutenant 
in General Lincoln's southern Continental forces, 
in which his father was also an officer. He was 
afterwards attached to the command of General 
Pickens and later to that of General Lee. He 
commanded a detachment of mounted rangers 
and was engaged in the successful battle at 
Dean's Swamp. He was promoted brigadier- 
general, and in 1796 was made a major-general of 
militia. He was a delegate to the Federal con- 
stitutional convention of 1787, and voted against 
its adoption. He was also a member of the state 
convention which adopted the South Carolina 
constitution. He served in the legislature, oc- 
cupied the office of sheriff and tIiato{ magistrate, 
and was elected a representative to the 7th. 8th. 
9th, 10th, 11th and 12th congresses, serving from 
1801 to 1813. In command of the South Carolina 
troops he was engaged in the defence of the state 
during the war of 1812. He died in Columbia, 
S.C., Nov. 15, 1821. 

BUTLER, Williani Allen, lawyer, was born 
in Albany, N.Y., Feb. 20, 1825; son of Benjamin 
Franklin and Harriet (Allen) Butler. He was 
graduated at the Univei-sity of the city of New 
York, 1843, read law with his father, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1846. He travelled 
abroad, 1840-'48, engaged in practice in New 
York city, was a lecturer on admimlty and 



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BUTLER. 



BUTTERFIELD. 



maritime law, jurisdiction, and practice in the 
Univei'sity of tlie city of New York ; member of 
the commission on cities, 1875--76 ; president of 
the New York bar association, 1886-'87 ; of the 
American bar association, 1886 ; member of the 
council of the University of the city of New York 
afier 1862, and a vice-president after 1891, and 
a member of the New York geographical and 
New York historical societies. He received the 
degree LL. D. in 1880, from the University of 
the city of New York. He contributed to 
periodicals and published 77/e Future (1847) ; 
Bamum'8 Pamasxus (1850), Nothing to Wear 
(1857) ; Two Millions (1^)8); and General Aver- 
age (1860) all poems. He also wrote : The Bible 
by Itself (1859) ; Martin Van Buren (1862). 
and Lawyer a/id Client (1871). His collected 
Poemis appeared (1871). In fiction he wrote 
Mrs. Limber's Raffle (1875) ; Doniesticm (1886) ; 
The Revision of the Statutes of New York 
and the Revisers (1888), and Oberammergau, 
(1891). He died at Yonkers, N. Y., Sept. 9, 
1902. 

BUTLER, Williani Orlando, soldier, was born 
in Jessamine county, Ky., in 1791, son of Gen. 
Percival Butler. He was graduated at Transyl- 
vania university in 1812, studied law under Robert 
Wickliflfe and became ensign in the 17th U. S. 
infantry. He was taken prisoner at Raisin river 
Jan. 22, 1813, and subsequently joined General 
Jackson at New Orleans with a volunteer com- 
pany, where he was brevetted major 1815, be- 
coming aide to Jackson in 1816. He engaged in 
the practice of law at CarroUton, Ky., in 1817 ; 
was a representative in the state legislature 1818- 
20, and in Congress 1839-43. He became major 
general of volunteers June 29, 1846, and being 
.senior major general succeeded General Scott 
in the command of the army of occupation 
in Mexico. Both congress and the State of 
Kentucky presented him with a sword. He 
was nominated as vice president of the United 
States on the ticket with Lewis Cass, Demo- 
crat, in 1848. He died at CarroUton, Ky., Aug, 
6, 1880. 

BUTTERFIELD, Consul Wiltshire, author, 
was born in Mexico, N. Y., July 28, 1824. He 
was educated at the State Normal school, Albany, 
N. Y. ; served as superintendent of schools in 
Seneca county, Ohio, 1847-48 and was admitted to 
the bar in 1854. He engaged in historical wiiting 
with Lyman C. Draper at Madison, Wis., in 1875, 
was an editor of the Northwest Review in 1883 ; 
associate editor of Descriptive America in 1885, 
and editor-in-chief of 77i6 Magazine of Western 
History one year, 1886-'87. He is the author 
of a History of Seneca County, Ohio, An Histor- 
ical Account of the Expedition against San- 
dusky under CoL William Crawford, in 1782, 



History of the Discovery of the Northwest by 
John Nicolet, in 16S4, History of the University 
of Wisconsin, and History of the Oirtys. He 
edited : The Washington Crawford Letters, 
Washington-Ii^ne Correspondence, A Short 
Biography of John Leith and the Journal of 
Capt, Jonathan Heart. In 1875-76 he wrote, 
in connection with Dr. Draper, Border Forays 
and Adventures, in 1884, witli Hon. Frank A. 
Flower, The Giants of the West. In 1892 he 
completed, in MS.; History of tlie Conquest of 
the Illinois and Wabash Towns 1778-*79 ; in 
1893-*94, a History of Brule's Discoveries and 
Explorations, 1610-26, History of Williamson*8 
Expedition, 1782, (1895) ; Chicago of Old (1896). 
He died in South Omaha, Neb., Sept. 25, 



BUTTERFIELD, Daniel, soldier, was bom at 
Utica, N. Y., Oct. 31, 1831; son of John Butter- 
field. After graduating from Union college in 
1849 he became engaged in business as general 
eastern superintendent of the American express 
company. He joined the 71st regiment N. G. S. 
N. Y. in 1851, transfer- 
red to and had risen to 
rank of colonel of the 
12th regunent in I860, 
which regiment he 
took to Washington, 
D. C. in April, 1861. 
For his valuable ser- 
vices and ability he 
was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel i n 
the regular army and 
brigadier and maj. gen- 
eral of volunteers. At 
the head of his New 
York citizen regiment, 
he led the advance 
over the Long Bridge 
into Virginia, and afterwards at Hanover Court 
House he took the first trophy guns captured by 
the army of the Potomac. He was present at 
Mechanicsville, at Gaines' Mill, and at all the bat- 
tles fought by McClellan and Pope in August and 
September, 1862. With his famous brigade he 
was sent by McClellan across the James at Har- 
rison's Landing to cover the withdrawal of the 
army of the Potomac when it changed base to 
join Pope's columns. In November, 1862, he was 
promoted major-general of volunteers, and in 
July, 1863, he became colonel of the 5th U. S. 
infantry, commanding the 5th army corps in the 
battle of Fredericksburg, covering the with- 
drawal of the Union army across the river. At 
Chancellorsville and at Gettysburg he was chief 
of staff of the army of the Potomac, and he also 
acted as marshal of the field at the latter battle. 




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BUTTERFIELD. 



BUTTERWORTH. 



during which he Was seriously wounded. Sub- 
sequently transferred with the 11th and 12th 
oorps to the army of the Cumberland, he served 
as chief of stafiF under General Hooker at Look- 
out Mountain and Missionary Ridge. In the 
G^rgia campaign which followed he com- 
manded a division of the 20th corps, under 
Generals Thomas and Hooker, at the battles of 
Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, and New Hope 
church, and at Lost and Kenesaw mountains. 
At Resaca he captured the only rebel guns Sher- 
man became possessed of before the fall of At- 
lanta. For gallant and meritorious conduct he 
was brevetted brigadier-general and major- 
general of the regular army, and he received the 
nation's medal of honor for especial heroism at 
the battle of Gaines' Mill, where he was wounded. 
He was stem and severe in drill and discipline ; 
his valor and fearlessness, as he dashed forward 
to an attack, captured the hearts of his men, who 
stood ready to follow his lead. After the close 
of the war he had charge of the recruiting ser- 
vice of the U. S. army, with headquarters at New 
York, and he had command of the forces at Bed- 
loe's, Governor's and David's islands in New 
York harbor from 1S65 to 1869, when he accepted 
the position of United States sub-treasurer at 
New York city. Later he resigned office, and 
travelled in Europe for several years. He was 
the originator of the system of corps badges, 
flags, and insignia adopted in the army of the 
Potomac and in others, afterwards worn by all 
veterans. After -the war his organizing powers 
were frequently called into requisition on the 
occasion of great public demonstrations and 
parades, notably the Sherman funeral, and the 
Washington centennial celebration in New York 
city, May 1, 1889, when he organized one hundred 
thousand civilians into companies and divisions 
and planned and organized the military and civic 
procession that welcomed Admiral Dewey to the 
city of New York, Sept. 30, 1899. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from Union in 1892. He uied at 
Cold Spring, N.Y., July 17, 1901. 

BUTTERFIELD, John, pioneer expressman, 
was born at Berne, near Albany, N. Y., Nov. 18, 
1801. He began to earn his living in passenger 
and freight work at Albany, before the days of 
railroads, by conveying passengers by lines of 
stages from Utica, afterwards establishing stage 
routes throughout New York state; acquired 
interests in packet boats and steamboats on 
Lake Ontario; originated the street railroad in 
Utica, and constructed local plank-roads. When 
railroads superseded these modes of transporta- 
tion he organized the Black river railroad and 
railroads from Utica south. In 1850, at his sug- 
gestion, the express firm of Butterfl*»ld. Wasson 
& Co., of which he was the principal, and Liv- 



ingston, Fargo & Co., and Wells & Co., wera 
consolidated, as the American express company, 
of which corporation he was director until his. 
death. He was among the early investors in the 
electric telegraph, and built the Morse line be- 
tween New York and Buffalo. He also put in, 
operation the Overland mail route, and con- 
tracted with the government to carry the U. S.. 
mail between Mississippi river and the Pacific 
ocean. He was interested in oth^r stock com-, 
panics and business enterprises, while farming; 
also occupied his attention towards the latter 
part of his busy life. He served as an officer in 
the New York state agricultural society, waa 
elected mayor of Utica and was one of its most^ 
energetic, popular and public-spirited citizens,. 
He died in Utica, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1869. 

BUTTERWORTH, Benjamin, representative,, 
was bom in Warren county, Ohio, Oct. 22, 1837. 
He was educated at the Ohio university, settled 
in Cincinnati, and was admitted to the bar in 
1861. In 1870 he was appointed U. S. district 
attorney, and was elected a member of the state 
senate in 1873. In 1878 he was elected a repre- 
sentative to the 46th Congress, and was re-elected 
to the 47th Congress. He was appointed by 
President Arthur in 1883 a Northern Pacific? 
railroad commissioner, as special government 
counsel to prosecute the South Carolina^ election 
cases of 1888, and as United States commissioner 
of patents. In 1884 he was elected a representa? 
tive to the 49th Congress and was re-elected to 
the 50th and 51st congresses. He served on the 
committees on the Pacific railroad, reform in the 
civil service and appropriations, and as chair- 
man of the conmiittee on patents. He prepared 
the act providing for the compulsory retire- 
ment of army officers, introduced a bill In the 
50th Congress to abolish all customs duties 
between the United States and Canada, and 
in the 51st Congress made a vigorous attack 
on the McKinley bilL He was appointed U.S. 
commissioner of patents in 1897. He died at 
Thomas ville, Ga., Jan. 16, 1898. 

BUTTERWORTH, Hezekiah, author, was 
bom at Warren, Bristol county, R I., Dec. 22. 
1839. His education was acquired at the schools 
of his native place and as a special student at 
Brown university. He remained at home until 
1857, editing a newspaper and contributing fre- 
quently to various periodicals. He spent some 
years in foreign travel, including in his joumey- 
ings South America, and in his wanderings he 
collected much material for his subsequent books; 
In 1870 he became assistant editor of the Youth'^ 
Companion, and was influential in promoting the 
success and high standing of that paper. Among 
his published books aire : The Story of th€ 
Hymns; or Hymns that Jiave a History (1875)« 



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BUTTRE. 



BYFIELD. 



The Story of the Notable Prayers of Christian 
History (1880) ; Young Folks' History of 
America (1881) ; Young Folks* History of 
Boston (1883) ; The Great Composers (1884, rev. 
and enl., 1894) ; Poems for Chinstmas^ Easter and 
New Year (1884) ; Wonderful Christmases, of Old 
(1885); Ballads and Stories for Readings, ttith 
Musical Accompaniments for Public Entertain- 
ments (1886) ; Songs of History {\SS7) ; The Story 
of the Tunes (1890); The Log Sclioolhouse on tlie 
Columbia (1890) ; In the Boyhood of Lincoln (1892); 
Little Arthur's History of Borne, from tlie Golden 
Age to Constantine (1892); The Parson's Miracle, 
and My Grandmother's Grandmother's Christ- 
mas Candle (1894) ; T%e Patriot Schoolmaster 
(1894) ; In OW New England : the Romance of 
a Colonial Fire-side (1895) ; The Knight of 
Liberty: A Tale of the Fortunes of LaFay- 
ette (1895) ; The Wampum Belt (1896) ; and 
Zig-Zag Journeys in all parts of the world, 
in fifteen volumes, from 1880 to 1894. Of the 
Zig-Zag Journeys more than five hundred thou- 
sand volumes were sold. He also wrote libret- 
tos for several successful cantatas, includ- 
ing Under the Palms, Faith, and Faith Tri- 
umphant. 

BUTTRE, John Chester, engraver, was born 
at Auburn, N.Y., June 10, 1821. He received 
an academical education, studied portrait-paint- 
ing, but abandoned it for wood-engraving, 
and removed to New York city in 1841, where 
he later applied himself wholly to engraving 
on steel. A imique method in the treatment 
of portraits by which he secured life-like ex- 
pression brought him into prominence, and after 
his notable engraving of President Buchanan 
many orders came to him unsolicited. He ex- 
ecuted a fine portrait of Lincoln, and a full 
length of Martha Washington. His work was 
in great demand for standard illustrated pub- 
lications. He engraved a number of large 
plates for popular sale, notably Only a 
Little Book, Welcome Home, The First Step, 
The Empty Sleeve, Tlie Old Oaken Bucket, and 
Prayer in Camp, His last engraving was a 
Tignette of Grant, published after the gen- 
eraFs death. He also published the American 
Art Gallery in 8 vols., containing the portraits 
of two hundred and fifty eminent persons in 
the United States, with letter-press by his 
daughter Lillian C. Buttre. He possessed a 
Tery large collection of steel-engraved portraits, 
daguerreotypes and photographs. He died at 
Ridge wood, N. J., Dec. 2, 1893. 

BUTTS, kaac, journalist, was bom in Wash- 
ington, Dutchess county, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1816. 
He removed with his parents in early life to 
Rochester, where he obtained an ordinary edu- 
cation. He purchased and edited the Rochester 



Advertiser, 1845-'64, and consolidated the Union 
with the Advertiser in 1856, wherein he supported 
Democratic principles, and the principle in re- 
gard to slavery in acquired territory which lie- 
came known as ** Popular Sovereignty.*' He waa 
a member of the House printing telegraph com- 
pany and of the New York and Mississippi Valley 
printing telegraph company, and an organizer and 
director of the Western Union telegraph com-, 
pany, into which the two companies wera merged. 
He published Brief Reasons for Repudiation, 
Applicable to the War Debts of all Countries 
(1869). His Protection and Free Trade: an In- 
quiry whether Protective Duties can Benefit the 
Interests of a Country in the Aggregate, was pub- 
lished posthumously (1875), and contains a brief 
memoir by the editor. He died in Rochester, 
N.Y., Nov. 20, 1874. 

BUTTZt Henry Anson, educator, was born at 
Middle Smithfield, Pa., April 18, 1885. He waa 
graduated from the College of New Jersey ^ 
Princeton, in 1858. He took a course in theology 
at the New Brunswick seminary, and was admit- 
ted to the ministry in the Newark conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, where he fulfilled 
appointments in a number of cities until 1870. 
He was tutor and adjunct professor of Greek and 
Hebrew in Drew theological seminary, 1868-70 ; 
CJobb professor of New Testament Greek and ex- 
egesis, 1870-'80, and elected president of Drew 
theological seminary in 1880. Wesleyan uni- 
versity conferred on him the A.M. degree in 1866^ 
and the College of New Jersey made him A.M. 
m 1861 and D.D. in 1875. From 1876 to 1879 he 
edited the epistles to the Romans, in Greek (a 
comparison of texts). He has also published a 
remarkably fine edition of the Greek Testament. 

BYERS, Samuel Hawkins Marshall, author, 
was bora in Pulaski, Pa., July 23, 1838, son of 
James M. Byers. He was educated in the public 
schools of Oakaloosa, Iowa ; studied law, and in 
1861 enlisted as a private. He was imprisoned 
at Columbia, S.C., after the battle of Chat- 
tanooga, and there wrote Shermans March to 
the Sea, He escaped and was attached to Sher- 
man's staff. He became adjutant of the 5tli 
Iowa volunteers in 1863, and was brevetted major 
in 1865. He was U. S. consul at Zurich 1869-'84 ; 
consul-general in Italy, 1885, and in Switzerland 
1891-'93. He is the author of : " TIte Happy 
Isles" (poems 1885) ; Switzerland and the 
Swiss (1886); Sixteen Months in a Rebel Pri- 
son, a Diary (1886) ; loica in War Times 
(1888); The March to the Sea (1897); Recol- 
lections of a Consul ( ! 899) . 

BYFIELD, Nathaniel, jurist, was born in 
Long Ditton, Surrey, England, in 1658 : son of 
Richard Byfield, a Westminster assembly divine. 
He emigrated to America in 1664, settling in 



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BYFORD. 



BYNUM. 



Boston, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. 
He removed to Bristol, R. I., in 1674, and ac- 
quired a proprietary interest in one-fourth of 
the land of that town after King Philip's war. 
He took an active interest in the growth, devel- 
opment and government of the town, served as 
speaker of the house of representatives for a 
season, and as judge of the Bristol coimty court 
of common pleas for thirty -eight years. He was 
judge of the vice-admiralty from 1704-'15, and 
again in 1720. He returned to Boston in 1724, 
was appointed judge of the court of common 
pleas of Suffolk county, and later became a 
member of the Massachusetts council, retaining 
the latter office for many years. He was the author 
of an Account of the late Revolution in New 
England ; together with tlie Declaration of the 
Qentlemen, Merchatita and Inhabitants of Bos- 
ton (1689). He died in Boston, Mass., June 6, 1783. 

BYFORD, William Heath, physician, was 
bom in Eaton, Preble county, Ohio, March 20, 
1817. He was graduated at the Ohio medical 
school in 1844, and practised at Mt. Vernon, Ind. 
In 1852 he became professor of anatomy, and in 
1854 professor of theory and practice in the 
Evansville medical college. In 1857 he was 
called to the chair of obstetrics in the Rush medi- 
cal college, Chicago, and in 1859 to the chair of 
obstetrics in the Chicago medical college. He 
returned in 1879 to the Rush medical college to 
fill the chair of gynaacology, which had been cre- 
ated for him. He was one of the founders of the 
Woman's medical college of Chicago, and for 
many years its president, and its professor of 
obstetrics and gynaecology. His published works 
are : Chronic Inflammation of the Cervix 
(Philadelphia 1864) : Treatise on the Chronic 
Inflammation and Displacement of the Uterus 
(1864, new ed.. 1871); Practice of Medicine and 
Surgery applied to Diseases of Women (1865; 
new ed., revised, 1871); Philosophy of Domestic 
Life (1868); and a Treatise on the Theory and 
Practice of Obstetrics (1870). He died in Clii- 
cago. El., May, 1890.) 

BYINGTON, Ezra Hoyt, clergyman, was born 
at Hinesburg. Vt., Sept. 3, 1828. He was gradu- 
ated from the University of Vermont in 1852, 
and from Andover theological seminary in 1857. 
For more than thirty years he was a parish min- 
ister: at Royalston, Vt., 1857-'58; at Windsor, 
Vt., 1858-'69; at the American Presbyterian 
church in Montreal, 1870; at the College church 
in Brunswick, Me., 1871-'78, and at Monson, Mass., 
1880-'87. After that time he made his home at 
Newton, Mass., and preached in the vicinity of 
Worcester and Boston; served for many years 
as an active member of the New England historic 
genealogical society, the American society of 
church history and a number of other societies 



of the same character. From 1890 to 1894 he 
was engaged in teaching theology. In 1855 he 
received the degree of A.M. and in 1890 that of 
D.D. from the University of Vermont. He pub- 
lished in 1896 The Puritan in England and New 
England." Mr. Byington died at Newton, Mass., 
May 16, 1901. 

BYINGTON, Swift, clergyman, was bom at 
Bristol, Conn., Feb. 4, 1825. In his boyhood he 
studied with A. Bronson Alcott in Philadelphia, 
Pa., and was graduated from Yale college in 
1847, and from Andover theological seminary in 
1850. From 1850 to 1852 he was resident licenti- 
ate at Andover, and after his ordination to the 
O)ngregational ministry in 1852 he preached for 
several years at West Brookfield, Mass. In 1859 
he preached at the North Avenue church in 
Cambridge; in 1861-'62 at North Wobum; in 
1862-'63 at the Old South church in Boston; from 
1864 to 1871 in Stoneham, and from 1871 to 1894 
in Exeter, N. H. He retired from active work 
Feb. 15, 1894. and died May 26, 1895. 

BYLES, Mather, clergyman, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., March 15, 1707. He was descended 
on his mother's side from Richard Mather and 
John O)tton. After graduating from Harvard 
in 1725 he studied for the ministry, and was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational church, 
Hollis street, Boston, in 1733, where he officiated 
for forty-three years. He was an eloquent 
preacher, and many of his sermons are preserved 
in the public libraries. He was a Tory, and this 
brought about his dismissal from the Hollis 
street church in 1776. He was denounced in 
town meeting, and, after a trial, sentenced to 
imprisonment for forty days and then to be 
deported with his family to England. This sen- 
tence was conmiuted to confinement to his own 
house and subsequently remitted altogether. He 
published : Poem on the Death of George 1. 
(1727); A Poetical Epistle to Governor Belcher 
on tlie Death of his Lady (1736), and Miscel- 
laneous Poems (1744) : also The Comet, The 
Conflagration and Tlie God of the Tempest. He 
died in Boston, Mass., July 5, 1788. 

BYNUM, John Gray, jurist, was bom in Gil- 
bertown, Rutherford county, N. C, Feb. 15, 
1846; son of John Gray and Mary Mofifate 
(McDowell) Bynimi. His mother was a grand- 
daughter of Major Joseph McDowell, who com- 
manded the right wing of the American forces 
at the battle of King's moimtain. At the age of 
sixteen he volunteered as a private in the Con- 
federate army. After the Mine Run campaign 
in 1863 he was discharged for disability. Gov- 
ernor Vance, in 1864, appointed him clerk on 
the blockade-runner Ad Vance, and he was cap- 
tured with the vessel in September, 1864. by the 
United States steamer Santiago de Cuba, and 



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I for some time imprisoned in New York city. 
After the close of the war he studied law with 
liis stepfather, Chief Justice Pearson, and was 
admitted to the bar in January, 1867, practising 
his profession at Morganton, N. C. In 1878 he 
was elected to the state senate. In January, 
1889, he was appointed by (Governor Scales judge 
of the superior court for the tenth judicial dis- 
trict of North Carolina, and in 1890 he was 
ielected to the same position. 

BYNUM, William D., representative, was bom 
:near Newberry, Greene county, Ind., June 26, 
1846. He was graduated at the Indiana imi- 
versity in 1869, and was admitted to the bar in 
•the same year. He was city attorney of Wash- 
ington, Ind., from 1871 to 1875, and was mayor 
from 1875 to 1879. In 1876 he was a Democratic 
■elector. He removed to Marion coimty in 1881, 
and was elected a member of the state legislature 
in 1882, and speaker of the house in 1883. In 
1884 he was elected a representative from the 
.-seventh Indiana district, and served from the 
49th to the 53d Congress, inclusive. He resumed 
his law practice at Indianapolis, and was a mem- 
ber of the commission to revise the laws of the 
United States in 1900. 

BYRD, William, colonist, was bom in London, 
En:?land, in 1650; son of John and Grace (Stegge) 
Byrd. He emigrated to America in 1674 to 
take possession of a large ** tract of land in 
Virginia," which had been bequeathed to him 
by his uncle, Capt. Thomas Stegge, " gent." The 
present site of Richmond was included in the es- 
tate, and that town was founded some years later 
by his son and heir. By reason of his wealth and 
.ability he at once obtained prominence in the 
colony. He was a member of the council and 
•of the house of burgesses, and he was ** receiver- 
general of his majesty's revenues for the colony, " 
serving in each capacity for many years. ** West- 
over,'* the mansion purchased by Mr. Byrd from 
Theodorick Bland, became one of the old-time 
landmarks in Virginia, and was still owned by 
his descendants in 1897. He died in Westover, 
Va . Dec. 4, 1704. • 

BYRD, William, lawyer, was bom in West- 
over, Va., March 16, 1674; son of William and 
Mary (Horsemanden) Byrd. He was called to 
the bar in the Middle Temple, London, England, 
and returning to Virginia he became one of the 
most prominent and influential citizens of the 
oolony. He succeeded his father as ** receiver- 
general of revenues," undertook and successfully 
executed three important missions to England 
on behalf of the colony, and was for thirty- 
seven years a member of the colonial cotmcil, 
acting for some years as its president. When in 
1690 some three hundred Huguenots sought 
<sbelt>er in the oolony he received them with 



fatherly affection and his liberality to them wad 
princely. He was indefatigable in his efforts to 
promote the growth and development of the 
colony, and offered large tracts of his own pri- 
vate property by way of inducement to attract 
settlers. He was a fellow of the Royal society 
of Great Britain, and was noted for his literary 
and scientific tastes, and for his patronage of the 
arts. To the library left him by his father he made 
valuable additions imtil it comprised some thirty- 
five hundred volumes. He served on a commis- 
sion appointed to adjust the boundary line between 
Virginia and North Carolina, and on his return 
from his tour of inspection had his notes of the 
journey copied. Later these notes were edited 
and published under the titles: The History of 
the Dividing Line between Virginia and North 
Carolina^ A Journey to the Land of Eden 
(1733), and A Progress to the Mines, known as 
the Westover ManuscHpts, He died at West- 
over, Va., Aug. 26, 1744. 

BYRNE, Andrew, R. C. bishop, was bom at 
Navan, Ireland, Dec. 6, 1802. While a student 
at the College of Navan he decided to join the 
American mission, and in 1820 he accompanied 
Bishop England to the United States, where he 
finished his theological studies, and was ordained 
in 1827. He was sent as a missionary priest to 
the scattered Catholic families in North and 
South Carolina. Three years of this arduous 
work, with its long and fatiguing journeys, 
made inroads upon his health, which caused his 
return to Charleston in 1830, where he was made 
vicar-general, and accompanied Bishop England 
as theologian to the council of Baltimore. In 
1836 he was assistant pastor at the cathedral in 
New York, and afterwards pastor of St. James's 
church in that city. In 1841 he made a journey 
to Ireland at the request of Bishop Hughes, to 
induce Christian brothers to take charge of the 
parochial schools in New York, but was unsuc- 
cessful in accomplishing the object of his mis- 
sion. Father Byrne now became pastor of the 
church of the Nativity in New Yorkimtil, in 1841, 
he opened the new St. Andrew's church, which 
through his exertions had been transformed 
from a secular edifice into a Christian church. 
In 1848 the new diocese of Little Rock, Ark., 
was erected, and he was chosen its first bishop, 
and consecrated at St. Patrick's cathedral, by 
Bishop Hughes, March 10, 1844. His missionary 
labors, which extended to the Indian nation, 
were even more arduous than those of his first 
charge, as he had often to travel from seven 
hundred to one thousand miles from one mission 
to another. He twice visited Ireland, where he 
procured a number of assistants and co-laborers. 
He, with the assistance of a colony of sisters 
of merry, founded five convents and numerous 



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parochial schools. He attended the sixth provin- 
cial council, and in 1856 attended the first pro- 
vincial council of New Orleans. His efforts were 
constant and widespread, his zeal unflagging. 
The Catholic population to which he ministered 
increased from five thousand in 1844 to over fifty 
thousand in 1862, and his efforts in hehalf of 
Catholic immigration to his diocese were of great 
benefit to the south and west, in furnishing an 
industrious class of settlers. Bishop Byrne died 
at Helena, Ark., Jan. 10, 1862. 

BYRNB» Thomas Sebastian, RC. bishop, 
was born at Hamilton, Ohio, July 19, 1841, of 
Irish parents. His father died when he was but 
nine years old, and the direction of his early 
education and religious training entirely de- 
volved on his mother. He was sent to such 
schools as the town of Hamilton afforded, and at 
the age of eleven was apprenticed to learn a 
trade. He served his time and became a practi- 
cal and skilled machinist. This walk in life did 
not satisfy the natural craving of his soul; he 
was ambitious to become a priest, and having 
accumulated enough money by his savings to pay 
his way through the preparatory seminary, he, 
at the age of eighteen, entered St. Thomas' 
seminary, Bardstown, Ky. From there he was 
advanced to St. Mary*s of the West, where he 
finished his classics under Father Xavier Donald 
McLeod. After a year's philosophy. Archbishop 
Purcell decided, in December, 1865, that he 
should be sent to the American college in Rome 
to complete his course. He pursued his studies 
in theology and philosophy for nearly three years 
at this institution, when his health began to fail 
and he was recalled to Cincinnati, and on Dec. 
16, 1868, he received, from Archbishop Purcell, 
tonsure and minor orders in the chapel of the sem- 
inary ; on December 18 he was made sub-deacon, 
and deacon on the following day. He was then 
appointed a member of the seminary faculty and 
the important oflBce of procurator was intrusted 
to him. On May 22, 1869, he was ordained a 
priest in the seminary chapel by Archbishop 
Purcell. In 1877 Father Byrne was placed in 
charge of the church of St. Vinoent-de-Paul, and 
in 1879, when the seminary was closed, he took 
up his permanent residence at St. Joseph's, the 
Mother house of the sisters of charity, imtil 1886, 
when he was appointed pastor of the cathedral 
in Cincinnati He had about completed the 
** Springer Institute,'* one of the finest school 
buildings in the archdiocese, when, in 1887, the 
generous bequest of Mr. Reuben Springer made 
possible the reopening of the seminary, of which 
Dr. Byrne was appointed rector. On July 25, 
1894, in St. Joseph's church, Nashville, Tenn., 
he was consecrated fifth bishop of the diocese by 
the archbishop of Cincinnati, assisted by the 



bishop of Columbus and the bishop of Coving- 
ton. In connection with Dr. PabLsch of th^ 
seminary he published Alzog's Universal Church 
History, 

BYRNE, William, educator, was bom in 
Wicklow, Ireland, in 1780; of humble, hard- 
working parents, who were not able to encour- 
age the ambition of the boy to become a priest, 
and he worked for the support of his brothera 
and sisters until he was twenty -five years old. 
In 1805 he emigrated to America and proceeded 
at once to seek admission to Georgetown college, 
D. C. He was refused matriculation on accoimt- 
of his deficient preparation, but nothing daunted 
he applied to Mount St. Mary's, Emmittsbiirg, 
Md., and was given admission, and when thirty 
years old began his Latin grammar. His progress- 
was rapid and in a few years he took his theo- 
logical course at St. Mary's seminary, Baltimore. 
He was ordained a priest in 1819, and in 1821 
located in Marion county, Ky., where he built 
St. Mary's college on Mount Mary farm. In 1881 
after it had, imder his direction, become one of 
the most flourishing Catholic schools in the state, 
he turned it over to the Jesuits, and he remained 
one year as its president, that no sudden transi- 
tion in its government should work harm to ita 
future welfare. On relinquishing his office he 
ministered in the neigborhood among the 
negroes, and while so engaged contracted chol- 
era, from which he died in 1838. 

BYRNE, WillUun, clergyman, was born in the 
parish of Kilmessan, County Meath, Ireland, in 
1886. He obtained his primary education in the 
national school of his native village, removed to- 
the United States in 1858, and in 1855 began ta ^ 
read Latin and Greek in St. Mary's college, Wil- 
mington, Del. He entered Mount St. Mary*s col- 
lege, Emmittsburg, Md., Sept. 1858, where he 
finished his classical and philosophical studies 
and graduated in 1860. After four years of 
theological study he was ordained priest In the 
Baltimore cathedral, by Archbishop Spalding, 
Dec. 81, 1864. For some years before his ordina- 
tion, and for about a year after, he was professor 
of Greek and mathematics in Mount St. Mary's^ 
college. In the fall of 1865 he was called to Bos- 
ton and Assigned to duty at the cathedral. April 
2, 1866, he was given charge of the chancery office, 
by the Rt. Rev. John J. WiUiams, D.D., who was 
consecrated bishop in March of that year. He 
held that position for ten years, when he was ap- 
pointed rector of St. Mary's church, Charlestown, 
and July 15, 1878, was made vicar-general of the= 
archdiocese of Boston. In 1881 Vicar-G^eneral 
Byrne rendered a conspicuous service to the R. C. 
church in America by accepting, on the invitation 
of the faculty and the advice of Cardinal Mc- 
Closkey and Archbishop Gibbons, the presidency 



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of Mount St. Mary's college, Emmittsburg, and 
extricating it from the financial embarrassments 
which threatened its existence. On his return 
to Boston, after three years' leave of absence, he 
was made rector of St. Joseph's church in that 
city. February, 1884. In 1888 Father Byrne rep- 
resented the archbishop of Boston at the golden 
jubilee of Pope Leo XIII. in Rome. In the same 
year he visited Ireland, and in recognition of 
his services to the cause of Irish nationalism in 
America received distinguished attentions from 
the Irish clergy, the Irish parliamentary party, 
and the people generally ; and an ovation in his 
birthplace, Kilmessan. Father Byrne founded 
the Boston temperance missions, and actively 
interested himself in prison reform. He is the 
author of an able and popular book on Catholic 
Doctrine, and contributed the chapter, Tlie 
Roman Catholic Church in Boston^ to the great 
Memorial History of Boston publisliefl by 
Messrs. J. R. Osgood & Ck>. His thorough knowl- 
edge of the Spanish language and literature 
enabled him to make many prose and poetical 
translations from that tongue. In 1888, on the 
invitation of the Universalist ministers of Bos- 
ton, he addressed them on Aids to Practical 
Piety. In 1892 he addressed a club of students 
of Harvard university on Authority as a Medium 
of Religious Knowledge. Before the Catholic 
flection of the congress of religions at the (/hicago 
world's fair, he read a paper on Authority in 
Matters of Faith. He was one of the preachers 
in the doctrinal courses of the Catholic summer 
school of America, at the sessions of 1898 and 
1896. He gave a lecture on one phase of modem 
Spanish literature before the Catholic university 
of America in 1895. It was largely through 
Father Byrne's efforts, in memory of his close 
friendship with the dead poet, that S. J. Kitson's 
bust of John Boyle O'Reilly was placed in the 
Catholic University at Washington. At the ded- 
ication of the John Boyle O'Reilly statue in Bos- 
ton in 1896, he gave the closing benediction. He 
served as president of the corporation of St. Eliza- 
beth's hospital, Boston, and was officially con- 
nected, as trustee or otherwise, with many of the 
educational and charitable institutions conducted 
by members of his faith. 

BYRON, John W., bacteriologist, was bom at 
Lima, Peru, July 24, 1861. He studied medicine 
and practised for a few years in his native city, 
after which he studied and practised in Eu- 
rope where he made a specialty of diseases origi- 
nating in bacteria. When he retmmed to Peru 
yellow fever was raging there, and he was put in 
charge of several large public hospitals. From 
lima he went to Havana to study the malarial 
fevers of Cuba, during an epidemic of yellow 
fever. He was only twenty-four years of age, 



but the local officials, recognizing his ability, 
deposed the older physicians, and put him in 
charge of the many yellow fever hospitals 
which had been erected. He was finally taken 
down with the disease, was treated according 
to his own instructions, and soon recovered. 
When the plague finally left Havana, Dr. 
Byron went back to Lima and continued his 
studies there. On cholera breaking out in Cuba, 
in 1884, he went to Havana again, giving up 
everything to study the disease. He showed the 
same fearlessness of contagion that he had dur- 
ing the yellow fever epidemics, and escaped 
infection. Later when he went to Europe again 
his knowledge of cholera was recognized by the 
leading men of France and Q^rmany. He visited 
Paris and Berlin, attending lectures at the uni- 
versities, and pursuing original investigation at 
the hospitals. His fame as a bacteriologist had 
preceded him to New York, where he went in 
1890, and was made chief of the bacteriological 
department of the Loomis laboratory; he also 
became lecturer in that branch of medicine in 
the university medical college, and later was 
connected with the New York dispensary 
for three years. In his original work Dr. Byron 
made special advance in two subjects, — the 
forms of the micro-organisms which produce 
malarial fevers, and the bacteria of leprosy, which 
had not long been known as a disease produced 
by bacteria. With some of the bacilli of leprosy 
in his possession he produced leprosy in his 
laboratory in a gelatine medium, upon which the 
bacilli act the same as they do on the human 
system. He also made extensive studies in 
smallpox, and he wrote many papers on the sub- 
ject of bacteriological diseases; he wrote and 
lectured on it frequently before medical men. 
When cholera reached New York in September, 
1892, Dr. Byron decided to go where the disease 
was quarantined and make as extensive study of 
it as possible, and for over a month lived with the 
cholera patients, studying the diseases and doing 
as much good as he could. While in charge of the 
Loomis laboratory, and experimenting with the 
bacilli of tuberculosis, he contracted consimaption. 
He discovered his condition on March 13, 1894, 
when he had been infected a month. Familiarity 
with dangerous bacteria had made him careless, 
and both his lungs were badly affected. He con- 
tinued his experiments until July, when he went 
abroad for his health, and retmmed slightly im- 
proved. He assisted Health Officer Jenkins in 
opening a hospital for contagious diseases at 
Fort Wadsworth, Staten Island, N. Y., of which 
he was to have entire charge, but before the 
work was entirely completed Dr. Byron suc- 
cumbed to his disease, and died, a martyr to his 
devotion to science. May 8, 1895. 



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C. 




CABELL, Edward CaiTiii8:toii, stateciman, was 
bom in Eichmond, Va., Feb. 5, 1816; third son of 
Judge William H. and Agnes Saiah BeU (Gamble) 
CabelL He studied at Washington college, 1832- 
'83; Reynolds* clasdoal academy, 1833-'34, and 
the University of Yirginia, 1884-'36. He was 

first engaged as a 
civil engineer in sur- 
veying and locating 
the James river and 
Kanawha canal. In 
the fall of 1836 he 
removed to Florida. 
He was a delegate 
to the convention 
which framed the 
state constitution in 
1838, which was rati- 
fied by the people, 
and the state was 
admitted into the 

^, C CkAclC< Union in 1845. In 
1839 he returned to 
Virginia, where he studied law and was licensed 
to practise in 1840. He then settled at Talla- 
hassee, and was the Florida representative in the 
29th, 30th, 31st, and 82d congresses, serving from 
1845 to 1858. He removed to St. Louis, Mo., in 
1859. He served in the Confederate army as aid 
to G^n. John Letcher of Virginia, with the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel, and was at the battles of 
Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill, and 
Frasier's farm, serving subsequently on the staffs 
of (Generals Price and Barby Smith, imtil the 
close of the war. He practised law in New York 
city from 1868 to 1872, and subsequently in St. 
Louis, Mo., and from 1878 to 1882 he occupied a 
seat in the Missouri senate, retiring from public 
life on the expiration of his term. He was mar- 
ried Nov. 5, 1850, to Anna Maria, daughter of Dr. 
Daniel Pinchbeck and Elizabeth (Moss) Wilcox. 
He died at St. Louis. Mo., Feb. 28, 1896. 

CABELL, George Craighead, lawyer, was bom 
at Danville, Va., Jan. 25, 1836; son of Benjamin 
W. S. and Sarah Epes (Doswell) Cabell. He was 
educated at the Danville academy, and at the 
University of Virginia, and in 1858 began to prac- 
tice law in his native town. Li 1858 he was made 
commonwealth's attorney, and served imtil April 
23, 1861, when he volunteered as a private soldier 
in the Confederate army. He was commissioned 
major, in June, 1861, and served throughout the 
war, attaining the rank of colonel. At the close 
of the war he resumed his law practice, and in 
1874 he was elected to represent the fifth Virginia 
district in the 44th Congress, and remained in that 
body imtU 1887. 



CABELL, James Laurence, physician, was 
bom in Nelson county, Va., Aug. 26, 1818 ; son of 
Dr. George and Susanna ( Wyatt) Cabell. He was 
graduated from the University of Virginilt in 1833, 
where he studied medicine, and the following year 
received his M. D. degree from the University of 
Maryland. He continued his studies at the Balti- 
more almshouse, in the Philadelphia hospitals, 
and at Paris, France, being summoned home in 
1837 to become professor of anatomy, surgery and 
physiology in the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. He was chairman of the 
faculty during 1846-'47. He had charge of the 
Confederate militia hospitals during the civil 
war, was chairman of the national sanitary con- 
ference at Washington during the prevalence of 
yellow fever at Memphis, and was president of 
the national board of health from 1879 to 1884. 
The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
the Hampden-Sidney college in 1873. He wrote 
for the medical journals, and published The 
Testimony of Modem Science to the Unity of 
Mankind (\Sm). He died Aug. 13, 1889. 
CABELL, Joseph, surgeon, was bom near Dover, 
on Licking-Hole Creek, Goochland county, Va., 
Sept. 19, 1732; the second son of Dr. William and 
Elizabeth (Burks) Cabell. He received a thorough 
medical education from his father, and established 
a wide reputation as a skilful physician and sur- 
geon. At the age of twenty he married Mary, 
daughter of Dr. Arthur Hopkins. On Sept. 20, 
1751, he became a deputy sheriff, was a jus- 
tice of Albemarle county probably as early as 
1755, and held the office for many years. He 
was appointed to the house of burgesses about 
1764, and in this position he represented Bucking- 
ham county imtil 1771, signing the non-importa- 
tion articles of 1769 and of June 22. 1770. In 1771, 
he removed to Amherst county, and in Decem- 
ber of that year was elected a representative 
from there to the house of burgesses, where 
he remained until the body was finally dissolved 
in 1775. Immediately after this began the revo- 
lutionary conventions, to all of which he was 
elected, and was one of the most prominent and 
active delegates. In 1776 he acted as paymaster 
to the troops commanded by Gen. Andrew Lewis. 
From 1776 to 1779 he was a member of the house 
of delegates from Andover, and in 1778 was 
made county lieutenant or chief conmiander of 
Amherst county. In 1779 he removed to his es- 
tate in Buckingham, representing that county in 
the house of delegates during 1780 and 1781. He 
commanded a regime at at the siege of Yorktown, 
and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. 
A company of students of William and Mary 
college were attached to his regiment. Through- 



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out the revolution he gave his services and also 
large contributions of provisions, horses, and 
nK>ney to the patriot cause. He was state sena- 
tor probably continuously from 1781 to 1785, and 
a member of the house of delegates from 1788 to 
1790. Soon after this he removed to Sion Hill, 
Va., where he died, March 1, 1798. 

CABELL, Samuel Jordan, soldier, was bom in 
Virginia, Dec. 15, 1756, son of Colonel William 
and Biargaret (Jordan) Cabell. From 1771 to 
1775 he was a student at William and Mary col- 
lege. In 1776 Amherst county was requested to 
furnish a company of volunteers, and he was ap- 
pointed captain. After marching to Williams- 
burg, he was assigned to the 6th Virginia regi- 
ment, and fought in many battles, including Tren- 
ton and Princeton. For his action in the battle of 
Saratoga in 1777, he was promoted major, and 
served in Washington's army during the cam- 
paigns of 1778 and 1779, being promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel in the latter year. He was with the 
Virginia troops under Brigadier-General Wood- 
ford, who entered Charleston, S. C, on April 7, 
1780, after an enforced march of five hundred 
miles in thirty days. At the surrender of 
Charleston, May 12, 1780, he was taken prisoner 
and afterwards returned home, remaining on 
parole until the close of the war. In 1781 he 
married Sally, daughter of Col. John Syme, who 
was a half-brother to Patrick Henry. In 1788 he 
was elected deputy adjutant-general of Amherst 
county, and in 1784 became coimty-lieutenant. 
From 1785 to 1795 he was a delegate for Amherst 
ooimty, and when the town of Cabellsburg was 
foimded he was made one of its trustees. In 1794 
he was elected to the 4th United States Congress 
as H representative from Virginia, holding the 
office until the end of the 7th Congress. For 
many years he was a justice of Amherst county, 
and after its division in 1808 he was one of the 
first justices of Nelson county. A letter from one 
who knew him personally says: *' His people idol- 
ized him. For a long time they regarded him 
as next to (General Washington.*' He died at 
••Soldier's Joy ," Nelson county, Va., Aug. 4, 1818. 

CABELL, William, pioneer, was bom in 
Warminster, England, March 20, 1700, the eldest 
son of Nicholas and Rachel (Hooper) Cabell, and 
a grandson of William Cabell, who went to War- 
minster about 1664, and died there in 1704, prob- 
ably belonging to the Frome-Selwood family. 
William Cabell, the descendant, was graduated 
from the Royal college of medicine and surgery 
in London, and after practising a number of years 
entered the British navy as a surgeon. He came 
to America about the year 1728, and. settled in 
Virginia. The first really authentic record of 
him is in 1726, when he was deputy -sheriff in St. 
James parish, Henrico county, an office of great 



importance at that time. Probably some time in 
1726 he married Miss Elizabeth Burks, and in 1728 
removed to a settlement on Ldoking-Hole Creek, 
in what is now Goochland county, where he was 
elected a justice of the first county court, held 
from May 21 to June 1, 1728. In November of 
the same year he was made a member of the first 
grand jury, and in December was qualified as a 
coroner, his knowledge of medicine and surgery 
fitting him for the office. From 1780 to 1784 he 
spent much time in locating lands for settlement 
in the region west of the mouth of the Rockfish 
river, being the first Englishman to make such an 
attempt. In 1738, having located a large tract of 
land, he "entered for" it, but, before finally 
securing the legal right to the land, was obliged 
to go to England, leaving his wife and two friends 
as his attorneys. The survey was made in 1787, 
extending for twenty miles along both sides of 
the James river. In 1788 a patent for 4,800 acres 
of land was issued to him by Gk)v. William Gooch, 
and, in 1789 a grant of 440 acres was added. Dr. 
Cabell returned in 1741. In 1743 be was granted 
1,200 acres adjoining his patent of 4,800 acres, and 
soon after his return from England he removed 
from Licking-Hole Creek to the mouth of Swan 
Creek, in Nelson county. After erecting dwell- 
ing houses, a mill, a warehouse and other build* 
ings, he named the place Warminster, and for 
more than half a century it was a thriving com- 
mercial centre. In 1744 Albemarle county was 
formed, and he was one of the first justices; in 
August, 1746, he was commissioned coroner, and 
in September assistant surveyor of the county. 
In December, 1753, having increased his land by 
about 26,000 acres, he gave up his surveying busi- 
ness to his son William. He practised in his own 
county and those adjacent, and charged from one 
to five poimds, Virginia currency, for each visit. 
His services were usually engaged with the agree- 
ment that if the patient was not cured, the doctor 
would receive no pay beyond the immediate ex- 
pense incurred. His wife, Elizabeth, died Sept. 
21, 1756, and on Sept. 30, 1762, he married Mar- 
garet, widow of Samuel Meredith. The bulk of 
his property he left to his son Nicholas, who was 
married April 16, 1772, to Hannah, daughter of 
Col. George Carrington. See The CabeUs and 
Their Kin, by Alexander Brown (1895). Dr. 
Cabeirs death occurred April 12, 1774. 

CABELL, William, soldier, was bom near 
Dover, on Licking- Hole creek, Goochland county, 
Va., March 13, 1730; son of William and Elizabeth 
(Burks) Cabell. It is probable that his education 
was finished at William and Mary college. In 
December, 1749, he began to assist his father in 
surveying, and continued to do so until 1753. In 
1751 he became a vestryman of St. Ann's parish, 
Albemarle county, and held this office for ten 



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CABELL. 



CABLE. 



jiears. In February, 1754, at the beginning of 
the French and Indian war, he raised a troop of 
horse, of which he was made captain. About 
1755 he became a lieutenant-colonel of the Albe- 
marle militia, and on Oct. 11, 1760, was promoted 
colonel. He was also a justice of the peace. 
From 1757 to 1761 he was a member of the house 
of burgesses. In 1760 he subscribed with others 
to a premium to be given for the purpose of en- 
couraging the production of wine and silk in the 
colony. In 1761, at the first Amherst court, he 
qualified as the first presiding magistrate, the 
first coimty lieutenant, the first county surveyor, 
and the first county coroner, holding the oflSces 
until 1775. He also held the offices of burgess 
from Amherst county, of vestryman, and of sur- 
veyor by appointment of William and Mary col- 
lege, thus holding all of the leading offices of 
Amherst coimty during the colonial era. On 
May 2, 1768, he received, from his father, a deed 
to 1,786 acres of land in Amherst county, which, 
with the 460 acres already patented, an addition 
of 579 acres in 1764, and many subsequent addi- 
tions, made a large and valuable estate. Colonel 
Cabell was one of the original subscribers to the 
stock of the first James river canal company, and 
was prominent in all plans for the improvement 
of the country. From 1774 to 1776 he was chair- 
man of the Amherst county committee, and from 
September, 1776, to March, 1781, he served as 
state senator, when he was appointed a member 
of the council of state. He was elected to the 
house of delegates, in 1782, in 1783, and again in 
1787, being one of the few members to oppose the 
adoption of the Federal constitution. In 1788 he 
was again in the house of delegates, and in 1789 
was made presidential elector, voting for George 
Washington. His wife was Margaret, daughter 
of Colonel Samuel Jordan, by whom he had seven 
children. At his death he left an estate of about 
thirty thousand acres of land, many slaves, and 
personal property, although he had given several 
of his children fair estates. His death occurred 
March 23. 1798. 

CABELL, WillUun H., governor of Virginia, 
was bom at "Boston Hill," Cumberland county, 
Va., Dec. 16, 1772, the eldest son of Col. Nicholas 
and Hannah (Carrington) CabelL He was edu- 
cated at home and at private schools, studied 
at Hampden-Sidney college from 1785 to 1789, and 
at William and Mary college from 1790 to 1793. 
After taking a course of law in Richmond, Va. , 
he was admitted to practice, June 13, 1794. The 
following year he was married to Elizabeth, 
yotmgest daughter of Col. William Cabell, and 
lived in the family until the death of his wife, 
which occurred Nov. 5, 1801. In 1796 he was 
elected to the assembly, and served again in 1798, 
1802, 1803, 1804. and 1805. In March, of the last 



named year, he was married to Agnes Sarah Bell, 
oldest daughter of Col. Robert Gamble. From 
1805 to 1808, he was governor of the state, and in 
the latter year was elected by the legislature a 
judge of the general court, holding the office until 
1811, when he was appointed judge of the court 
of appeals. This ofi^ce he retained until the time 
of his death, being elected president of the court 
m 1842. He signed his name William Cabell 
prior to 1795, when he inserted the letter '* H" to 
distinguish himself from the other William Ca- 
bells. Among the events which occurred during 
his administration was the trial of Aaron Burr. 
On the division of Kanawha county, in 1809, the 
new county was named in his honor. He died in 
Richmond, Va., Jan. 12, 1853. 

CABLE, Qeorge Washingrton, author, was 
bom in New Orleans, La., Oct. 12, 1844. His 
father was of Virginian parentage and his mother 
was a descendant from the Puritans. In 1859, 
upon the death of his father, he obtained employ- 
ment as a clerk in a New Orleans store. In 1868 
he enlisted in the 4th 
Mississippi cavalry and 
remained in the Con- 
federate service until 
the close of the war, 
when he returned to 
New Orleans and ob- 
tained employment in 
a mercantile house. 
From there he went to 
Kosciusko, Miss., where 
he studied civil engin- 
eering. Later he went 
to the Tfiche country on ..^ ^ ^ y^ 
a surveying and ex- ^;:^^^'^75^^^ — 
ploring party. He be- v^^.^ 

gan his literary career by making oc-casional con* 
tributions to the New Orleans Picayune under 
the pseudonym "Drop Shot," and subsequently 
became editorially connected with that journal. 
Meanwhile he produced a tale entitled "Sieur 
George," which attracted favorable comment 
and was followed by other short tales of creole 
life, which were given a warm welcome as 
something entirely new in literature. In 1885 
he accompanied Mark Twain on a tour of the 
cities of the north lecturing on creole life, and 
reading from his own works. He afterwards 
made his home in Massachusetts. Among his 
published writings are : Old Creole Days (1879, 
'80, '95) ; The Orandissimes (1880, '95); Madame 
Ddphine (1881); The Creoles of Louisiaria (1884); 
Dr, Sevier (1885, '94); The Silent South (1885) ; 
Bonaventure (1888) ; Strange True Stories of 
Louisiana (1889; ; The Negro Question (1890); 
John March (1894). He received the degree Litt. 
D. from Yale, 1901. 




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CABOT. 



CABOT. 



CABOT* Qeorget senator, was bom in Salem, 
Mass., Dec. 8, 1751. Reentered Harvard college 
but left at the expiration of his second year, and 
went to sea as a cabin boy. He became master 
of a vessel and was engaged with great success in 
foreign trade. Returning to Salem in 1776 he be- 
came a member of the provincial congress of 
Massachusetts ; a member of the state convention 
which, in 1788, adopted the Federal constitution; 
and was elected U> the United States senate, serv- 
ing from 1791 to 1796, when he resigned. He 
was selected by President Adams as secretary of 
the navy, when that office was first created, and 
he served from May 3 to May 21, 1798. As a 
financier and political economist he had few 
superiors in his day, and he rendered valuable 
assistance to Alexander Hamilton in the forma- 
tion of his financial system. He was elected to 
the Massachusetts council in 1808 and was chosen' 
president of the Hartford convention of December, 
1814. Theodore Dwight's History of the Hart- 
ford Convention contains his financial views. 
He died in Boston, Mass., April 18, 1823. 

CABOT, John, discoverer, was a citizen of 
Venice. He was a commercial navigator, and 
was described at the beginning of his voyage to 
America as '*a distinguished mariner, with great 
ability in discovering new islands." He settled in 
Bristol, England, about 1477, and after the voy- 
age of Columbus in 1492 he profited by the dis- 
covery made, and, with his three sons, Lewis, 
Sanchel, and Sebastian, obtained a patent from 
Henry Vll., dated Mar. 5, 1496, empowering them 
and their heirs and deputies to sail in all seas 
imder the banner of England. They inunediately 
started out with two stout ships and three hun- 
dred able mariners, sailing first to Iceland and 
then past Greenland and what is now called Labra- 
dor, to land which they called Newfoundland, 
landing near the strait of Belle Isle ; they gave 
the place the name of St. John. Returning to 
England in August he was received by the kmg 
with great rejoicings, and presented with ten 
pounds in money. In February, 1498, a special 
charter was granted by the king, and authorities 
disagree as to whether or not Cabot sailed under 
this charter. The date and place of his birth and 
death are unknown. 

CABOT* Sebastian, explorer, was bom prob- 
ably either at Venice, Italy, or at Bristol, Eng- 
land, about the year 1476; son of John Cabot. 
As early as 1496 we find his name associated 
with that of his father and brothers in a petition 
to Henry VH. for letters patent, conmiissioning 
them to sail for the discovery of islands and 
countries "unknown to all Christians.** The 
letters were granted March 5, 1496, and John 
Cabot and his sons entered upon a voyage, which 
resulted in the discovery of land, which it is sup- 



posed was Cape Breton Island or Nova Scotia. 
Letters patent dated February, 1498, were 
granted to John Cabot for a second expedition, 
and it is believed that many of tne discoveries 
usually credited to Sebastian were in reaUty 
made by his father. Under this patent New- 
foundland was discovered and the coast explored 
as far south as to the Chesapeake Bay. About 
the year 1512 he entered the service of Ferdi- 
nand V. as cartographer, and became a member 
of the ** Coimcil of the New Indies," with the 
rank of captain and a yearly salary of fifty 
thousand maravedis. He was one of the cosmog- 
raphers, who, in November, 1515, met to define 
the rights of the Spanish crown to the Moluccas, 
and in 1518 he became pilot-major of the king- 
dom. In April, 1526, he was appointed to com- 
mand an exi)edition to Brazil. He visited the 
river and adjoining district of La Plata and es- 
tablished a fort at San Salvador, spending nearly 
four years in attempting to lay the foundation 
for a Spanish conquest of South America. Upon 
his return to Spain in 1530 he was arrested and 
imprisoned for a year, and then banished to 
Africa for two years. In 1547 a warrant for the 
return to England of '*one Shabot, a pilot,'* 
was issued by Edward VI. This writ Cabot 
answered in person, hoping to be commissioned 
to extend his discoveries, and, settling at Bristol, 
he was granted a pension of £166 ISs 4d, It was 
at this period that he made public the explsmation 
to the king of the phenomenon of the variation 
of the needle. So great was his popularity and 
infiuence that in 1550 and again in 1553 Charles 
V. made imperious demand of the British sov- 
ereign that '* Sabastian, grand pilot of the em- 
peror's Indies, then in England, be sent over to 
Spain as a very necessary man for the emperor, 
whose servant he was and had a pension of him." 
These demands Sebastian ignored, preferring to 
remain in England, where he was given general 
supervision of the maritime affairs of the country, 
and a renewal of the charter granted by Henry 
Vn. and lost. In reply to the appeals of *' certain 
grave citizens of London for advice as to the 
best method of removing the stagnation in trade, 
resulting from the disturbed and warlike state of 
the continent,'* he suggested the plan of an ex 
pedition *' for the searche and discoverie of the 
northern part of the world by sea, to open a way 
and passage to Cathay by the northeast." His 
advice was acted upon, a company called the 
** Merchant Adventurers *' was formed, of which 
he was made the chief, and an expedition fitted 
out under his supervision. On the first voyage, 
in 1553, Russia was accidentally discovered, and 
five years later, trade was opened up with central 
Asia, across the Caspian sea. In 1553, after the 
accession of Queen Mary, Charles V. made a final 



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CADILLAC. 



CADWALADER. 



attempt to induoe his return to Spflin. On Feb. 
28, 1556, a new company was formed and Cabot 
made president. The expedition was sent off the 
next spring, and on May 25, 1557, his resignation 
of the pension and its re-issue two days later ends 
the recorded acooimts of this remarkable charac- 
ter. Cabot's '*mappemonde," the original of 
which was drawn on parchment and illuminated 
with gold and colors, served as the model for all 
the general maps of the world afterward published 
in Italy. The only extant account of his death is 
that by his friend Eden, who writes: ** Sebastian 
Cabot on his death-bed told me that he had 
knowledge [of the art of finding longitude] by 
divine revelation, yet so that he myght not teach 
any man. But I think that the goode olde man 
in that extreme age somewhat doted, and had 
not yet, even in the article of death, utterly 
shaken of (sic) all worldly vayne glorie." See 
Biddle*s Memoir of Sebastian Cabot (London 
and Pliiladelphia, 1831), and Harrisse's Jean 
and Sebastian Cabot (Paris, 1882). The place 
and date of his death are also imknown, but he 
is believed to have died in London, at some time 
inmiediately subsequent to 1557. 

CADILLAC* Antolne de la Mothe, foimder of 
Detroit, was bom in France some time between 
1657 and 1661; he was the son of Jean de la 
Mothe, Seigneur Cadillac, de Launay, de Semon- 
tel and Jeanne de Malenfant. He was well 
educated, was a cadet in the regiment of Dam- 
pi^rre-Lorraine, and a lieutenant in the regiment 
of Clairembault in 1677. In 1683 he visited New 
France and settled at Port Royal, where he mar- 
ried Marie Therese, daughter of Denys Guyon of 
Quebec. July 23, 1688, he received a grant of 
land called Donaquec, in the present state of 
Maine, and a part of the Island of Moimt Desert. 
He determined to use the dowry his wife had 
brought him in foimding an establishment on 
this land, and probably went to live there in 
1688. He accompanied Calli^resand Frontenac 
when they set out to take New York, and drive 
the English from New England, according to 
Calli^res' programme. Chi reaching the harbor 
of New York and finding that the project had 
been abandoned, they set sail for France, and dur- 
ing the next seven months Cadillac remained in 
attendance at court. He returned to (Canada 
with a letter of reconmiendation to Frontenac 
from the king, and, in obedience to the wishes 
of the monarch, he was made lieutenant of the 
troops in the colony. In April, 1692, the king sent 
for him to come to France and give information 
that might help the French to gain possession of 
New England; and Cadillac drew up a report 
that displayed extensive knowledge of the entire 
coast with its fortifications, harbors, depths of 
bays, soundings of rivers, villages, and traits of 



character of the inhabitants. This report is in the 
French archives. In 1694 Frontenac sent him to 
command the Indians at Mackinac, where he 
remained until 1697, when he was recalled at his 
own desire. Investigation had convinced him 
that a fort on the Detroit river was necessary to 
repel the English. He had some difficulty in 
convincing the new governor, de Calli^res, of ita 
practicability, but finally, through his own great 
influence at the French court, a commission was 
granted him. Chi June 2, 1701, he set out from 
Montreal with one hundred men, fifty soldiers, 
fifty civilians, two Catholic priests, one. Father 
Vaillant, being a Jesuit. July 24, 1701, with & 
fleet of twenty-five birchen boats, he entered the 
Detroit river. At a point in the river where the 
broad stream narrows to about half a mile, the 
canoes were drawn up, and the voyagers as- 
cended c level plateau to a height of about fifty 
feet, and formed a temporary encampment 
Within two days he had laid the foundation of a 
church, staked out the ground for a fort and 
stockade, and begun house building. By the 
close of the following month the chapel, the fort, 
and dwellings for the settlers were erected. His 
wife had been left behind in Quebec, and her 
bravery and wifely devotion in journeying 
through a thousand miles of wilderness has few 
parallels in history. With Detroit as his capital, 
Cadillac assumed the governorship of a large 
territory, encoxiraged his soldiers to marry the 
young Indian women, and colcinixed the Indians 
about him in friendly settlements. He contin- 
ued in possession from 1705 imtil 1710, when he 
was appointed governor of Louisiana. His prop- 
erty in Detroit was taken without compensation 
by La Forest, his successor. He sailed to France, 
and, returning with a shipload of marriageable 
girls to become wives of his colonists, arrived 
in Louisiana, June 15, 1713 (Margry says 1712) 
and founded Natchez. In March, 1717, another 
was appointed to succeed him, and little is known 
of this energetic colonizer after he returned to 
France. His grand-daughter, Madcune Gregoire, 
in 1787, was allowed by the commonwealth of 
Massachusetts all of Mount Desert Island that 
had not been granted to others. He died in 
France, Oct. 18, 1780. 

CADWALADER* George, soldier, was bom 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1804; son of Oen. Thomaa 
Cadwalader, a distinguished soldier. He was 
educated in the schools of Philadelphia, and was 
engaged for many years in the practice of medi- 
cine. He entered the Mexican war as briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, and was brevetted 
major-general for especial gallantry at the battle 
of Chapultepec. He continued to practise medi- 
cine in Philadelphia until the outbreak of the 
civil war, when Gtovemor Curtin appointed hhxk 



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CADWALADER. 



CADWALADEli. 



major-general of state volunteers* and in May, 
1861. he was placed in command of the city of 
Baltimore, and in the following month accom- 
panied General Patterson on his Winchester 
expedition as second in oonmiand. Subsequently 
he was commissioned major-general of U. S. 
volunteers, and was chosen a member of the 
board appointed to revise the military laws and 
regulations of the United States. He published 
Services in the Mexican Campaign of 1847 (1848). 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 8, 1879. 

CADWALADER, John, soldier, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 10, 1742. His name ap- 
pears in the list of members of the Philadelphia 
committee of safety, 1776, where he was captain 
of a company of volunteers, known as the silk- 
stocking company, whose members afterwards, 
with scarcely an exception, received commis- 
sions in the regular army. He served for a time 
as colonel of the Philadelphia battalions and was 
then promoted brigadier-general of the Penn- 
sylvania militia. He was in command of one of 
the three divisions of Washington's force, which 
crossed the Delaware in December, 1776, and 
was present at the attack on Trenton on Jan. 8, 
1777. Qeneral Washington, writing to the presi- 
dent of Congress shortly after this engagement^ 
spoke of Qeneral Cadwalader as a *' man of 
ability, a good disciplinarian, firm in his princi- 
ples and of intrepid bravery.'* General Cad- 
walader was the possessor of great wealth. He 
twice refused a conmiission as brigadier-general 
in the regular army, and when not engaged in 
the field at the head of his Pennsylvania troops 
he served as a volunteer, or imder special orders 
for particular service. He engaged in a duel 
with Thomas Conway, the leader of the ** Con- 
way Cabal," escaped injiiry, but shot his antago- 
nist in the mouth, wounding him severely. He 
died at Shrewsbury. Pa., Feb. 10, 1786. 

CADWALADER, John, lawyer, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 1, 1805; son of Thomas 
and Mary (Biddle) Cadwalader. He was gradu- 
ated from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1821, and was admitted to the Philadelphia bar 
Sept. 20, 1825. He soon became solicitor for 
the United States bank and was retained by the 
government in the famous Blackbume '* Cloth 
cases." He was associated with Walter Jones 
and Daniel Webster in the Girard wiU case. In 
1834 he was admitted to the United States su- 
preme court. During the city riots in 1844 he 
raised and commanded a company of militia, 
composed of prominent Philadelphia men. In 
1854 he was elected a representative to the 84th 
Obngress, and declined a renomination. In 1858 
he was appointed by President Buchanan judge 
of the U. S. district court of eastern Pennsyl- 
Tania. He was made a member of the American 



philosophical society in 1867, and in 1870 received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He was twice married; 
first to Mary, daughter of the Hon. Horace Bin- 
ney, and second to Henrietta Maria, widow of 
Bloomfield McDvaine and daughter of Charles N. 
Bancker, of Philadelphia. He died in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Jan. 26, 1879. 

CADWALADER, John Lambert, lawyer, was 
bom near Trenton, N. J., Nov. 17, 1836; son of 
Thomas and Maria C. (Gouvemeur) Cadwalader. 
In 1856 he was graduated an A.B. from Prince- 
ton, and in 1860 an LL.B. from Harvard college. 
He read law with Daniel Lord of New York, and 
in 1874 was appointed assistant secretary of state 
of the United States, remaining in this office 
until March 8, 1877. He then became jimior 
member of the New York law firm of Bliss & 
Cadwalader, afterwards Eaton, Taylor & Cadwal- 
ader, and later Strong & Cadwalader. 

CADWALADER, Lambert, soldier, was bom 
in Trenton, N. J., in 1742; son of Dr. Thomas 
and Hannah (Lambert) Cadwalader. He waa 
graduated from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1760, and entered into mercantile business. In 
1765 he signed the non-importation agreement, 
and in 1774 was made a member of the commit- 
tee of superintendence and correspondence for 
Philadelphia. In January, 1775, he was a mem- 
ber of the provincial convention, and at the 
breaking out of the revolution he was chosen 
captain of one of the four military companies 
called *' The Greens." He was a member of the 
constitutional convention which met at Philadel- 
phia in 1776. On November 16 of that year he 
was among the prisoners taken at Fort Washing- 
ton, and with the captured garrison was marched 
to New York. He was unable to procure a 
release, and in January, 1779, resigned from the 
army. In 1784 he was elected a delegate to the 
Continental Congress, and took his seat in Janu- 
ary, 1785. He was re-elected to the two suc- 
ceeding congresses. Upon the adoption of the 
constitution of the United States he was elected, 
in 1788, a representative from New Jersey to 
the 1st U. S. Congress, taking his seat in 1789. 
He also served in the 8d Congress. He died at 
Greenwood, near Trenton, N. J., Sept. 18, 1828. 

CADWALADER, Richard McCall, lawyer, 
was born in Trenton, N. J., Sept. 17, 1889; son 
of Thomas and Maria C. (Gouvemeur) Cadwala- 
der, grandson of Lambert and Mary (McCall) 
Cadwalader. He was graduated from Princeton 
in 1860 and from Harvard law school in 1868. 
The following year he was admitted to the Phila- 
delphia bar. He was married Nov. 26, 1878, to 
Christine, daughter of J. Williams Biddle. He 
is the author of The Law of Ground Rents 
(1879). 



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CADWALADER. 



CADY. 



CADWALADER, Thomas, physician, was 
bom in Pniladelphia, Pa., in 1708; son of John 
.and Martha (Jones) Cadwalader. His father 
emigrated from Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Phila- 
delphia, towards the close of the seventeenth 
century. He was educated at the Friends' public 
school, in Philadelphia, and began the study of 
medicine with his imcle, Evan Jones. He then 
went to London, England, where he studied for 
his profession, returning in 1731. During the 
winter of 1736-'87 he inoculated for small-pox. 
In 1745 he published his essay on the " West 
Ind es Dry Gripes," one of the first medical 
essays published in America. On June 18, 1788, 
he was married to Hannah, daughter of Thomas 
Lambert of New Jersey, and settled at Trenton, 
N. J. In 1746 he was chosen first burgess of the 
new city of Trenton. He returned to Philadel- 
phia in 1751, was elected a member of the 
common council, and served until 1774, also serv- 
ing from 1755 in the provincial council. He 
subscribed to the capital stock of the Pennsyl- 
vania hospital in 1751, and was one of the original 
physicians of the institution. He was one of the 
founders of the Philadelphia library company, 
and a director periodically from 1731 to 1774; a 
trustee of the University of Pennsylvania from 
1751 to 1779, and a member of the philosophical 
society and the society for promoting useful 
knowledge. He gave a course of lectures in the 
medical college of Philadelphia, of which insti- 
tution he was elected a trustee in 1765. He was 
a signer of the non-importation articles. In July, 
1776, he was appointed by the committee of 
safety to examine candidates for positions as 
surgeons in the navy, at the same time was made 
a medical director of the army hospitals, and in 
1778 succeeded the elder Dr. William Shippen, 
as surgeon of the Pennsylvania hospital. He 
died at his farm, ** Greenwood," near Trenton, 
N. J., Nov. 14, 1799. 

CADWALADER, Thomas, soldier, was bom 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 28, 1779; son of Gen. 
John and Williamina (Bond) Cadwalader. He 
was graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1795, and was admitted to the bar. In 
April, 1799, as a private in a troop of cavalry, he 
aided in capturing the ringleaders of an insur- 
rection in Pennsylvania, which grew out of a 
resistance to the enforcement of a law levying a 
whiskey tax. In the war of 1812 he was a lieu- 
tenant-colonel of cavalry and was later placed in 
command of an advanced light brigade. He was 
afterwards major-general of Pennsylvania militia. 
He was offered by President Monroe the position 
of minister to the court of St. James, but declined 
the mission. In 1826 he was made one of three 
commissioners to revise the tactics of the U. S. 
army. From 1816 to 1836 he was a trustee of 



the University of Pennsylvania. He was mar- 
ried, June 25, 1804, to Mary, daughter of CJoL 
Clement Biddle. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Oct. 81, 1841. 

CADWALADER, Thomas, soldier, was bom 
at Greenwood, near Trenton, N. J., Sept. 11, 1795; 
son of Lambert and Mary (McCall) Cadwalader. 
He was graduated at Princeton in 1815, and stud- 
ied law but did not practise. He was appointed, 
June 2, 1830, deputy adjutant-general in a bri- 
gade of the New Jersey militia, and on April 10, 
1833, lieutenant-colonel and aid-de-camp to 
(Governor Seeley. On July 30, 1842, he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general and made adjutant- 
general of New Jersey. In 1856 he was sent by 
the governor to Europe, to report on the fire- 
arms in use in the European countries. In 
March, 1858, he was brevetted major-general by 
the legidature. He was married, Dec. 27, 1881, 
to Maria C, daughter of Nicholas Gouvemeur. 
He died at Greenwood, N. J., Oct. 22, 1878. 

CADY, Albemarle, soldier, was bom in Keene, 
N. H., Feb. 15. 1807. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1829, and was engaged in frontier and 
engineering duty until 1838, when he was ordered 
to service in the Florida war. In the Mexican 
war he was at the siege of Vera Cruz, and in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Churubusco and Molino 
del Rey, being wotmded in the latter engagement, 
and receiving the brevet of major for his gal- 
lantry. He participated in the action against 
the Sioux Indians at Blue Water, Dakota, in 
1855, and in 1857 was promoted major. He was 
on duty on the Pacific coast during the early 
years of the civil war, and was placed on the 
retired list in May, 1864, although on duty in 
New Haven, Conn., imtil November, 1865. He 
was brevetted brigadier-general March 18, 1865, 
for long and faithful service, and died in New 
Haven, Conn., March 14, 1888. 

CADY, Daniel, jurist, was bom in Canaan, 
Columbia county, N. Y., April 29, 1773; son of 
Eleazer Cady, a farmer. He was educated at the 
town school and academy, was admitted to 
the bar in 1795, and began practising law at 
Florida, Montgomery county, but soon removed 
to Johnstown, P\dton county. In politics he was 
a Federalist. He was elected to the New York 
state assembly in 1809 and was re elected a num- 
ber of times. In 1814 he was elected a represen- 
tative to the 14th Congress. He was in active 
practice for over fifty-five years. He was elected 
a judge of the New York supreme court in 1847, 
was re-elected in 1849, and during that year was 
ex-offldo a judge of the court of appeals. He re- 
signed from the bench in 1855, being eighty -two 
years old. The degree of LL. D. was conferred 
on him by Hamilton college in 1834. On July 8, 
1801, he married Margaret Chinn, daughter of 



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CALDERHEAD. 



Colonel James Livingston, an officer in the 
revolutionary army. They had a large family of 
children, the most distinguished being Elizabeth 
Cady Stanton, the reformer. A sketch of Daniel 
Cady asa lawyer, by his son-in-law, Henry B. Stan- 
ton, will be found in Barbour's New York supreme 
court reports, vol. xviii. , p. 662. He died in Johns- 
town, N. Y.. Oct. 81, 1859. 

CADY» Josiah Cleveland, architect, was bom 
in Providence, R. I., in 1888. He was graduated 
at Trinity college with the class of 1860, studied 
architecture, and located in New York city, 
where he designed some of the prominent public 
buildings in that city, including the homes of the 
Century, University, Manhattan, and Athletic 
clubs ; the Metropolitan opera house ; the Museum 
of natural history, Presbyterian hospital, and 
several church edifices. He also designed the 
Peabody museum. North Sheffield hall, Chitten- 
den Memorial library, Dwight hall, White and 
Berkeley dormitories, and Winchester hall at 
Yale university ; Morgan hall and the Lyell gymna- 
sium at Williams college ; Jarvis hall of science, 
Epsilon chapter house for Delta Psi at Trinity col- 
lege : and the building for scientific purposes and 
the new gymnasium at Wesleyan university. 
He was a member of the American institute of 
architects and the architectural league, and an 
officer of several scientific and philanthropic as- 
sociations, including the American science asso- 
ciation, the State charities aid association, the 
skin and cancer hospital, the Demilt dispensary, 
and the New York city mission. In 1860 he re- 
ceived the degree of A.M. from Trinity college. 

CAFPERY, Donelson, senator, was bom in the 
parish of St. Mary, La., Sept. 10, 1885. He was 
educated at St. Mary's college, Maryland, and 
was afterwards admitted to the bar. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, serving first as a 
private, and later on the staff of Gen. W. H. T. 
Walker. In 1879 he was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention, and in 1892 was elected to 
the state senate. In 1898 he was appointed 
United States senator to succeed R. L. Gibson, 
deceased, taking his seat Jan. 7, 1898. He was 
elected by the legislature in 1894 to fill out the 
term, and also for the full sei;iatorial term expiring 
Marcli 4, 1901. He is the author of Aldredge on 
Free Coinage of Silver (1896). 

CAHOONE, J. Benjamin, naval officer, was 
bom in Rhode Island in 1800. He served as a 
purser in the United States navy from 1880 to 
1861, when he reached the age limit and was 
retired. During the civil war he was assigned to 
emergency duty at the Portsmoutli and Boston 
navy yards, became pay director, and in 1868 was 
again retired, receiving in consideration of extra 
service the relative rank of commodore. He died 
in New York city, July 27, 1878. 



CAIN, Richard H., clergyman, was bom in 
Greenbrier county, Va., April 12. 1825. He was 
a negro and had no education except such as he 
received in the Sabbath-school, until 1846, when 
he commenced to study for the ministry. He 
spent the year 1860 at Wilberforce university, 
Xenia, Ohio, and engaged in pastoral labors in 
Brooklyn from 1861 to 1864, when he was sent as 
a missionary to the f reedmen of South Carolina, 
and was for many years identified with the Afri- 
can M. E. church in that state. He was a dele- 
gate to the state constitutional convention of 
1867, a member of the state senate in 1868, and a 
representative from Charleston in the 45th Con- 
gress. He was appointed bishop by the general 
conference of the African M. E. church in 1880, 
and was assigned to the district of Louisiana and 
Texas. He founded Paul Quinn college at Waco, 
Texas, and advanced education within his district. 
Subsequently he became presiding bishop of the 
first episcopal district of the African M. E. 
church, embracing the conferences of New York, 
New Jersey, New England, and Philadelphia. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Wilbertorce 
in 1878. He died in Washington, D.C., Jan. 18, 1887. 

CAINE, John T., delegate, was bom in the Isle 
of Man, Jan. 8, 1829, where he received a gram- 
mar-school education, emigrated to the United 
States early in 1846, and resided for a time in 
New York city, where he became identified with 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
In the fall of 1848 he went to St. Louis, Mo., 
where he cast his first ballot, and was active 
from 1849 to 1852 in forwarding the large number 
of Mormon immigrants who passed through St. 
Louis, bound for Utah Territory. He settled in 
Salt Lake City in 1852 ; served on a mission in the 
Sandwich Islands, 1854-*56, and became connected 
with the Salt Lake Herald in 1870, serving as 
managing editor and also as president of the 
company. He was secretary of the legislative 
council, and a member of that body, 1876-'84 ; a 
member of the Utah constitutional conventions of 
1872 and 1882, and president of the convention in 
1887 that made polygamy and bigamy punishable 
and asked for admission into the Union as a state. 
He was recorder of Salt Lake city, 1876-'82 ; a 
trustee of Deseret university, 1876-'88 ; a delegate 
to congress, 1882-'98, and a state senator in 1897. 

CALDERHEAD, Wiiliam A., representative, 
was bom in Perry county, Ohio, Sept. 26, 1844. 
He was educated in the public schools ; served in 
the Ohio volunteer infantry, 1862-'65, and in 1872 
settled in Kansas, where he taught school and 
fitted for the law. He was admitted to the bar ; 
engaged in practice in Marysville, and served as 
county attorney, 1889-'91. He was elected a rep- 
resentative in congress as a Republican, 1895- 
1905. 



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CALDWELL. 



CALDWELL. 



CALDWELL, Alexander, senator, was bom in 
Huntington county. Pa., March 1, 1880; son of 
Captain James CaldwelL At the age of fifteen 
he entered into business and in 1847 at the out- 
break of the Mexican war he enlisted in a com- 
pany raised and commanded by his father. In 
1861 he removed to Leavenworth, Kansas, and 
in 1865 he helped in forwarding the construction 
of the Missouri river and the Kansas central 
railroads. In 1870 he was elected to the United 
States senate, and served* 1871-'78. He was a 
manufacturer, 1877-97, and president of the First 
national bank of Leavenworth from 1897. 

CALDWELL, Ben Franklin, representative, 
was bom in Greene county. 111., Aug. 2, 1848 ; son 
of John Caldwell. He was educated in the public 
schools and in 1853 removed to Sangamon county, 
and subsequently engaged in farming. He wa.s 
married. May 27, 1873, to Julia F. Cloyd. He 
served four terms in both branches of the Illinois 
legislature ; became president of the State bank 
at Chatham, and was elected a representative in 
the 56th, 57th and 58th congresses as a Democrat. 

CALDWELL, Charles, physician, was bom 
in Caswell County, N. C, May 14, 1772. He gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania M.D. 1793. 
was brigade surgeon under Lee 1791-'94. and pro- 
fessor of materia medica in Transylvania Uni- 
versity in 1819. He edited the Port-Folio in 
1814, and Cullin's Practice of Physic 1816, and is 
the author of Life and Campaigns of General 
Gtreen« (1819); Memoirs of Horace Holley (1828). 
He died in Louisville, Ky., July 9, 1853. 

CALDWBLLt Charles Henry Bromedge, 
naval officer, was bom in Hinghiun, Mass., June 
11, 1828. He entered the navy in 1888 as a mid- 
shipman, was promoted master in 1851 and 
lieutenant in 1852. He defeated a tribe of canni- 
bals in an engagement at Wega Fiji, in October, 
1858, and burned their town. He was actively 
and conspicuously engaged in the civil war, 
distinguishing himself at the bombardment of 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip. He participated 
in the action at Grand Gulf in June, 1862, was 
in command of the Essex of the Mississippi 
squadron in 1862-'63, taking part in the Port 
Hudson operations of the latter year. He com- 
manded the OUiucus of the North Atlantic 
blockading squadron from 1863 to 1864, and the 
R, R, Cuyler of the same squadron from 1864 to 
1865. He reached, by regular promotion, the 
rank of conmiodore, Jime 14, 1874. He died in 
Waltham, Mass., Nov. 30, 1877. 

CALDWELL* David, educator, was bom in 
Lancaster county, Pa., March 22, 1725. He was 
graduated from the Ck>llege of New Jersey in 
1761, and in 1763 was licensed to preach by the 
New Brunswick presbytery. He was ordained 
at Trenton, N. J., in 1765, and went as a mis- 



sionary to North C^arolina, holding pastorates Id 
Alamance county, besides practising medicine 
and conducting a private classical school for 
fifty years. He was a member of the state con- 
stitutional convention that met at Halifax in 
1776. He opposed the adoption of the Federal 
constitution in the convention called to ratify it. 
During the revolutionary war. Ck>mwallis offered 
a large reward for his capture, and allowed the 
troops to loot his plantation, bum his books, and 
destroy his property. He was offered the presi- 
dency of the University of North Carolina on ita 
foundation in 1791, but declined the office. The 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the 
University of North Carolina in 1810. In 1812 
in a sermon at the Alamance court house, when 
he was eighty -seven years old, he urged the duty 
of self-defence and the enlistment of volunteers 
to carry on the war with England. See bio- 
graphy by E. W. Camthers, D.D. (1842). He 
died Aug. 25, 1824. 

CALDWELL, Qeorge Chapman, chemist, was 
bom at Framingham, Mass., Aug. 14, 1834. He 
was graduated at the Lawrence scientific school. 
Harvard, in 1855, and from Gdttingen university, 
with the degree of Ph.D., in 1856. Soon after 
his return to the United States he became assist- 
ant in chemistry at Columbia college. During 
1859-'62 he was professor of chemistry and phys- 
ics at Antioch college, Ohio, and from 1862 to 
1864, hospital visitor of the U. S. sanitary com- 
mission. He was professor of chemistry in the 
Pennsylvania agricultural college, 1864-'67; vice- 
president of the college. 1867-^68, and in the 
latter year professor of agricultural and analyti- 
cal chemistry at Cornell university. He was one 
of the foimders of the Society for the promotion 
of agricultural science, president of the Associa- 
tion of official agricultural chemists, and presi- 
dent of the American chemical society. Besides 
his reports and special papers he published: 
Agricultural Qualitative and Quantitative Chemi- 
aal Analysis (1869) ; A Manual of Introduc- 
tory Chemical Pfactice^ with A. A. Breneman 
(1875) : A Manual of Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis, with S. M. Babcock (1882), an.l Ele- 
iments of Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical 
Analysis (1892). 

CALDWELL* Henry Clay, lawyer, was born 
in Marshall county, Va., Sept. 4, 1832; son of 
Van and Susan Caldwell. In 1836 his parents 
removed to Wisconsin territory, where he gained 
admission to the bar in 1852 ; in 1856 was elected 
prosecuting attorney of the district, and in 1858 
was sent to the state legislature. In 1861 he 
joined the Union army and was commissioned 
major, and afterwards promoted lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel of the 3d Iowa cavalry. In 
Jime, 1864, he was appointed by President 



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CALDWELL. 



CALDWELL. 



Linooln district judge for the district of Arkansas. 
On March 4, 1890, he was appointed by President 
Harrison circuit judge for the eighth circuit, to 
succeed Judge David J. Brewer. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from Little Rock university, 
Little Rock, Ark. 

CALDWELL, James, clergyman, was bom in 
Charlotte county, Va. , in April, 1734 ; was gradu- 
ated from the College of New Jersey in 1759, and 
in 1762 assumed the pastorate of a church at 
Elizabethtown, N. J. He made many enemies by 
his advocacy of the cause of independence, and 
during the revolution earned the sobriquet of 
the '* soldier parson,'* while acting as chaplain of 
the New Jersey brigade. In 1780 his church and 
house were burned by Tories, and his family fled 
to Connecticut Farms, N. J., where his wife was 
killed by a stray bullet, during a sortie made 
by British troops from Staten Island, N. Y. In 
1780 he successfully defended Springfield, N. J., 
against an attack by the British. He met his 
death at the hands of an American sentry, dur- 
ing a dispute, and his murderer was delivered to 
the civil authorities and hanged in 1782. His 
son, John £. Caldwell, was educated in France 
by General Lafayette. In 1846 a monument was 
«rected to Mr. Caldwell and his wife in Elizabeth- 
town, N. J. He died Nov. 24, 1781. 

CALDWELL, John, politician, was bom in 
Prince Edward coimty, Va. He went to Nelson 
<x)unty, Ky., in 1781, where he became promi- 
nent in state politics. He attained the rank of 
major-general during the Indian troubles in Ken- 
tucky. In 1787, '88, '89 he was elected to the 
state conventions at Danville. In 1792 he was a 
member of the Kentucky senate under the first 
constitution, and served a second term in 1793. 
In August, 1804, he was elected lieutenant- 
^vemor of Kentucky. He had six sons, two of 
whom, Anthony and William, fought in the siege 
of Yorktown. He died while presiding over the 
senate in Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 9, 1804. 

CALDWELL, John A., representative, was 
bom at Fair Haven, Preble coimty, Ohio, April 
21, 1853; son of Alexander and Sarah Caldwell. 
His education was acquired in the common 
schools, and at the age of seventeen he began to 
teach schooL In 1871 he went to Cincinnati, 
And, after teaching for three years in Mill Creek 
township, began the study of law. In 1876 he 
was graduated from the Cincinnati law school, 
jind after teaching for another year he entered 
upon the practice of his profession. In 1881 he 
was elected prosecuting attorney for the city, 
and re elected in 1888. In 1887 he was elected 
city judge, and in the succeeding year president 
of the Ohio Republican league. He was a repre- 
sentative in the 51st, 52d and 5dd congresses. He 
was chairman of the Republican congressional 



conmiittee in 1893. He resigned his seat in Con- 
gress to accept the mayoralty of Cincinnati, 
assuming this office May 4, 1894, for the term 
expiring June 30, 1897. He is the author of the 
anti-lottery bill. 

CALDWELL, John Curtis, diplomatist, was 
bom in Lowell, Vt., April 17, 1888; son of George 
Morrison and Betsey (Curtis) Caldwell. He was 
graduated at Amherst in 1855, and became princi- 
pal of Washington academy. East Machias, Me. 
In October, 1861, he was commissioned colonel 
of the 11th Maine volimteers, and was promoted 
brigadier-general of volimteers in April, 1862. 
He served in the Army of the Potomac from its 
organization until the last year of the war, 
when he was president of the advisory board of 
the war -department. He sat for a term in the 
Maine senate, and from 1867 to 1869 served as 
adjutant-general of the state. In 1869 President 
Grant made him consul to Valparaiso, Chili, and 
in 1874 United States minister to Montevideo, 
Uruguay. He returned to the United States in 
1882, and subsequently removed to Kansas, where, 
in 1885, he was appointed president of the board 
of pardons of that state. 

CALDWELL, Joseph, educator, was bom at 
Lammington, N. J., April 21, 1773; son of Joseph 
and Rachel (Harker) Caldwell. He was gradu- 
ated from the College of New Jersey in 1791 ; in 
1795 was tutor at Princeton, and in 1796 was 
elected professor of mathematics in the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, of which institution 
he became president in 1804. In 1812 he resigned 
the office and returned to the chair of mathe- 
matics, but on the resignation of his successor 
in 1816 he again became president. In 1824 he 
was sent to Europe by the trustees of the uni- 
versity for the purpose of purchasing books and 
apparatus. In 1827 he built an astronomical 
observatory at the university, the first in the 
United States. In 1816 the college of New Jersey 
and the University of North Carolina conferred 
upon him the degree of LL.D. He is the author 
of a Compendious System of Elementary Geom- 
etry (1822). He died at Chapel Hill, N. C, 
Jan. 27, 1885. 

CALDWELL, Lisle Bones, educator, was bom 
in Wilna. N. Y., Jan. 10, 1834. He was gradu- 
ated at Baldwin university, Berea, Ohio, m 1868. 
While engaged in teaching he studied theology 
and spent some years in preaching in various 
Methodist Episcopal churches. From 1877 to 
1886 he occupied the chair of natural sciences and 
physics in the east Tennessee Wesleyan univer- 
sity, and from 1886 to 18d4 was professor of ap- 
plied chemistry and agriculture in theU.S Grant 
university, Athens, Tenn. He published : Wines 
of Palestine : or, the Bible Defended (1859), and 
Beyond the Grave (1884). 



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CALDWELL. 



CALHOUN. 



CALDWELL, Merrlttt educator, was born in 
Hebron, Oxford county, Me., Nov. 29, 1806. 
Immediately after his graduation at Bowdoin 
college in 1828 he was elected principal of the 
Wesleyan seminary at Readfield, Me., succeed- 
ing his brother Zenas. He was elected vice- 
president of Dickinson college, Pa., in 1884, 
retaining the position during the remainder of 
his life, and filling the chairs of mathematics 
1884-*37, and metaphysics and English literature 
1837-*48. He was a delegate to the world's con- 
vention which met in Ehigland in 1846 a Ad 
formed the evangelical alliance, and he was also 
a delegate to the world*s temperance convention. 
He wrote The Doctrine of the English Verb (1837) ; 
Manual of Elocution (1846) ; Philosophy of 
Christian Perfection (1847), and Christianity 
Tested by Eminent Men (1852). His memoir was 
published by S. M. Vail, D.D. He died in Port- 
land, Me., June 6, 1848. 

CALDWBLU Samuel Lunt, educator, was 
bom in Newburyport, Mass., Nov. 18, 1820. He 
was graduated at WaterviUe college in 1889 
and was principal of the Hampton Falls, N. H., 
academy, and head master of the granmiar 
school of Newburyport. In 1842 he entered the 
theological seminary at Newton, Mass., and was 
graduated in 1845. He was called to the First 
Baptist church of Bangor, Me., in 1846, his pastor- 
ate there covering a period of twelve years. 
From 1858 to 1878 he was pastor of the First 
Baptist church of Providence, R. I., when he 
became professor of church history in the New- 
ton theological seminary. In 1878 he accepted 
the presidency of Vassar college, and filled the 
office for eight years. He was a fellow of Brown 
university from 1859 to the time of his death. 
In 1885 he removed to Providence, R. I., and 
occupied his time with writing and lecturing. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Colby in 
1858, and that of LL.D. from Brown imiversity 
in 1884. His publications include an indepen- 
dence day oration (1861) ; a Memorial of Prof, 
R. P. Dunn (1867) ; an oration entitled Lit- 
erature in Account with Life (1885), two lec- 
tures in The Netoton Lectures (1886), and ser- 
mons; and he contributed frequently to peri- 
odical literature. He also edited volumes iii. 
and iv. of Publications of the Narragansett Club 
(1865). He died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 26, 
1889. 

CALDWELL, Zenas, poet, was bom in He- 
bron, Me., March 81, 1800; brother of Merritt 
Caldwell. After his graduation from Bowdoin 
college, in 1824, he was appointed first principal 
of the Maine Wesleyan seminary, holding the 
position until his death. He is the author of a 
volume of prose and poetry, published in 1855. 
lie died Dec. 21, 1826. 



CALEFt or CALFE, Robert, author, was 
bom in the latter half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was a. Boston merchant who, with his 
plain common sense arguments in More Won- 
ders of the Invisible World, did much to dispel 
the witchcraft delusion. EUs book created & 
great stir. It was first published in London in 
1700, and Cotton Mather, who, with other pastors 
figured in the narrative, instituted proceedings 
against the author for slander. Increase Mather, 
then president of Harvard college, caused the 
wicked little volume to be burned in the college 
yard ; and a number of the members of the Old 
North church published a defence of their old 
pastors, the Mathers, entitled. Remarks upon a 
Scandalous Book against the Ooremment and 
Ministry of New England, Dr. Elliott says : ** It 
is worthy of observation that Hutchinson — who 
was nearly related to the Mather family — 
speaks of R. Calef as a man of fair mind who 
substantiates his facts.** He died in 1720. 

CALHOUN, Edmund R., naval officer, was 
bom in Chambersburg, Pa.. May 6, 1821. He 
entered the navy as midshipman, April 1, 1889, 
receiving his appointment from Missouri He 
served in the Brazil and Mediterranean squad- 
rons until 1845, when he was assigned to the 
naval school at Philadelphia. In July, 1845, he 
was appointed passed midshipman and was made 
master Jan. 6, 1858, resigning June 27 of that 
year. He re-entered the navy as acting lieuten- 
ant Sept. 24, 1861 ; was commissioned oonunander 
Nov. 17, 1862; captain, March 2, 1869: commo- 
dore, April 26, 1876, and rear admiral, Dec. 8, 
1882, when he was retired from active service. 
He served in the Mexican war in the first attack 
on Alvarado, under Conner, and in the assault 
on Tabasco, under Perry. In 1861-'62 he com- 
manded the steamer Hunchback of the North 
Atlantic blockading squadron, and took part in 
the battle of Roanoke Island, the captiure of New- 
bem and the engagements below Franklin in 
the Blackwater river in October, 1862. In 186a 
he commanded the steamer Ladona, and after- 
wards the monitor Weehawken, of the South 
Atlantic squadron, in her various engagementa 
with Forts Sumter, Wagner and Beauregard in 
1868. In 1864-'65 he commanded the monitor 
Saugus of the North Atlantic squadron, and 
engaged Hewlett's battery on the James river 
June 21, and again Dec. 5, 1864, also taking part 
in the bombardment of Fort Fisher. From the 
close of the war until 1876 he was in command 
of the Asiatic and South Pacific stations, and 
on April 17, 1877, he took conmiand of the navy 
yard at Mare Island, California, where he re* 
mained until Jan. 15, 1881. He was then on 
special duty until his retirement in December^ 
1882. He died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 17, 1897. 



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CALHOUN. 



CALHOUN. 




CALHOUN, John Caldwell, statesman, was 
bom in Abbeville district, S. C, March 18, 1782; 
son of Patrick and Martha (Caldwell) Calhoun. 
Patrick came to America with his father, James 
Calhoun, when six years old. They left Ireland 

in 1781, located 
in Pennsylva- 
nia, removed to 
the banks of the 
Kanawa in Vir- 
ginia and after 
Braddock's de- 

t^^^'^^^^^^^^-^T^'^'^.-^l^^^ * '®**» being 
ihl 0cDp»LHouAr/^AAi5io/4. driven by the 

Indians, he with his sons settled in South Caro- 
lina in 1756 and established Calhoun settlement 
in what became Abbeville district. The Cal- 
houns and Caldwells were both of the Presby- 
terian faith. His father was a surveyor by pro- 
fession. He was prepared for college at the 
academy of his brother-in-law. Dr. Waddell, a 
Presbyterian clergyman, and in 1802 entered Yale 
ooUege, where he was graduated with distinc- 
tion in 1804. He studied in a law office in 
Charleston, S. C, and was graduated at the law 
school, Litchfield, Conn. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1807, and practised his profession at 
Abbeville, S. C, where he soon rose to the first 
grade of professional eminence. In 1808 he was 
elected to the state legislature, and an address 
which he made to the people of the district of 
Abbeville, denouncing the British outrages upon 
the United States frigate Chesapeake, resulted 
in his election as a representative to the 12th 
Congress, where he took his seat, Nov. 4, 1811, 
and was named by Speaker Clay for second place 
upon the committee on foreign relations. The 
genius of Calhoun admirably fitted him to act as 
a leader in the crisis through which the country 
was then passing. The threatening clouds of 
war had long shadowed the councils of the na- 
tion; the Congress had been divided for three or 
four years in regard to the policy to be pursued 
in dealing with Great Britain, and it was owing 
to his attitude on this question that, at the first 
meeting of the conmiittee on foreign relations, 
Mr. Calhoun was chosen chairman, a position 
which, next to that of speaker, was the most im- 
portant in the house of representatives. On 
Nov. 29, 1811, the committee submitted its 
report, embodying six resolutions in favor of 
declaring war with Great Britain, Mr. Calhoun 
having written the report, one clause of which 
read: *'The period has arrived when, in the 
opinion of your committee, it is the sacred duty 
of Congress to call forth the patriotism of the 
country," and on Dec. 12, 1811, Mr. Calhoun 
made his first speech in Congress, defending the 
resolutions, refuting the arguments of John 



Randolph, the dissentient member of the com- 
mittee, and declaring *'a sense of national in- 
feriority the greatest of political evils." He 
recommended the embargo of sixty days laid 
upon all shipping by President Madison, and 
earnestly advocated the repeal of the non- 
importation act, the increase of the navy, the 
tariff of 1816, the bank bill and the building of 
a system of canals and post roads, and of other 
internal improvements, which would have, in his 
opinion, the effect of nationalizing the Union. 
In 1817 he was appointed secretary of war by 
President Monroe, and he served through both 
terms, his conduct of the war department 
evincing his administrative capacity. In 1824 
Mr. Calhoun's name was mentioned as a possi- 
ble candidate for the presidency, but the promi- 
nence of G^eneral Jackson, the opposition candi- 
date, whose war exploits were fresh in the minds 
of a gratified nation, induced the friends of Mr. 
Calhoun to place his name upon the list as a 
vice-presidential candidate, and upon his election 
as vice-president he removed his family to 
Pendleton district in South Carolina, where his 
wife had inherited an estate known as Fort Hill, 
and here he resided until his death. During the 
administration of John Quincy Adams, Mr. 
Calhoun, though prevented by his office from 
being an active, was an indirect supporter of the 
opposition, and upon the nomination of General 
Jackson as President in 1828 he was placed on 
the same ticket as vice-president. He became 
the head of the Free Trade party, which was at 
this time acquiring prominence, the cotton states 
universally being in favor of that policy, and 
the manufacturing states as persistently op- 
posed to it. In the sunmier of 1828 he embodied 
what afterwards became known as the doctrine 
of nullification, or state rights, in an elaborate 
paper, which, being put into the hands of a com- 
mittee of the South Carolina legislature, was 
ordered to be printed, and became known as 
**The South Carolina exposition." He claimed 
that each state of the Union had the power to 
decide for itself in respect to the constitution- 
ality of any federal law, and to resist its enforce- 
ment within the state if the people regarded it 
as unconstitutional He apprehended more dan- 
ger to the Union from consolidation of power 
than from assertion of state rights. These 
proposed measures were brought to the notice of 
the United States senate by Mr. Hayne of South 
Carolina, and opposed by ^r. Webster in what 
became an historic debate. In the meantime, 
disclosures made to President Jackson about 
the part taken by Mr. Calhoun in the matter of 
the Seminole war while in President Monroe's 
cabinet, led to Mr. Qdhoun's resignation from 
the vice-presidency to take the seat in the senate 



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CALHOUN. 



CALHOUN. 



vacated by Mr. Hayne, on his becoming governor 
of South Carolina. The nullification measures 
were adopted by South Carolina in 1832, and 
only the passage of the Clay compromise, to 
which Mr. Calhoun was induced to lend his 
countenance, and the strong position assumed by 
President Jackson and Lewis Cass, secretary of 
war, prevented the threatened collision between 
South Carolina and the general government. 
He opposed vigorously the withdrawal of the 
deposits from the United States bank, declaring 
that ** The whole power of the government has 
been perverted into a great political machine, 
with a view of/ corrupting and controlling the 
country." He accused the President of attempt- 
ing to wrest the power from Congress and to 
hold in his own hand both the sword and the 
purse. In 1835 he was re-elected to the senate 
for the fuU term. Since 1881 a full band of abo- 
litionists in the north had declared uncompromis- 
ing war against the domestic institution of the 
south, and no one understood more fully than 
he that the handful of earnest fanatics and mad- 
men were laying the axe to the very roots of the 
well-being and prosperity of the south. Senator 
Calhoun's motion, Jan. 7, 1836, against the recep- 
tion of two petitions, asking for the abolition 
of slavery in the District of Columbia, opened a 
general debate in the senate. His action was 
vigorously condemned, and was characterized by 
the north as a wanton attack upon the right of 
petition. He saw with a clearness that was 
prophetic that unless his views of the constitu- 
tional status of slavery were accepted, the south 
would be compelled to sever the ties which 
bound them to the north, or abolish slavery. 
He regarded slavery as a natural condition, and 
prophesied that to change the relations of master 
and slave would destroy the prosperity of the 
southern states and place two races in a state of 
conflict that would end only in the extirpation 
or expulsion of one or the other. Mr. Calhoun 
did not take part in the presidential election of 
1836. He advocated the depositing of the surplus 
revenues in the treasuries of the different states, 
to be used by them for internal improvements. 
For the south he proposed a system of roads 
which should connect it with the west, and bring 
it, as he hoped, to an equal measure of com- 
mercial prosperity with the north. In the 
financial panic of the same year he was in favor 
of a total separation of the government from 
the banking interests, and favored the treasury 
plan. His attitude on the slavery question was 
actuated by a spirit of unswerving loyalty to 
the south and to the Union, of which he foresaw 
the disruption should the north persist in a 
determination to limit slavery to the states in 
which it already existed, and deny to the south 



equal privileges in the territories. He de 
nounced the efforts of the abolitionists as **a 
war of religious and political fanaticism, min- 
gled, on the part of the leaders, with ambition and 
the love of notoriety," and in defence of slavery 
which he so consistently defended, said, '* The 
relation now existing between the two (races) 
is, instead of an evil, a good — a positive good." 
On March 4, 1840, he introduced in the senate 
a set of resolutions condemning the action of the 
English government in refusing to recognize as 
property and deliver to their owners certain 
negroes from vessels driven by stress of weather 
into English ports. In a speech delivered Aug. 
5, 1842, Senator Calhoun discussed the tariff 
question and advanced with force the theory of 
duty for revenue as opposed to a duty for pro- 
tection of manufacturers, and claimed that the 
popular party of the future would be for free 
trade, low duties, no national debt, a banking 
system separated from the control of the gen- 
eral government, economy in administering the 
affairs of state, retrenchment in all departments 
and a strict adherence to the constitution. At 
the end of 1842 he resigned his seat in the senate, 
the resignation to take effect from the close of 
the 27th Congress, March 3, 1843. The legisla- 
ture of South Carolina immediately named him 
as candidate for President of the United States. 
On March 6, 1844, President Tyler appointed Mr. 
Calhoun as secretary of state, to succeed Secre- 
tary Upshur, who had met his death by the 
bursting of a gun on the steamer Princeton. On 
Oct. 16, 1843. Upshur had proposed to the repub- 
lic of Texas a treaty of annexation, and before 
the people of Texas, composed of emigrants 
from all parts of the Union, but largely of slave- 
holders from the south, who had brought with 
them their slaves, would consent to accept the 
treaty, they insisted on being assured of military 
and naval protection, not only against Mexico, 
but as well against England, who had threat- 
ened to prevent the consummation of the treaty 
unless the people would agree to frame a state 
constitution abolishing slavery. Mr. Calhoun 
reluctantly agreed to the conditions imposed, 
but, before signing the treaty, exposed the scheme 
of England in a series of papers which so 
changed the opinion of the senate, that when 
the treaty came before that body it was rejected. 
The presidential campaign of 1844 was pivotal on 
the question, and after Polk was elected it was 
accepted by the people that Texas was to be treated 
as any other territory ; that is, the question of the 
admission of slavery was to bo dependent on 
th^ popular will of the sovereign people of the 
state under the Missouri compromise act. His 
judicious diplomatic correspondence with Great 
Britain, in regard to the possession of Oregon. 



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CALHOUN. 



CALL. 



resulted in the vindication of the rights of the 
United States and the adjustment of the matter 
by the treaty of 1846. On March 4, 1845, he 
retired from the cabinet upon the inauguration 
of the new administration, and on December 1 
again took his seat in the senate, where he did 
all he could to prevent a war with Mexico, 
fearing that the acquisition of more territory by 
the United States would only keep up the agita- 
tion of the question of slavery as new states were 
admitted. Mr. Calhoun, on Feb. 19, 1847, pre- 
sented to the senate resolutions concerning the 
slave question in the territories, in which he 
asserted, '* Congress has no right to do any act 
whatever that shall directly, or, by its effects, 
deprive any state of its full and equal right in 
any territory. ' ' This expression was drawn from 
him by a petition from inhabitants of New 
Mexico against the introduction of slavery into 
the territory. On March 4, 1850, his last ex- 
tended speech was read by Mr. Mason, of Virginia, 
though he afterwards spoke in debate in that 
body, closing with these words: ** Having faith- 
fully done my duty to the best of my ability both 
to the Union and to my section, throughout the 
agitation ; I shall have the consolation, let what 
will come, that I am free from all responsibility." 
Two friends led him out of the senate chamber 
and he was not to pass its threshold again. Three 
colleges conferred on him the degree of LL.D. : 
Hamilton in 1821, Yale in 1822, and Columbia in 
1825. In 1849 he wrote his Address to the 
People of the Souths A Disquisition on Gov- 
ernment^ and A Discourse on tJie Constitution 
and Chvemment of the United States. His 
complete works were published by R. K. CraUe 
(6 vols. 1858-'54). He died in Washington, D. C, 
March 81, 1850. 

CALHOUN* John Erwln, senator, was bom 
probably in western Virginia in 1749, and in 1756 
was one of the members of the Calhoun settle- 
ment of South Carolina. He was graduated at 
the College of New Jersey in 1774, was admitted 
to the bar and achieved distinction in the prac- 
tice of his profession in Charleston, S.C., where 
he located in 1789. He was a commissioner of 
estates confiscated during the revolutionary war, 
a member of the popular branch of the South 
Carolina legislature for several years, and was 
elected a United States senator in 1801, serving 
from Dec. 11. 1801, until his death, which oc- 
curred in Pendleton district, S. C, Nov. 3. 1802. 

CALHOUN, Simeon Howard, missionary, was 
bom at Boston, Mass., Aug. 15, 1804. After 
graduating at Williams college in 1829, he studied 
law, and then returned to Williams as tutor. In 
1837 he went to the Levant as agent of the Ameri- 
can Bible society, subsequently serving under 
the American board, and then with the Presby- 



terian board. His work was in connection with 
the seminary on the slopes of Lebanon, at Abein. 
He bore the name of the ** Cedar of Lebanon.*' 
Williams conferred on him the degree of D.D. 
in 1864. In 1869 he published in Arabic Scrip- 
ture HelpSy done on the press at Beirut. It was a 
work of 650 pp., and reached sevei-al editions. 
He died at BuflPalo, N. Y., Deo. 14, 1876. 

CALHOUN, William Barron, representative, 
was bom in Boston, Mass., Dec. 29, 1796. He 
received a classical education, was graduated at 
Yale in 1814, and practised law at Springfield, 
Mass. He was a member of the Ma^achusetts 
house of representatives from 1825 to 1885, dur- 
ing two years of which time he was speaker. In 
1834 he was elected a representative to the 24th 
Congress, retaining his seat through four con* 
grosses. He was president of the state senate 
in 1846-'47, secretary of state for Massachusetts 
from 1848 to 1851, state bank commissioner from 
1853 to 1855, and mayor of Springfield in 1859. 
In 1861 he was again returned to the state legis- 
lature. Amherst conferred upon him the degree 
LL.D. in 1858. He died at Springfield, Mass., 
Nov. 8, 1865. 

CALKINS, Norfnan A., educator, was bom 
at Gainesville, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1822. He received 
a classical education, and in 1840 began teach- 
ing at Castile, N. Y., later becoming principal of 
the central school at Gainesville, and superin- 
tendent of schools, 1845-^46, In 1846 he removed 
to New York city, and was engaged in establish- 
ing teachers' institutes in New York and ad- 
jacent states. He was appointed assistant 
superintendent of schools in New York city in 
1862, giving his attention to the primary schools 
and holding the ofiice up to the time of his death. 
He was instructor in methods and principles of 
education in the Saturday normal school from 
1864 to 1871, and professor of methods and prin- 
ciples of teaching at the Saturday classes of the 
normal school of the city of New York from 
1871 to 1882, when they were discontinued. He 
held important offices in the national educational 
association and became prominently identified 
with its work. He was treasurer of the American 
Congregational union from 1857 until 1888. He 
publislied : Primary Object Lessons (1861 ; new 
edition, 1870 ; Spanidh edition, 1879) ; Phonic 
Charts (1869) ; How to Teach, a Graded Course 
of Instruction and Manual of Methods (with 
Henry Kiddle and Thos. F. Harrison, 1873), 
Manual of Object-Teaching (1881), and From 
Blackboard to Books (1883). He died in New 
York city, Dec. 22. 1895. 

CALL, Richard Keith, soldier, was born in 
1757. He resided in Virginia, where his brother, 
Daniel Call, practiwed law and published Reports 
of the Virginia Court of Appeals (1790-1818). 



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CALL 



CALLENDER. 



As major in the Continental armj he was uis- 
tinguisned for naviiig, at Charleston, S. C, j^^y 
6, 1780, cut his way with six others through tne 
ranks of the British cavalry and escaped un- 
harmed. He commanded a body of riflemen in 
the action at Spencer^s Ordinary, and served 
under Lafayette at Jamestown, Va. In 1784 he 
was elected surveyor-general of G^rgia. He 
died in 1793. 

CALL, Richard Keith* governor of Florida, 
was bom near Petersburg, Va., 1791; a nephew 
of Richard Keith CalL He entered the United 
States army in 1814 as 1st lieutenant of the 44th 
infantry, was appointed aid to Greneral Jackson 
in April, 1818, was promoted captain in July, 
and subsequently became major-general of Florida 
militia. He served a term in the Florida assem- 
bly in 1822-'2d as delegate to the 18th Congress, 
and in 1885 became governor of the territory of 
Florida, retaining the office until 1840. While 
governor he led the troops against the Seminole 
Indians, 1836-'36, after which a controversy with 
the secretary of war relative to his conduct of 
the Seminole campaign led to his removal. He 
was re-appointed governor of Florida in 1841 by 
President Harrison, holding the office until 1844. 
In 1845, upon the admission of Florida to the 
Union as a state, he stood for an election to the 
governorship, but was defeated, owing to popular 
prejudice against him for his action in turning 
Whig in 1840. He died at Tallahassee, Fla.. 
Sept. 14, 1862 

CALL, Wilkinson, senator, was bom at Rus- 
sell ville, Logan county, Ky., Jan. 9, 1884; a 
nephew of Richard Keith Call, governor of Florida. 
He went to Florida at an early age, and became 
a lawyer in Jacksonville. During the civil. war 
he served as adjutant -general in the Confederate 
army, and in 1865 he was elected U. S. senator 
from Florida, but owing to the subsequent jxas- 
sage of the reconstruction act he was not al- 
lowed to take his seat. In 1872 and 1876 he was 
presidential elector for the state at large, and in 
1876 he was a member of the national Demo- 
cratic executive conmiittee, and a delegate to 
the national convention at St. Louis, Mo. In 
1879 he was elected U. S. senator to succeed 
Simon B. Conover, and was re-elected in 1885 
and in 1891, his term of service expiring March 8, 
1897. 

CALLENDER, Franklin D., soldier, was bom 
in New York about the year 1817. He was gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1889, and spent the fol- 
lowing year at Watervliet arsenal as assistant 
ordnance officer. From 1840 to 1842 he was 
engaged in the Florida Indian war, receiving a 
brevet lieutenantcy for "highly meritorious 
services." In the Mexican war of 1846-'47 he 
commanded a howitzer and rocket battery. 



which he had organized, and received a brevet 
captaincy for lAieritorious conduct. The years 
from 1861 to 1866 were spent in ordnance duty 
at various arsenals, and in April, 1866, he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel of ordnance, having 
received the intervening grades and seve^ 
brevets. He was promoted colonel of ordnance 
In June, 1874, and was retired in May, 1879. Ho 
died in Daysville, 111., Dec. 18, 1882. 

CALLENDER, John, historian, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., in 1706; son of John Callender and 
a grandson of Rev. Ellis Callender. He was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1728, and was 
licensed to preach by the Baptist church in 1727. 
From 1728 to 1780 he had pastoral charge of the 
Baptist church at Swansea, Mass., and from 
1881 over the First Baptist church in Newport, 
R. L In addition to his pastoral duties, Mr. Cal- 
lender aided in the conduct of town and colonial 
affairs of Newport, his name frequently appear- 
ing in the colonial records. In 1789 he pub- 
lished An Historical Discourse on the Civil and 
Religions Affairs of the Colony of Rhode Island 
from the Fimt Setttenient to the end of tlie First 
Century^ for over a century the only history of 
the colony in existence. It was reprinted by 
the Rhode Island historical society in 1838, with 
notes and u memoir of the author, by Rev. Romeo 
Elton, D.D. Mr. Callender also published several 
of his sermons and addresses, and collected a 
number of valuable papers referring to the his- 
tory of the Baptist church in America, which 
were used by Dr. Backus in his History of New 
England, with Special Reference to the Baptists 
(3 vols., 1777-96;. He died in Newport, R. I., 
Jan. 26, 1748. 

CALLENDER, John Hill, physician, was bom 
near Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1831; grandson of 
James Thompson Callender, a native of Scotland, 
who came to America as a political exile in 1793. 
He attended a classical school at Nashville until 
his seventeenth year, when he entered the Uni- 
versity of Nashville and remained there until its 
suspension in October, 1850. He studied law in 
Louisville, Ky., engaged with a mercantile 
house in St. Louis, Mo., and was graduated in the 
medical department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1855. He wiw joint proprietor and 
editor of; the Nashville Daily Patriot, 1855-'58. 
In 1858 he was made professor of materia medica 
and therapeutics in the Shelby medical college, 
Nashville. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon to 
the 11th Tennessee regiment, which position he 
resigned in 1862, From 1865 to 1869 he was a 
political writer on the Nashville Union and 
American, He was a delegate from the state at 
large to the Union national convention in 1860 
which nominated Bell and Everett, and again in 
1868 to the Democratic convention which noin- 



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CALTHROP. 



CALVIN. 



inated Seymour and Blair. In 1868 he was made 
professor of materia medica and therapeutics in 
the medical department of the University of 
Nashville, and in 1870 was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Tennessee hospital for the insane. 
The same year he was transferred to the chair 
of diseases of the brain and nervous system in 
the University of Nashville, and in 1880 to the 
chair of physiology and psychology of that insti- 
tution and of Yanderbilt university. In 1879 he 
was elected president of the American medico- 
psychological association, and in 1881 of the asso- 
ciation of medical superintendents of American 
institutions for the insane. He was one of the 
witnesses summoned to give expert testimony 
in the trial of Guiteau, the assassin of President 
(Jarfield. In 1887 he was chosen president of 
the section on physiology in the 9th interna- 
tional medical congress, which met in Washing- 
ton, D. C. In 1889 the University of Nashville 
conferred upon him the degree of Ph.D. He 
died Aug. 3, 1896. 

CALTHROP, Samuel Robert, clergyman, was 
bom at Swineshead Abbey, Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, Oct. 9, 1839. His early education was 
acquired at St. Paul's school, London, and at 
Trinity coll^;e, Cambridge. He became a Uni- 
tarian minister in 1860 and removed to the 
United States, where he was installed pastor of 
the Unitarian society in Syracuse. N. Y., in 1868. 
He is the author of Physical Development and 
its relation to Mental and Spiritual Develop- 
ment (1859) ; Cambridge and Kingsley on 
American Affairs (1868) ; English Colleges and 
Schools (1865) ; Religion and Science (1874) ; 
The Rights of the Body (1879) ; Father, Son and 
Holy Ghost (1880); The FuUness of God (1888); 
Gold and Silver as Money (1896), and The War 
0/1898." 

CALVERLBY, Charles, sculptor, was born in 
Albany, N. Y., Nov. 1, 1833; son of Charles and 
Elizabeth (Charlton) Calverley. After studying 
under Palmer in Albany for some years, he re- 
moved to New York in 1868, where he opened 
a studio. In 1872 he was made an associate of 
the national academy and three years later 
academician. He executed a bas-relief of Peter 
Cooper in 1876, which was shown in the Centen- 
nial exhibition in Philadelphia, attracting much 
favorable comment. A bronze bust, heroic size, 
of John Brown, which is owned by the Union 
League dub, was exhibited at the same time. 
Among his other works may be noted: " Little 
Ida. " a medallion ; " The Little Ck)mpanions, '' and 
busts of Horace Gh-eeley (at Ghreenwood), Charles 
Loring Elliott, the Rev. JohnMacLean, of Prince- 
ton, Elias Howe, and a bronze statue of Robert 
Bums. 

CALVERT, Qeorge (See Baltimore, Lord). 



CALVERT, Qeorge Henry, author, was bom 
in Prince George county, Md., Jan. 2, 1803. He 
was a lineal descendant of Lord Baltimore, the 
first proprietor of Maryland. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1823, and subsequently studied at 
the University of G5ttingen. On his return to 
the United States he for a time edited a news- 
paper in Baltimore, but in 1843 removed to New- 
port, R. I. He was a member of the Newport 
school committee and its chairman, and was 
mayor of the city, 1853-'54. His publications 
include : Illustrations of Phrenology (1882) ; A 
Volume from the Life of Herbert Barclay (1833) ; 
Don Carlos (1836) ; Count Julian (1840) ; 
Cabiro (1840-'64) ; Scenes and Thoughts in 
Europe (1846-'52) ; POems (1847) ; Comedies 
(1856) ; Joan of Arc (1860) ; The Gentleman 
(1863) ; Anyta and other Poems (1863) ; 
Arnold and Andri (1864) ; Ellen (1869) ; 
Goethe, his Life and Works (1872) ; Brief 
Essays and Brevities (1874) ; Essays j^sthetical 
(1875), and Wordsworth, a Biographic Esthetic 
Study (1875). He died in Newport, R. L, May 
24, 1889. 

CALVERT, Leonard, governor of Maryland, 
was bom about 1606, second son of George 
Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, and brother of 
Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore. He was 
sent as first governor of Maryland by his brother, 
CJecil, who had obtained a charter for the colony 
from Charles I. on June 20, 1632. The expedition 
set sail from Cowes on Nov. 22, 1633, in two 
ships, called the ^A;and the Dove, and consisted 
of two hundred persons, part Catholics and part 
Protestants. They arrived at Point Comfort, 
Va., Feb. 27, and a few days later sailed up the 
bay and Potomac river, where they ^purchased 
from the Indians a tract of land about April, 
1654, and laid out St. Mary's. Before the arrival 
of Calvert, William Claiborne, a Virginian, had 
established a trading post on Kent island, within 
the bounds of Maryland, but had obtained no 
grant of the land. Lord Baltimore instructed 
Calvert to make friendly overtiures to Claiborne. 
These were rejected and Claiborne sent an armed 
vessel against St. Mary's which the Marylanders 
captured after some bloodshed. Claiborne then 
sailed for England and in February, 1638. Calvert 
took possession of Kent island without resistance. 
In February, 1645, while Calvert was in Virginia, 
an armed English ship seized St. Mary's and 
about the same time Claiborne re-established 
himself on Kent island. Calvert re-entered the 
province in 1646, and proclaimed a general par- 
don on April 16, 1647. He died June 9, 1647. 

CALVIN, Delano Chlpfiuiii« lawyer, was bom 
in Jefferson county, N. Y., Nov. 3, 1824; son of 
Alpheus R. and Minerva Calvin. He was edu- 
cated at the Black river institute, Watertown; 



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CALVIN. 



CAMERON. 



Professor Dewey's academy, Rochester ; Professor 
Fowler's law school, Cherry Valley; and the 
law school at Ballston Spa. N. Y., where he 
was graduated in July, 1849. and admitted to 
the bar. He was district attorney of his native 
county, 1852-'55. In 1866 he removed to New 
York city, and not long after was associated with 
Richard O 'Gorman, the corporation coimsel, and 
Henry H. Anderson in the celebrated dock litiga- 
tion, which successfully established the right of 
the city to prevent the obstruction of the docks 
of New York city by the erection of structures for 
the convenience of private traffic. On the death 
of Surro/xate Van Schaick in April, 1876, Mr. 
Calvin was chosen to fill that office, and in the 
following autimfin was elected to serve the unex- 
pired term which closed with December, 1881. 
His published opinions occupy the greater part of 
the 2d, 3d and 4th and a part of the 5th volumes 
of Redfield's Surrogate's Reports which in- 
cluded the decisions concerning the wills of A. T. 
Stewart, Cornelius Vanderbilt and Frank Leslie. 
After the termination of his official term as 
surrogate, Mr. Calvin engaged in the active 
practice of his profession. In June, 1881, Hobart 
college conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. 

CALVIN, Samuel, geologist, was bom in 
Wigtonshire, Scotland, Feb. 2, 1840. He emigra- 
ted to America in 1851 and settled in Iowa. He 
was educate J at Lenox college, Hopkinton, Iowa. 
In 1868 he joined the Union army, and sensed 
as a private until the close of the war. In 1873 
he was acting professor of natural science, and 
curator of the university cabinet in Iowa state 
university, and the following year was made full 
professor. He was state geologist from 1892 ; an 
editor of the American Geologist from 1888, and 
author of reports, including: Qn Some Dark 
Shale recenthj Discovered b^low the Devonian 
Limestones, at Independence, Iowa ; with a Notice 
of New Species (1878). 

CAMBRELENQ, Churchill Caldom, repre- 
sentative, was born in Washington, N. C, in 
1786. He received an academical education, 
removed to New York city in 1802, and, after 
acquiring a varied experience in business, became 
associated with John Jacob Astor in the man- 
agement of his large interests. In 1820 he was 
elected a representative from New York to the 
17th Congress and served continuously in nine 
congresses. He was chairman of the committees 
on foreign affairs, ways and means, and com- 
merce and navigation. In 1840 he was appointed 
minister to Russia by President Van Buren, and 
served until July, 1841. His report on Com- 
merce and Navigation (1830) passed through 
several editions in America and one in London. 
He died at West Neck, N. Y., April 30, 1862. 



CAMDEN, Johnson Newton, senator, was 
born in Lewis county. Va., March 6, 1828; son 
of John S. and Nancy (Newton) Camden. He 
entered West Point in 1846, but resigned in 
1848, and after studying law was admitted to the 
bar in 1851. He was appointed prosecuting 
attorney for Braxton county in the same year, 
and prosecuting attorney for Nicholas county in 
the following year. In 1854 he became engaged 
in the banking business, and subsequently en- 
tered largely into business enterprises at Parkers- 
burg. He was a delegate to every Democratio 
national convention from 1868 to 1892, was nomi- 
nated for governor in 1872, an4 was a United 
States senator from West Virginia from 1881 to 
1887, and again from Jan. 28, 1893, to March 8, 
1895, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Senator Kenna. 

CAMERON, Angus, senator, was bom in 
Caledonia, Livingston county, N. Y., July 4, 
1826. He was graduated at the national law 
school at Ballston Spa, N. Y., and in 1857 re- 
moved to La Crosse, Wis., where he engaged in 
the practice of his profession. He was a mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin senate in 1863-'64, and a 
member of the legislative assembly in 1866-'67. 
officiating in the latter year as speaker. In 1871 
he was returned to the state senate, and in 1875 
was elected to the United States senate, receiv- 
ing a re-election in 1881, as successor to M. H. 
Carpenter, deceased, for the unexpired term 
ending March 3, 1885. He was regent of the 
University of Wisconsin from 1866 to 1875, and 
die<l in Milwaukee, Wis., March 80, 1897. 

CAMERON, Henry Clay, educator, was bom 
in Shepherdstown, Va., Sept. 1, 1827. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1847, subsequently tak- 
ing a course in theology, which he finished in 
1855. During 1851 he was principal of the Edge- 
hill school From 1852 to 1855 was an instructor 
at the college of New Jersey; 1855-'60 he 
was adjunct professor of Greek; was associate 
professor during 1860; in 1861 was given the 
full chair ; and in 1877 he was made professor of 
the Greek language and literature. He mtis 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1868. 
He was made Ph.D. by the College of New 
Jersey in 1866, and in 1875 Rutgers college and 
the University of Wooster conferred upon him 
the degree of D.D. Besides editing the cata- 
logue of the college of New Jersey, he pub- 
lished Princeton Roll of Honor (1865), and 
The History of the American Wliig Society 
(1871). 

CAMERON, James, soldier, was bom in May- 
town, Pa., March 1, 1801 ; brother of Simon 
Cameron. In 1820 he removed to Harrisburg, 
Pa., to learn the printing business in the office of 
his brother, who was editor of a Democratic 



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newspaper. In 1827 he became editor of the 
Political Sentinel at Lancaster, Pa. He sensed 
during the Mexican war as sutler. In 1861 he 
was appointed colonel of the 79th regiment, New 
York state miUtia, *'£Ughlanders,*' and was 
killed at the battle of Bull Run, Va. , July 21, 1861. 
CAMERON, James Donald, statesman, was 
bom at Middletown, Dauphin county. Pa., May 

14, 1888; son of Simon and Margaretta Cameron. 
He was graduated at Princeton in 1852, and 
entering the Middletown bank as clerk, soon 
became cashier, and idtimately president of the 
institution. He was president of the Northern 
central railroad company from 1863 to 1874, and 
in this capacity rendered effective service to the 
Union cause during the civil war. He was a 
delegate to the Republican national convention 
at Chicago in 1868, to that at Cincinnati in 1876, 
to that at Chicago in 1880, and he was chairman 
of the Republican national committee in the 
latter year. From May, 1876, to March, 1877, he 
was secretary of war in President Grant's cabi- 
net, and was then elected to the seat in the 
United States senate made vacant by the resig- 
nation of his father. He was re-elected for a full 
term in 1879, in 1885, and in 1891, the last term ex- 
piring in March, 1897, when he was succeeded 
by Boies Penrose. 

CAMERON, Robert Alexander, soldier, was 
bom in Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 22, 1828; son of 
Robert A. Cameron. He removed with his par- 
ents to Indiana in 1842, and was graduated at 
the Indiana medical school in 1850, after which 
he studied for a time at the Rush medical school 
at Chicago. He practised his profession, pub- 
lished the Valparaiso Republican and served a 
term in the Indiana legislature. In 1861 he 
raised the 9th Indiana volunteers, served as cap- 
tain, was promoted to a lieutenant-colonelcy and 
to a colonelcy in the 34th Indiana, and took part 
in the engagements at Philippi, Carrick's Ford, 
Island No. 10, New Madrid, Fort Gibson, Mem- 
phis and Vicksburg. He was promoted brigadier- 
general in 1863, and conmianded the 13th army 
corps in the Red river expedition of 1864, after 
General Ransom was wounded. From this time 
until the close of the war he conmianded the 
district of La Fourche, La., and in March, 1865, 
received the brevet of major-general. After the 
war he became actively engaged foimding col- 
onies in the west — Greeley, Manitou, and Colo- 
rado Springs being among the number. In 1885 
he was appointed warden of the Colorado peni- 
tentiary at CafLon City, and in 1888 became 
oommiasioner of inunigration of the Denver, 
Texas and Fort Worth railroad, and directed 
public attention to the rich resources of the 
southwest. He died in Carson City, Col., March 

15, 1804. 



CAMERON, Roderick William, Sir, capitalist, 
was born in Glengarry county, Canada, July 25, 
1825; second son of Duncan and Margaret 
(McLeod) Cameron. He was educated in 
Canada, and in 1849-'50 was a member of the 
Canadian delegation which visited Washington 
to advocate a reciprocity treaty. In 1852 he re- 
moved to New York, and, establishing a line of 
packet ships between that port and Australia, 
soon made for himself a great name in Canada, 
Australia and the United States. As an hon- 
orary commissioner from Australia to the Inter- 
national exhibitions at Philadelphia in 1876, at 
Paris in 1878, and from Canada to the Sydney- 
Melbourne exhibitions of 1880 and '81, he did 
much to bring the commercial importance of 
those countries to the attention of the business 
world, and to encourage the breeding of thorough- 
bred stock in the United States, importing many 
well-known horses. In 1883, while on a visit to 
England, he was knighted by the Queen, on the 
recommendation of the Marquis of Lome. He 
died in New York city, Oct. 19, 1900. 

CAMERON, Simon, statesman, was born in 
Donegal, Lancaster county, Pa., March 8, 1799; 
son of Charles Cameron, a country tailor, whose 
ancestors of the third generation had inamigrated 
to Pennsylvania from Scotland. Charles Cam- 
eron's life was a continual struggle with poverty, 
and at last his failure 
in business caused a 
dispersion of his fam- 
ily. Simon, then but 
nine years of age, 
was adopted by a 
physician, whose idea 
of fitting the boy for 
a medical career de- 
termined him, at the 
age of ten years, to 
apprentice himself to 
a printer, and after 
learning the trade 
he worked as a jour- 
neyman at Lancaster, 
Harrisburg and in the 

government printing-office, Washington. While 
employed in the office of the Harrisburg Repub- 
lican he met Samuel D. Ingham, then secretary 
of state for Pennsylvania, and owner of the 
Doylestown Democrat, which had fallen on evil 
days. He was invited by Ingham to undertake 
the editorship of the paper, and so cleverly did he 
fulfill the requirements of the position that the 
journal was shortly restored to popular favor, 
and he became a prominent figure in local politi- 
cal circles. In 1821 he purchased the Harr--:- 
burg Republican, which he renamed the Intelli- 
gencer. This paper he conducted with great 




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ability, and his bold and vigorous advocacy of 
high tariff, and of John C. Calhoun as a candidate 
for the presidency, commanded the attention of 
statesmen and politicians everywhere. With in- 
creasing fame came increasing profits, and after 
five years he had command of sufficient funds to 
enable him to undertake large business opera- 
tions, which soon netted him a handsome fortune. 
He was cashier of a bank, president of two rail- 
road companies, and adjutant-general of the state. 
In 1845, upon the resignation of James Bu- 
chanan as United States senatoV, he was elected 
to fill the unexpired term, and as senator acted 
with the Democratic party. He retired from the 
senate, March 8, 1849. In 1854, upon the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise bill. Mr. Cameron 
left his party and helped to form the People's 
party. In 1857 the new party controlled the 
state legislature and elected Mr. Cameron to the 
senate, to succeed Richard Brodhead. During 
his second term he took a conspicuous part in 
the discussion of the vital question of the hour, 
and he was so pronounced in his advocacy of 
peace and conciliation that his loyalty to the 
Union was at the time questioned. He was 
one of the presidential candidates who had a 
strong support in the convention of 1860, and he 
failed of securing the nomination of vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln, 
through a lack of harmony in the Pennsylvania 
delegation. Immediately upon Mr. Lincoln's 
election, 3ir. Cameron was called to a place in 
his cabinet, and, resigning his seat in the senate, 
March 4, 1861, became secretary of war. After 
the attack upon Fort Sumter, realizing that war 
was inevitable, Secretary Cameron advocated 
strenuous war measures, and went so far as to 
favor a proclamation of emancipation to all 
slaves who would desert their masters and enlist 
in the Union army. In this he stood alone 
among his associates, and feeling that his useful- 
ness would be impaired by their opposition, he 
resigned his portfolio in January, 1862, and was 
at once appointed by President Lincoln minister 
to Russia. In November, 1862, he resigned this 
office as well, but during the short term of his 
occupancy he had succeeded in enlisting the 
friendship of Russia in the Federal cause. He 
was a delegate to the Baltimore convention of 
1864, and to the Loyalists* Philadelphia conven- 
tion of 1866, and he was again returned to the 
senate in 1867, succeeding Edgar Cowan. In 
1878 he was elected to the senate for the fourth 
time. Not being in sympathy with the civil 
service policy inaugurated by President Hayes, 
and feeling inadequate to the undertaking of a 
conflict of such magnitude at his advanced age, 
hp) resigned his seat in 1877, and his son, James 
Donald Cameron, was at once elected his succes- 



sor. Simon Cameron's control of his party in 
his own state was wellnigh absolute, and his 
consummate ability as a political leader was uni- 
versally acknowledged. He became known as 
the '* czar of Pennsylvania politics." He died at 
his home in Lancaster county. Pa., June 26, 1889. 

CAMMERHOPP, John Frederick, Moravian 
bishop, was bom near Magdeburg, Grermany, and 
educated at Jena. He was consecrated a bishop 
in London Sept. 25, 1746, and shortly afterward 
came to America, where he assisted Bishop Span- 
genberg in his work in New York and Pennsyl- 
vania. He gained many converts among the 
Indians, by whom he was greatly revered, and 
the missionary, Zeisberger, says the Indians 
spoke of him with veneration more than thirty 
years after his death. Hardships and exertions 
incident to a journey of sixteen hundred miles, 
which he made in 1750 on a mission to Onondaga, 
N. Y., to visit Indians of the Six Nations, 
resulted in his death, April 28, 1751. 

CAMP, David N.» educator, was bom at Dur- 
ham, Conn., Oct. 8, 1820; son of Elah and Orit 
(Lee) Camp. His early life was passed on the 
farm of his father, when not pursuing his 
studies. He taught school a few >ears, and on 
the incorporation of the Connecticut state nor- 
mal school became a 
teacher in that insti- 
tution. He was ap- 
pointed associate 
principal in 1855, and 
in 1857 was elected 
principal and state 
superintendent of 
schools. Feeble health 
forced him to resign 
in 1866, and he went 
to Europe, where he 
visited the education- 
al institutions of Eng- 
land, Scotland, Ire- 
land and the conti- 
nent. While in Paris 
he was appointed to a professorship in St. John's 
college, Maryland. He held this position until 
the establishment of the national bureau of edu- 
cation, when he resigned to engage in its service 
under Dr. Henry Barnard, with whom he had 
been previously associated in educational work. 
In 1870 he founded the New Britain seminary, 
and was its principal imtil 1880, when failing 
health again compelled him to give ' up teaching. 
He was for several years editor and manager of 
the Connecticut Common School Journal and the 
New Britain Herald. From 1877 to 1879 he was 
mayor of New Britain, represented the town in 
the general assembly in 1879, and was chairman 
of the committee on education. He subsequently 




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CAMPBELL. 



beoame auditor of the national council of the 
Congregational churches of the United States, 
auditor and chairman of the finance committee 
of the Connecticut missionary society, president 
or Tice-president of several corporations in New 
Britain. Yale college conferred on him the de- 
gree of A. M. in 1858. He revised MitcheWB Out- 
line Maps, and the Oovemment Instructor ; com- 
piled and edited T?ie American Year Book, a 
series of geographies and school maps, and a 
-Olobe Manual. He is the author of the History 
of New Britain, and contributed to other histor- 
ies and to periodicals. 

CAMP, Hiram, inventor, was bom at Ply- 
mouth, Conn., April 9, 1811; son of Samuel and 
Jennette (Jerome) Camp. He was educated at 
the common school, and at the age of eighteen 
-entered the employ of his uncle, Chauncey 
Jerome, in the manufacture of clocks in Bristol, 
Conn. In 1845 the shop was destroyed by fire, 
And was rebuilt in New Haven. He made 
numerous improvements and designed an ingen- 
ious clock intended for the use of schools, for cal- 
isthenics or military exercises. In 1851 he began 
the manufacture of clock movements. Two 
years later he organized the New Haven clock 
company, of which he was made president. He 
served in the city council, as selectman of the 
town, as a member of the state legislature, and 
in numerous local offices. His philanthropic 
work included: supporting two missionaries in 
Nebraska, a city missionary in another state, 
bounding the Mount Hermon boys' school at Gill, 
Mass., under the auspices of D. L. Moody the 
evangelist, and co-operating with Mr. Moody in 
•establishing the Northfield seminary for young 
ladies. His donations to the Moody institution 
Amounted to nearly one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and in his will he left a like sum to various 
•charitable organizations. He died at New Haven, 
Conn., July 9, 1893. 

CAMP, Wllllain Augustus, financier, was 
born at Durham, Conn., Sept. 28, 1822. He was 
•educated in the private schools of his native 
place, and when eighteen years old entered the 
store of his father at Middletown, being admitted 
as a partner in the business on arriving at the age 
of twQnty-one. Two years later he engaged in 
the hosiery business in New York city, but on 
the organization of the Importers and traders 
t)ank he accepted the appointment of discount 
clerk in that institution, which, however, he soon 
relinquished for that of first teller in the Arti- 
sans bank. In 1857 he was given the responsible 
Appointment of assistant manager of the New 
York clearing-house, which he held until Aug. 
20, 1864, when he succeeded George D. Lyman 
as manager of that association, and resigned July 
11, 1892. He was a member of the New York 



chamber of commerce, the New England society, 
and the Union League club. He died Dec. 10, 
1895. 

CAMPBELLt Alexander, senator, was born in 
Virginia in 1779. His father removed to Ken- 
tucky in 1785, where the son was educated as a 
physician, and was a representative in the Ken- 
tucky legislature, 1800. He removed to Ohio in 
1803, settled in Adams county, was a representa- 
tive in the Ohio legislature from Adams coimty, 
1807-09, from Clermont county, 1819-'20, and 
from Brown county, 1832-'33; a U.S. senator 
elected as successor to Edward Tiffin, resigned, 
1809-'18 ; a presidential elector voting for James 
Monroe in 1820 ; and state senator, 1822-'24. He 
died in Ripley, Ohio, Nov. 5, 1857. 

CAMPBELL, Alexander, theologian, was born 
in the county Antrim, Ireland, Sept. 12, 1788; 
son of Thomas and Jane (Comeigle) CampbelL 
He was educated at the University of Glasgow. 
In 1809 he came to America and settled in west- 
ern Pennsylvania, where he joined the Baptist 
denomination, refusing, however, to subscribe to 
any creed or articles of faith other than the Bible. 
A few years later he and his father withdrew 
from the Baptists, because of ecclesiastical oppo- 
sition, and with their adherents formed the sect 
known as ** Campbellites." In 1823 Alexander 
Campbell began to publish ITie Christian Bap- 
tist, a monthly religious magazine, which, in 
1830, changed its name to The Millennial Har- 
binger, In 1829 he was elected to the Virginia 
constitutional convention, his only political 
office. In 1840 he founded Bethany college, Vir- 
ginia, and was president of that institution until 
his death. He died at Bethany, W. Va., March 
4, 1866. 

CAMPBELL, Alexander Augustus, clergy- 
man, was bom in Amherst county, Va., Dec. 80, 
1789. He received a cominon-school education, 
and was graduated at the Philadelphia medical 
school in 1811. He practised medicine in North 
Carolina, Alabama and Virginia. He was an 
infidel during his younger days, but became con- 
vinced of the truths of Christianity during an 
attack of yellow fever. He studied theology* 
was licensed by the North Alabama presbytery in 
1822, and ordained in 1823. He was stationed 
over churches at Tuscumbia, Russellville and 
Florence, Ala., and engaged in missionary labors 
in West Tennessee. In October, 1838, he became 
pastor of a church at Jackson, Tenn., his pastor- 
ate continuing during the remaining years of his 
life. He was a lecturer, practised medicine, 
especially among the Indian missions, and was 
the editor of the Jackson Protestant. He was 
the author of a treatise on Scripture Baptism, 
which was published in 1844. He died at Jack- 
son, Tenn., May 27, 1846. 



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CAMPBELL, Alexander William, soldier, 
was born in Nashville, Tenn., June 4, 1828. He 
was prepared for college in the schools of his 
native city, and in 1847 was graduated from the 
West Tennessee college. He finished a course of 
study at the Lebanon law school in 1851, and was 
admitted to the bar. He enlisted in the Confed- 
erals service in 1861, was placed on the staff of 
Gen. B. F. Cheatham, and was promoted colonel 
of the 34th Tennessee infantry in October of that 
year. After gaining promotion to the rank of 
brigadier-general he was given command of a 
cavalry brigade, under General Forrest, in Sep- 
tember, 1864. He died in Jackson, Tenn., June 
18, 1898, 

CAMPBELL, Allen, engineer, was bom in 
Albany, N. Y., in 1815. He was employed as 
chief engineer of a railroad, and as civil engineer 
on the Erie canal and the Ohio river improve- 
ment from 1836 to 1850, when he went to Chili, 
where he constructed the first railroad in South 
America. About 1856 he returned to New York 
city and became chief engineer, and, later, 
president of the New York and Harlem railroad, 
holding the latter office for six years. During 
the civil war he was employed as engineer of the 
harbor defences of the port of New York, and 
later became chief engineer of construction of 
the Union Pacific raihx>ad. On Jan. 21, 1876, he 
was appointed commissioner of public works of 
New York city. In 1880 he was appointed comp- 
troller of the city, and in 1882 was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for mayor of New York on the 
citizens' ticket. He died in New York city, 
March 18, 1894. 

CAMPBELL, Andrew, inventor, was bom 
near Trenton, N. J., Jime 14, 1821. He worked 
on a farm and with a carriage-maker, and 
learned to make brushes in Trenton, his first 
invention being a brush-drawer's vice, after- 
wards generally used. He worked as a carriage- 
maker at Alton, IlL, from 1835 to 1842, and as a 
brushmaker at St. Louis, Mo., from 1842 to 1850. 
While in St. Louis he built the first omnibus 
used in the city, and constructed a mammoth 
omnibus to carry one hundred persons. He built 
a single-span wooden bridge, of 558 feet, over 
Cedar river, Iowa. In 1858 he visited New York 
city to exhibit at the World's fair a lathe for 
turning metal boxes, and there submitted his 
plans for an improved printing-press and folding 
machine. He entered the employ of A. B. Tay- 
lor & Co., press builders, and built for Harper & 
Brothers presses with table distributions, and for 
Frank Leslie, the first automatic press ever built 
in the United States, which was first operated in 
1857. In 1858 he went into the business of manu- 
facturing printing machines on his own account. 
In 1861 he invented the Campbell country press. 



and in 1869, the two-revolution printing press 
on which illustrated magazines are printed. 
In 1875 he invented, as he believed, the first 
stereotype perfecting press, with continuous 
folder, paster, inserter, and cutter combined, for 
general newspaper work. His claim was dis- 
puted, however, and his patents transferred to 
another manufacturer. His rapid self super- 
imposing press, on which seven million impres- 
sions were taken from one form without ap- 
parent wear to the plates, was a great advance 
in printing machines. His long list of devices, 
only a few of which were patented, comprise 
labor-saving machinery relating to hat manu- 
facture, steam engines, machinists* tools, litho- 
graphic machinery, and electrical appliances. 
He died in a Brooklyn (N. Y.) ambulance^ 
April, 1890. 

CAMPBELL, Bartley, playwright, was bom 
in Allegheny city. Pa.. Aug. 12, 1843. After twa 
years of legal study he became a reporter, and in 
1863-'64 made Democratic speeches. He started 
the Evening Mail at Pittsburg in 1868, and th» 
Southern Magazine in New Orleans, 1869. A 
year later he was official reporter of the Loiusiana- 
house of representatives. He began writing^ 
plays, in 1871, with Through Fire, Peril, Risks, 
Fate and The Virginian (1872) ; Oran Uale 
(1874) ; On the Wiine (1875) ; The Big Bon- 
anza (1875) ; A Heroine in Bags, and How 
Women Love (1876) ; Clio (1878) : Fairfaar 
(1879) ; The Galley Slave (1879) ; Matrimony 
(1880); and \^hite Slave, My Oeraldine. Si- 
beria, Paquita, make his list only partially 
complete. In 1886 he was obliged to give 
up active work as his brain became affected 
and he died at Middletown, N. Y. July 30, 
1888. 

CAMPBELL, Charles, historian, was born \n 
Petersbuix* Va. May 1, 1807 ; son of John Wilson 
Campbell, the historian, who, in 1813, published 
a History of Virginia to 1781, He was edu-^ 
cated at Princeton, and upon his graduation in 
1825 commenced teaching. From 1842 to 1855 he 
conducted a classical school, which he had estab- 
lished at Petersburg, and in the latter year 
became principal of the Anderson seminary in 
that city. He was the editor of the famous- 
Bland Papers (1840-'43), and of the Orderly 
Book of Oen. Andrew Lewis (Richmond, 1860), 
and he was the author of An Introduction to 
the History of the Colony and Ancient Domin- 
ion of Virginia (Richmond, 1847 ; Philadelphia, 
1859) ; Some Materials for a Memoir of John. 
DalyBurk (Albany, 1868), and Genealogy of the 
Spotswood Family (Albany, 1868). He was a 
contributor to the Historical Register and to the 
Southern Literary Messenger. He died in Staun- 
ton, Va., July 11, 1876. 



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CAMPBELL, Charles Thomas* soldier, was 
born in Franklin county. Pa., Aug. 10, 1828. He 
received his education at Marshall college. At 
the outbreak of the Mexican war, in 1847, he en- 
tered the army as 2d lieutenant in the 8th U. S. 
infantry, and was promoted to the rank of cap- 
tain in August, 1847, and was mustered out of the 
service in 1848. He was elected a member of the 
lower house of the Pennsylvania legislature in 
1852. In the civil war he was commissioned 
colonel of the 1st Pennsylvania artillery, May, 
1861, and transferred to the 57th infantry in De- 
cember of the same year. At Fair Oaks he had 
his horse shot under him and received two severe 
wounds. He was taken prisoner with his whole 
regiment, but turned upon his captors and suc- 
ceeded in carrying two hundred of them into the 
Federal lines as prisoners. His wounds prevented 
any further active service, and he was promoted 
a brigadier-general on March 13, 1868, and re- 
moved to Dakota. 

CAMPBELL, Cleveland J., soldier, was bom 
in New York city in July, 1836. After his gradu- 
ation from Union college he went abroad and 
took a course of study at the University of Gdt- 
tingen, returning at the beginning of the civil 
war. He joined the Union army, and fought 
bravely, rising from a private through the ranks 
of lieutenant, captain and lieutenant-colonel to 
that of colonel. He rendered distinguished ser- 
vices at the mine explosion at Petersburg, where 
he led his regiment into the fight, and was seri- 
ously wounded by a shell, four hundred of his 
men being killed or wounded by the explosion of 
the mine. He received the brevet rank of briga- 
dier-general in March, 1865, and died in Castleton, 
N. Y.. June 18, 1865. 

CAMPBELL, David A., librarian, was bom at 
Miller's Station, Harrison county, Ohio, Oct. 5, 
1857. He was educated in the public schools of 
his native state and at Hopedale college, removed 
to Kansas in 1877, and in 1878 went to Platts- 
mouth, Cass county, Nebraska. In 1885 he was 
elected treasurer of Cass county, and was re- 
elected in 1887. In 1890 he was appointed state 
librarian for a term of four years, and was reap- 
pointed in 1895. 

CAMPBELL, Douglas, lawyer, was born in 
Cherry Valley, Otsego county, N. Y., in 1889; son 
of Judge William M. Campbell of New York. At 
the age of twenty -one he was graduated from 
Union college, and the following year, when the 
civil war broke out, he enlisted in the Union 
army as a private, reaching by promotion the 
rank of major. In 1866, after taking a course in 
the law school of Harvard college, he obtained 
admission to the New York bar, and began to 
practice in that city. He was deeply interested 
in historical research, and finally retired from 



active professional labors to give his undivided 
attention to study and writing. In 1892 he is- 
sued two volumes, entitled, ,'* The Puritan in Hol- 
land, England and America, an Introduction to 
American History," an attempt to investigate 
and expound the origin of American history upon 
entirely new lines and from a new point of view* 
The book is a remarkable production and of great 
value to historians. He also published, Histori- 
cal Fallaciea Regarding Colonial New York 
(1879), and The Origin of American Institutions 
as Illustrated in the History of the Written Bal- 
lot (1891). He died in Schenectady, N. Y., 
March 7, 1893. 

CAMPBELL, Duncan R., clergyman, was bom 
in Perthshire, Scotland, Aug. 14, 1814. He pre- 
sided over a parish in Nottingham, England, for 
a time, and was later a Presbyterian missionary 
in London. In May, 1842, he came to the United 
States, and joined the Baptist church in Rich- 
mond, Va. In the fall of the same year he became 
pastor of the Leigh street church in Richmond, 
where he remained three yeai*s. He then 
preached for four years in Greorgetown, Ky., and 
in 1850 became professor of Hebrew and biblical 
literature in the Covington (Ky.) theological 
seminary. From 1852 until the time of his death 
he was president of Georgetown college. He was 
given the degree of LL.D. He died at Coving- 
ton. Ky., Aug. 16, 1865. 

CAMPBELL, George Washington, states- 
man, was born in Tennessee in 1768. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1794, and after study- 
ing law entered into practice at the Knoxville 
bar. He was a representative from Tennessee, in 
the 8th, 9th, and 10th congresses, from 1803 to 
1809, serving during the last two years as chair- 
man of tlie committee on ways and means ; was a 
judge of the United States district court for a 
term, and a United States senator from 1811 to 
1814, when he resigned to accept the position of 
secretary of the treasury in President Madison's 
cabinet. He was returned to the senate in 1815, 
and retained his seat until 1818, when he again 
resigned, this time to accept from President Mon- 
roe an appointment as minister to the c-ourt of St. 
Petersburg. Upon his return to the United States 
in 1821, he resumed the practice of his profession, 
and in 1831 was oneof the board of commissioners 
appointed to settle the French spoliation claims. 
He died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 17, 1848. 

CAMPBELL, Helen (Stuart), author was 
born in Lockport, N. Y., July 4, 1889, daughter 
of Homer H. Stuart. The family removed to 
New York city in her infancy, where she after- 
wards chiefly lived. She received a seminary 
education. At an early age she commenced 
writing children's stories. She was deeply inter- 
ested in the problem of reducing the labor of 



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housekeeping and cooking, and of alleviating the 
miseries of the poor and ignorant. In 1877 she 
wrote The Problem of the Poor, and later Mrs, 
HemdorCs Income (1885), in ^hich she embodied 
her conclusions on these subjects. In 1886, 
she was appointed by the New York Tribune 
to investigate the condition of wage-earning 
women in New York, the results appearing in the 
Tribune, in a series of papers entitled, Prison- 
era of Poverty, which led to legislative enact^ 
ments for the amelioration of the condition of 
women wage-earners in the metropolis. Mrs. 
Campbell's Prisoners of Poverty Abroad was 
written after some eighteen months* study of the 
condition of wage-earners in England, France, 
Italy, and Germany. She was literary editor of 
The Continent, from 1881 to 1884. Besides sev- 
eral volumes published between 1864 and 1880 
her books include : The Easiest Way in Houses 
keeping and Cooking (1881) ; The Problem of 
the Poor (1882); The American OirVs H<mie- 
Book of Work and Play (1883) ; Under Green 
Apple Boughs (1883); The What-to-do Club 
(1884) ; Miss Melinda's Opportunity (1886) ; Pris- 
oners of Poverty Abroad (1889) ; Roger Brook- 
ley's Probation (1890) ; In Foreign Kitchens 
(1892) ; Darkness and Daylight (1892) ; Some 
Passages in the Practice of Dr. Martha Scar- 
borough (1893) ; John Ballantyne, American 
(1893) ; Women Wage-Earners (1898) ; House- 
hold Economics (1896); Work; an Anthology 
(1897) ; Ballantyne (1901). 

CAMPBELL, Jabez Pitt, African M. E. bishop, 
was bom at Slaughter's Neck, Delaware, Feb. 6, 
1815, of free-bom African parentage. His two 
grandfathers fought in the revolutionary war. 
His father, a Methodist preacher, mortgaged the 
boy in part payment for a fishing boat, and the 
mortgagee being about to foreclose, Jabez fied to 
Philadelphia, where he acquired an education. 
In 1837 he was licensed to preach and in 1856 
became editor and publisher of the Christian 
Recorder, the official organ of the African 
M. E. church. In 1864 he was made a bishop and 
assigned to the special work of organization in 
Louisiana and California. In 1876 he attended 
the Wesleyan conference in England. He was 
appointed bishop of North Carolina, Virginia, 
and Maryland in 1887, and travelled extensively 
in the interest of the church in Great Britain, 
France, Central America, Mexico, and California. 
In 1884 he was president of the centennial con- 
ference of the A. M. E. church, and was president 
of the educational department of that denom- 
ination as a member of the evangelical alliance. 
He was a trustee of Wilberforce university from 
1863, and received from that institution the de- 
grees of D. D. and LL. D. He died in Philadelphia, 
Pa.,Aug. 9, 1891. 



CAMPBELL, James, statesman, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 1, 1812. His father was 
born in Ireland and emigrated therefrom to 
America in the early years of the nineteenth 
century. James was admitted to the Philadel- 
phia bar in 1834, after receiving a thorough edu- 
cation, and in 1841 was elected judge of the 
court of common pleas, retaining the office until 
1851. In 1853 he became attorney-general of 
the state, and on March 7, 1853, entered the cabi- 
net of President Pierce as postmaster-general, 
serving through the entire administration and 
resuming the practice of his profession upon his 
retirement from public life. He was a trustee of 
the Girard estate, and in 1868 opposed C. R. Buck- 
alew before the state legislature for United 
States senator. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Jan. 27, 1898. 

CAMPBELL, James Edwin, governor of Ohio, 
was bom at Middletown, Ohio, July 7, 1843; son 
of Dr. Andrew and Laura (Reynolds) Campbell, 
and grandson of Samuel and Mary (Small) Camp- 
bell. He received an academical education and 
served in the United States navy, enlisting in 
1863 and taking 
part in the Mis- 
sissippi and Red 
river expedition 
in the civil war, 
after which he 
taught school to 
raise money for 
the prosecution 
of his legal stud- 
ies and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, 
after which he es- 
tablished himself 
in his profession 
i n Hamilton, 
Ohio. In 1876 he 
was elected pros- ^ 
ecuting attorney of Butler county, Ohio, and held 
the office four years, when he was defeated as 
state senator by twelve votes. In 1882 he was 
elected on the Democratic ticket as a representa- 
tive to the 48th Congress, and was re-elected to 
the 49th and 50th congresses. His seat in the 
48th congress viras unsuccessfully contested by 
Henry L. Morey. In 1889 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio, defeating Joseph B. Foraker after 
an exciting gubernatorial canvass. As governor 
he called an extraordinary session of the 69th 
general assembly, Oct. 14, 1890, to consider the 
affairs of the city of Cincinnati, and the act 
that was passed reorganizing the municipal gov- 
ernment was subsequently declared unconstitu- 
tional by the supreme court. In 1891 he was 
defeated in the gubernatorial canvass by William 




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McEinley, Jr., although he ran 9000 votes ahead 
of his associates on the state ticket. Li 1895 he 
was again a candidate for the office of governor 
of Ohio and was defeated hy Asa S. BushnelL 

CAMPBELL* James H., diplomatist, was bom 
at Williamsport, Pa., Feb. 8. 1820. He received 
A classical education and was g^raduated at the 
Carlisle (Pa.) law school in 1841, gaining admis- 
sion to the bar in the same year. In 1844 he 
was a member of the national Whig convention 
at Baltimore. In 1854 he was elected a represen- 
tative to the d4th Congress, and was afterwards 
elected to the 86th and 37th congresses. In 1864 
President Lincoln appointed him United States 
minister to Sweden, where he remained until 
November, 1866, when he was appointed minister 
to the United States of Colombia. Upon reaching 
home, however, he declined the mission, and re- 
sumed his law practice. He died April 12, 1895. 

CAMPBELL, James Valentine, jurist, was 
bom in Buffalo, N. Y., Feb. 25, 1823, son of Henry 
Munroe and Lois (Bushnell) Campbell. In his 
infancy his parents removed to Detroit, Mich. 
He was g^^^^ted at St. Paul's college, Long 
Island, N. Y., in 1841, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1844. He was master of chancery in the state 
and federal courts, was elected to the supreme 
court of Michigan in 1857, and re-elected in 1863. 
He filled a chair in the law school of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan from 1859 to 1884, and was in- 
strumental in furthering the cause of education 
throughout the state. He edited Walker's Chan- 
cery Reports (1845), and published Outlines of 
the Political History of Michigan ( 1876) . He was 
a frequent contributor of historical sketches 
and poems describing pioneer life in the west, 
and of essays on questions in jurisprudence, and 
on tbe polity of the Protestant Episcopal church 
to periodical literature. He died at Detroit, 
Mich., March 26, 1890. 

CAMPBELL, Jesse H.* clergyman, was bom 
in Mcintosh county, Gki., Feb. 10, 1807, son of 
Jesse H. Campbell. He was educated at Sun- 
bury under a private tutor, and at the University 
of Georgia. He began to preach at the age of 
seventeen, and was ordained to the Baptist min- 
istry in 1880. He preached at Macon, Q«., and 
later at various places throughout the south. For 
five years he was the agent for foreign missions 
in (Georgia, and afterwards became an evangelist 
for the state at large. During the civil war he 
was a voluntary missionary in the army. He 
was a member of the board of trustees of Mercer 
university, and was instrumental in establishing 
colleges for women at Lumpkin and Cuthbert, 
and the Oeorgia deaf and dumb institution at 
Cave Spring. He is the author of Oeorgia Bap- 
tists: Historical and Biographical.' He died at 
Columbus, 6a., April 16, 1888. 



CAMPBELL, John, publisher, was bom in 
Scotland about 1653. He was a bookseller on 
Comhill, Boston, and was appointed postmaster 
of Boston and New England about 1702. On 
April 24, 1704, he began the publication of the 
weekly News Letter ^ the first successful paper in 
America. In the great fire of 1711 his establish- 
ment was burned. He was removed from the 
postoffice in 1718. In 1727-28 he was president 
of the Scots' charitable association which he had 
joined in 1684. He had two daughters: Sarah, 
who was married to James Bowdoin, and Eliza- 
beth, who became the wife of William Foye, 
both his sons-in-law being councillors of Massa- 
chusetts. He died in Boston, Mass., in March, 
1728. 

CAMPBELL, John, army surgeon, was bom 
in New York in 1821 ; son of Archibald and Mary 
GampbelL He was commissioned assistant- 
surgeon in the U.S army, Dec. 13, 1847; captain 
and assistant surgeon, Deo. 18, 1852; major and 
surgeon, May 21, 1861 ; lieutenant-colonel, Nov. 8, 
1877; colonel, Dec. 7, 1884; and was retired Sept. 
16, 1885. His son, Joseph Randolph (bom in 
Delphi, Ohio, March 12, 1872, died at Chelsea 
naval hospital, Mass., May 80, 1898), was grad- 
uated from Annapolis in 1891 and was ensign -on 
the ram Katahdin at the time of his death. 

CAMPBELL, John Allen, soldier, was bom 
in Salem, Ohio, Oct. 8, 1885. He began his busi- 
ness life as a printer, and in 1861 he entered the 
Federal army as 2d lieutenant of volunteers. 
He was promoted major and assistant adju- 
tant-general, Oct. 27, 1862, and in 1865 was 
given the brevet rank of brigadier-general of 
volunteers "for courage in the field and marked 
ability and fidelity " at Red Mountain, Shiloh, 
Perrysville, Murfreesboro, and through the At- 
lanta campaign. After being mustered out on 
Sept. 1, 1866, he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where 
he became editorially connected with the Leader, 
In October, 1867, he joined the regular army, 
received the commission of 2d lieutenant in 
the 5th artillery, and was at once bre vetted 1st 
lieutenant, captain, major and lieutenant-colonel. 
He served on the staff of General Schofield, and 
later when that officer served as secretary of war 
in President Johnson's cabinet. Colonel Campbell 
was his assistant secretary. In 1809 President 
Grant made him the first governor of the terri- 
tory of Wyoming, to which office he was re-ap- 
pointed in 1873. In 1875 he was made third 
assistant secretary of state, and served in the 
state department at Washington up to the time 
of his death, which occurred July 14, 1880. 

CAMPBELL, John Archibald, jurist, was 
bom at Washington, Ga., June 24, 1811; son of 
Col. Duncan G. Campbell, and grandson of a 
revolutionary soldier on the staff of General 



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Greene. He was graduated at the Universitj of 
Georgia in 1826, and in 1829 was admitted to the 
bar. He began to practise law at Montgomery* 
Ala., whence he was several times elected to the 
state legislature. In 1853 he was appcnnted asso- 
ciate justice of the U. S. supreme court, and 
remained on the bench until the secession of his 
state in 1861. He was made assistant secretary 
of war of the Confederate states, and in this capa- 
city conferred with President Lincoln and Sec- 
retary Seward at Fort Monroe in 1865. Judge 
Campbell was taken prisoner at the close of the 
war and was for a short time confined in Fort 
Pulaski. He was released on parole and removing 
to New Orleans, La., he resumed his law prac- 
tice. He died at Baltimore, Md., March 12, 1889. 

CAMPBELL* John B., soldier, was bom in 
Kentucky; a nephew of General William Camp- 
bell. On March 12, 1812, he was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel of the 19th infantry, and on 
Dec. 18, 1812, was brevetted colonel for gallant 
conduct in the campaign against the Mississine- 
way Indians. In 1814 he was promoted colonel 
and transferred to the 11th infantry. He was 
mortally wounded at the battle of Chippewa, 
Canada, July 5, 1814, and died Aug. 28, 1814. 

CAMPBELL* John Lyle, chemist, was bom 
in Rockbridge county, Va., Dec. 7, 1818; brother 
of Alexander Paxton Campbell. His grandfather, 
Alexander Campbell, was one of the trustees of 
Liberty hall academy, from 1782 to 1807. John 
Lyle was graduated from Washington college in 
1848, and taught school first in Staunton, Va., 
and later in Richmond, Ky. From 1851 to 1886 he 
was professor of chemistry and geology in Wash- 
ington and Lee university, which institution 
conferred on him the degree of LL.D. He made 
exhaustive researches in geology, especially of 
the Appalachian mountain region. Fi'om 1870 
to 1882 he was superintendent of schools for 
Rockbridge county. He was a frequent contrib- 
utor to various scientific journals, and published 
among other works, A Manual of Scientific and 
Practical Agriculture for tlie School and Farm 
(1859) ; Geology and Mineral Resources of the 
James River Valley, Virginia (1882) ; and with 
Dr. W. H. Ruffner, A Physical Survey in Oeor- 
gia, Alabama, and Mississippi along tJie Line of 
the Georgia Pacific: Railway (1883). He died at 
Lexington, Va., Feb. 2, 1886. 

CAMPBELL, John Nicholson» clergyman, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 4, 1798. His 
maternal gprandfather, Robert Aitkin, was the 
publisher of the first Elnglish edition of the Bible 
printed and bound in America. After studying 
under James Ross, he entered the University of 
Pennsylvania, but did not complete his collegiate 
course. Under the direction of Dr. Ezra Stiles 
Ely, he pursued his theological studies, and sub- 



sequently continued them in Virginia, becoming 
temporarily connected with Hampden-Sidney col- 
lege as tutor, and on May 10, 1817, he was licensed 
to preach by the Hanover (Va.) presbytery. He 
was chosen chaplain to the U. S. house of repre- 
sentatives in 1820, and afterwards returned to 
Virginia. He preached in Petersburg, and in 
Newbem, N. C, establishing in the latter place 
the First Presbyterian church. During 1828 and 
1824 he was assistant pastor to Dr. Balch of 
Georgetown, D. C, and in 1825 took charge of 
the New York avenue church in Washington. In 
January, 1825, he was elected a manager of the 
American colonization society, holding th^ office 
six years. He was installed as pastor of the First 
Presbyterian church in Albany, N. Y., Sept. 11, 
1831, where he remained imtil the year of his 
death. In 1836 he was made a member of the 
Princeton theological seminary board of directors* 
and for many years was a regent of the Univer- 
sity of the state of New York. Many of his 
sermons and addresses were published in pamphlet 
form. He died in Albany, N. Y., March 27, 1864. 

CAMPBELL, John Pomge» clergyman, was 
bom in Augusta county, Va., in 1767. He was 
taken by his parents to Kentucky at the age of 
fourteen, and became a teacher at nineteen. In 
1790 he was graduated from Hampden-Sidney 
college, and in 1792 was licensed to preach. He 
filled pulpits in several Kentucky towns, and in 
1811 was chaplain to the state legislature. His 
published writings include: The Passenger 
(1804) ; Strictures on Stomas Letters on the 
Atonement (1805) ; VindeXy in Anstoer to Stone'9 
Reply (1806) ; Letters to the Rev, Mr, Craig- 
head (1810) ; The Pelagian Detected (1811) ; 
An Answer to Jones, in Answer to Stone*s 
Reply (1812) : and Doctrine of Justification 
Considered. He died near Chillicothe, Ohio, 
Nov. 4, 1814. 

CAMPBELL, John Wilson, jurist, was bom 
near Miller's iron works, Augusta coimty, Va.» 
Feb. 23, 1782. In 1791 he was taken by his par- 
ents to Bourbon county, Kentucky, and he after- 
wards went to Ohio, and in 1808 was admitted to 
the bar and practised at West Union, Ohio. He 
was appointed prosecuting attorney for Adams 
and Highland counties, and was several times 
elected to the state legislature. In 1816 he was 
elected a representative to the 15th Congress, and 
was re-elected to the five succeeding congresses, 
declining after that to stand as candidate. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed United States dis- 
trict judge for the state of Ohio, and held the 
office until his death. In 1881 Augusta college 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
See Biographical Sketches, with Other Liter- 
ary Remains of the Late John W. CampiteU 
( 1838) . He died in Delawai-e, Ohio, Sept. 24, 1888. 



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CAMPBELL, Lewis Davis, diplomatist, was 
bom at Franklin, Warren county, Ohio, Aug. 9, 
1811. When quite young he became assistant 
editor of the Cincinnati Gazette. In 1881 he re- 
moved to Hamilton. Ohio, where he edited a 
political paper. In 1836 he was admitted to the 
bar, and established himself in the practice of his 
profession at Hamilton. In 1848 he was elected 
a representative to the Slst Congress, and was 
three times re-elected. He claimed to have been 
again elected to the 35th Congress, but his seat 
was contested, and the house of representatives 
decided in favor of his opponent, C. L. Vallan- 
digham. At the outbreak of the civil war he 
volunteered in the Federal army, and served one 
year with the rank of colonel, resigning on account 
of ill-health. He was appointed U. S. minister to 
Mexico by President Johnson, May 4, 1866, but he 
did not reach that country until November, re- 
maining in the United States to attend the union 
convention, Philadelphia, and the soldiers' con- 
vention in Cleveland. In 1868 he returned from 
Mexico, and in 1870 was elected a representative 
to the 42d Congress. He died Nov. 28, 1882. 

CAMPBELL, Richard, soldier, was bom in the 
Virginia valley. In February, 1776, he was com- 
missioned captain, and later served at Pittsburg 
as major under CoL John Gibson. In 1778 he 
was on the expedition led by Mcintosh against 
the Indians in Ohio, and the following year led a 
relief party to Fort Laurens, which garrison he 
commanded until the evacuation. Shortly after 
joining General Greene with a regiment of Vir- 
ginia regulars he served with the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel at Guilford, Hobkirk's Hill, Ninety- 
Six, and Eutaw Springs, where he received a 
mortal wound while leading his regiment in the 
fiaal charge. He died at Eutaw Springs, S. C, 
Sept. 8, 1781. 

CAMPBELL, Robert, soldier, was bom in 
Augusta county, Va., May 25, 1755; brother of 
CoL Andrew Campbell. He removed to Holston, 
Va, in 1771, and in 1774 served in Christian's 
campaign. He was in the battle of liOng Island 
Flats of Holston in July, 1776, and in the fall of 
that year volunteered on Christian's Cherokee 
campaign. He was an ensign at the battle of 
King's mountain, Oct. 7, 1780, and served con- 
spicuously. In December following he was an 
adjutant to his brother. He served long as a 
colonel of a regiment, and for nearly forty years 
was a magistrate of Washington county, Va. He 
is the author of a manuscript diary, and of an 
account of the battle of King's mountain, pub- 
lished in the Holston Intelligencer in October. 
1810, both of great historical value, and much 
quoted in Draper's King's Mountain and its 
Heroes. In 1825 he removed to Knox county 
Tenn., where be died, Dec. 27, 1831. 



CAMPBELL, Thomas J., educator, was bom in 
New York city, April 29, 1848. He graduated at 
the College of St. Francis Xavier in 1867, and 
entered the Society of Jesus. He was a professor 
of belles lettrea and rhetoric at St. John^s college 
and at the College of St. Fi'ancis Xavier and was 
ordained priest in Belgium in 1880. He was 
president of St. John's college. 1885-'89, and 
1896-*99, and became provincial of the New York- 
Maryland province in 1889. 

CAMPBELL, Thompson, representative, was 
bom in Pennsylvania, received his education in 
his native state, and studied law. When quite 
young he engaged in mining in Qalena, III., and 
became identified with state politics, being 
elected secretary of state by the Democrats. In 
1850 he was elected to represent the Galena dis- 
trict in the 82d Congress. Soon after the expira- 
tion of his term in 1853 he removed to California, 
and was appointed by President Pierce, land conr- 
missioner. He died in California, Dec. 7, 1868. 

CAMPBELL, Timothy J., representative, was 
bom in county Cavan, Ireland, in 1840. He 
came to the United States when five years old, 
and attended the public schools in the city of New 
Y'jrk. He learned the printing business, and 
worked on the New York Times, Eocpress, Tri- 
bune and Herald. He was employed as a printer 
on the Herald when he was nominated in 1867 
for the state assembly by the democracy of his 
district. He was elected to the assembly from 
1868 to 1878, inclusive, and again in 1875. He 
studied law with Judge Flanagan, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in November, 1869. In 1875 he 
was elected justice of the fifth district civil 
court in New York city, and served six years in 
this capacity. In 1883 he was returned to the 
state assembly. Before his term expired a 
vacancy occurred in the eighth congressional 
district of New York, by the appointment of S. S. 
Cox as minister to Turkey, and Mr. Campbell 
was nominated and elected to the 49th Congress 
to fill the vacancy. He was re-elected to the 
50th, 52d and 58d congresses. 

CAMPBELL, William, soldier, was bom in 
Augusta county, Va., in 1745. In 1767 he settled 
in the Holston valley, where he was justice of 
the peace and captain of militia. He partici- 
pated in the campaign led by Colonel Christian 
against the Shawnees, and in 1775 joined Patrick 
Henry's regiment. He assisted in compelling 
Lord Dunmore's evacuation of Gwynne's Island, 
when, his home and property being endangered 
by threatened raids of the Cherokees, he resigned 
from the army, and was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of state militia. He was one of the com- 
missioners who fixed the boundary line between 
Virginia and the Cherokee country in 1778. In 
1779 he was actively employed against the Tories 



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of his neighborhood, and for his services was 
promoted colonel of his regiment. On Oct. 7, 
1780, he was one of the six heroic frontier col- 
onels who led the patriot troops at the battle of 
King's mountain. He commanded a corps of 
riflemen under G^eneral Greene in the battle of 
Guilford Court House, N. C, March 15, 1781. He 
married a sister of Patrick Henry. He died at 
Rocky Mills, Va., Aug. 22, 1781. and was eulo- 
gized by Washington, Lafayette, Greene and 
Jefferson. 

CAMPBELL, William Bowen, governor of 
Tennessee, was bom in Sumner county, Tenn., 
Feb. 1, 1807. He was admitted to the Tennessee 
bar, practising for a time in Carthage. He was 
chosen district attorney, and in 1835 was elected 
to the lower house of the state legislature. He 
fought in the Creek and Florida wars at the 
head of a company which he had enlisted, and 
in 1886 was elected a representative to the 25th 
Congress. He was major-general in the Tennes- 
see militia, and at the beginning of the Mexican 
war was made colonel of volunteers. He took part 
in the battles of Monterey and Cerro Gk)rdo, and 
after General Pillow was wounded commanded 
his brigade. In 1851 he was elected governor of 
Tennessee and served two years. He was made 
judge of the circuit court in 1857. President Lin- 
coln appointed him brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, in June, 1862, and he served until the end of 
the year, when ill-health necessitated his resigna- 
tion. In 1864 he was elected a representative to 
the d9th Congress, but was not allowed his seat 
until the end of the first year of his term. He 
died at Lebanon, Tenn., Aug. 19, 1867. 
• CAMPBELL* Wllllain Henry, educator, was 
bom in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 14, 1808. He was 
graduated from Dickinson college in 1828, and 
from Princeton theological seminary in 1881. He 
was ordained by the Dutch Reformed classis of 
Cayuga as pastor of the church at Chittenango, 
N. Y. He resigned to accept the position of prin- 
cipal of Erasmus Hall at Flatbush, Long Island, 
N. Y., remaining there six years. In 1889 he 
resumed his pastoral labors, and preached for two 
years in East New York, and for seven years in 
Albany, N. Y. In 1848 he became principal of 
the Albany academy, resigning in 1851 to accept 
the chair of Oriental literature in the Dutch Re- 
formed theological seminary. New Brunswick, 
N. J., where he remained twelve years. During 
this time he was also professor of moral phil- 
osophy at Rutgers college, and its president from 
1868 to 1882, when he resigned and became pro- 
fessor of the evidences of Christianity, occupying 
the chair for three years. In 1885 he organized 
a church at New Bnmswick, of which he was 
made pastor. During hi« pdminiRtration of Rut- 
gers ooUege over two hundred thousand dollars 



was raised, six new professorships were estab* 
lislied, and the number of pupils doubled. He 
was the author of Subjects and Modes of Bap- 
tism (1844) ; Influence of Christianity in Civil 
and Religious Liberty (1873), and System of 
Catechetical Instruction (1876). He died at 
New Brunswick, N. J., Dec. 7, 1890. 

CAMPBELL, Willlain W., jurist, was bom at 
Cherry VaUey, N. Y., June 10, 1806. He was 
graduated at Union college in 1827; began the 
practice of law in New York city in 1831, waa 
appointed master in chancery in 1841, afterward 
conmiissioner in bankruptcy, and was a repre- 
sentative in the 29th Congress, where he e£fected 
decided reforms in the consular system. In 184ft 
he was elected judge of the supreme court of New 
York city, and soon after the expiration of his 
term, in December, 1855, he returned to Cherry 
VaUey, N. Y. In the fall of 1857 he was elected 
judge of the supreme court of New York for the 
sixth judicial district, also serving in the court of 
appeals. He was a frequent contributor to maga- 
zines and other periodical literature, his writings 
being principally historical sketches, especially 
of New York state. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Union college, and was elected trus- 
tee in 1848, and a visitor of the Nott trust fund in 
1853. In his last months he took special pleasure 
in studying the Bible and in religious conversa* 
tion. He is the author of Annals of Tryon 
County, New York (1831) ; Life of Mrs. Graut, 
Missionary to Persia (1840) ; Life and Writings 
of De Witt Clinton (1849) ; Sketches of Robin 
Hood and Capt. Kidd (1853). He died at Cherry 
Valley, N.Y., Sept. 7, 1881. 

CANBY, Edward Richard Sprigg, soldier, was 
bom in Kentucky in 1817; son of Israel T. 
Canby. His parents settled in Indiana, where he 
received his early education. He was graduated 
from the U. S. military academy in 1889, and 
was commissioned 2d lieutenant, 2d infantry. He 
served as a quartermaster in the Florida war from 
1839 to 1842, and assisted in escorting the emi- 
grating Indians to Arkansas. From 1842 to '45 
he was on garrison duty, and in 1845 on recruit- 
ing service. In 1846 he was promoted to a 1st 
lieutenancy, and served during the Mexican war. 
participating in the siege of Vera Cruz, in the 
battles of Cerro Oordo, Contreras. and Churu- 
busoo, and in the assault upon the Belen gate ci 
the city of Mexico. For his services he was 
brevetted major and lieutenant-ooloneL From 
1849 to 1851 he was attached to the Pacific divi 
sion of the U. S. army as assistant adjutant* 
generaL He was promoted captain in June, 1851, 
but resigned his rank in the line on being as- 
signed to the adjutant-general* s department as 
assistant adjutant-general. From March, 1855, 
to 1868 he was employed on frontier duty in 



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CANDAGE. 



CANDLER. 



Wifloonsin and Minnesota as major of the 10th 
U. S. infantry, and from 1858 to 1860 was in com- 
mand of Fort Bridger, Utah. At the opening of 
the civil war he was in command of Fort Defi- 
ance, New Mexico. He was one of the most zeal- 
ous and conspicuous defenders of the Union. He 
became colonel of the 19th regiment, U. S. infan- 
try. May, 1861, and acted as brigadier-general of 
the forces in New Mexico, where he repelled the 
invasion of General Sibley, compelling his in- 
glorious retreat. On March 81, 1862, he was 
promoted brigadier-general of volimteers, and 
transferred to the war department in Washing- 
ton. During the draft riots in New York city, 
July, 1868, he had command of the United States 
troops. In 1864 he was promoted major-general 
of volunteers, and given command of the division 
of west Mississippi. He was severely wounded on 
White river, Ark., Nov. 4, 1864, while making a 
tour of inspection. He led an army of thirty 
thousand men against Mobile, which city was 
taken April 12, 1865, after which he received the 
surrender of General Taylor*8 army, west of the 
Mississippi, which ended the hostilities in the 
southwest. General Canby was brevetted briga- 
dier-general and major-general of the United 
States army, and continued in command of the 
military department of the south until 1866, when 
* he was given the full rank of brigadier-general 
and transferred to Washington. He had charge 
of the military district with headquarters at 
Richmond, after the surrender, and accepted the 
services of General Lee's disbanded cavalrymen, 
whom he reorganized, to suppress bushwacking. 
He commanded the department of the Ck>lumbia 
from 1869 to 1873, when he endeavored to per- 
suade the Modocs to agree to the terms proposed 
by the government. He was ardently desirous 
that justice should be rendered to the Lidians, 
while reconmiending measures that would ensure 
peace and immunity to the whites from the 
depredations of the tribe. With two other 
officers he met Captain Jack, the Modoc chief, to 
confer upon a treaty of peace, but was, with his 
companions, treacherously killed by the Lidians 
before the escort could come to their relief. 
Oaptain Jack and two of the tribe were captured, 
tried, and executed for the murder. General 
Oanby received the degree of LL.D. from the 
Wesleyan university in 1870. He died in Siski- 
you county, CaL, April 11, 1878. 

CANDAQE, Rufus Qeorge Frederick, marine 
surveyor, was bom in Blue HiU, Me., July 28, 
1826; son of Samuel Roundy and Phoebe Ware 
(Parker) Candage. He was educated at the pub- 
Uo schools and academy of his native town, and 
at the age of eighteen went to sea. Li 1850 he 
became master of the brig Equator, and later 
^y^mmnnHftrf the ships Jamestaum of New York 



and the Electric Spark and the Natiorial Eagle of 
Boston, making voyages to the principal ports of 
Europe, Asia, Australia, and North and South 
America. He abandoned the sea in 1867, and 
settled in Brookline, Mass. He was appointed 
marine surveyor by the American shipmasters* 
association, and also for the Boston board of un- 
derwriters in 1867, and in 1882 became surveyor 
for Bureau Veritas of Paris, France. Li 1861 he 
was elected a member of the Shipmasters' asso- 
ciation of New York; in 1867, a member of the 
Boston marine society ; and in 1891, of the New 
York marine society. Li 1871 he was made a 
trustee of the Brookline public library ; in 1870, a 
member of the New Ehigland historic genealogi- 
cal society ; in 1885, of the Bostonian society ; in 
1891, of Bunker Hill monument association ; and 
in 1894, a corresponding member of the Maine 
historical society. He is the author of Boston 
Harbor (1881) ; Settlement and Progress of the 
Town of Blue HiU, Maine (1886) ; Early Settlers 
in Blue Hill, and Their Families (edited by liim, 
1889) ; An Account of the Cavendish, Candishy 
or Candage Family (1889), and a Memoir of Rev, 
Jonathan Fisher (1889). 

CANDIDUS, William, opera singer, was bom 
in Philadelphia, Pa,, July 28, 1840. He studied 
with Professor Erani of New York, and his voice, 
which in early manhood was a first bass, 
changed to tenor in the course of three years' 
military service in the U. S. artillery. After the 
war he went abroad and studied for the operatic 
stage, for some years under Konopazek at Berlin, 
and Prof. Rhonchetti di Montiviti in Milan. He 
made his debut at Weimar, in the title rdle of 
**Stradetta," later singing in the Royal opera 
house, Munich, and the grand opera houses of 
Berlin, Hanover, and Hamburg. Three success- 
ful seasons at the royal Italian opera. London, 
were followed by ten years at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, during which time he sang for two seasons 
in America with the American opera company. 
Mr. Candidus had in 1896 a repertoire of forty- 
five operas. 

CANDLER, Allen Daniel, representative, was 
bom in Lumpkin county, Ga., Nov. 4, 1884, grand- 
son of William Candler who came to America 
before 1760, and served as a colonel in the Georgia 
militia in the war of the revolution. He was 
graduated at Mercer university in 1859. He was 
the founder of Clayton high school, and was its 
principal, 1859-'61. He served in the Confederate 
army during the civil war, 1861-65, as private, 
being promoted by regular gradations to the rank 
of colonel. He became vice-president of the 
Monroe female college, 1865-'66; principal of 
the Clayton high school, 1867-69; president of the 
Bailey institute, 1870-71 ; was, oleoted a member 
of the Georgia legislature, 1872-77, and served in 



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CANDLER. 



CANNON. 




the state senate, 1878-79. From 1879 to 1892 he 
was a railroad president ; was elected a represen- 
tative in the 48th, 49th, 50th and 51st congresses 
as a Democrat, 1883-*91, and was secretary of 
tlie State of Georgia, 1894-'98. He was governor 
of Georgia, 1899-1903. 

CANDLER» Warren A., educator, was bom in 
Carroll county, Ga., Aug. 23, 1857; son of Sam- 
uel C. and Martha (Beall) Candler. He was 
graduated from Emory college, Oxford, Ga., in 
1875. In the same year he was received on trial 
into the North Georgia conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal 
church, south, and 
served on various 
circuits until 1881, 
when he was made 
presiding elder of 
the Dahlonega dis- 
trict. He subse- 
quently served as 
pastor of the church 
' at Si)arta, Ga., and 
the old church of St. 
John's at Augusta. 
He was appointed 
in July, 1886, as- 
sociate editor of 
the Christian Advo- 
cate, Nashville, the 
official organ of the 
Methodist Episcopal 
church, south, and continued in that work until 
June. 1888, when he was elected to the presidency 
of Emory college. He was a member of the 
general conference of the church in 1886 and 
1890, and a delegate to the ecumenical conference 
of 1891. He wais elected bisliop in 1898. Emory 
college gave him the degree D.D. in 1888, and 
LL.D., 1897. He is the author of " The History 
of Sunday Schools," and "Christus Auctor" 



/ii 



yy^^.t^^<^ 



CANFIELD, James Hulme, educator, was 
born at Delaware, Ohio, March 18, 1847 ; son of 
Eli Hawky and Martha (Hulme) Canfield. He 
was educated at the Brooklyn collegiate and 
polytechnic institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., and at 
Williams college, Ma.ss., where he was graduated 
in 1868. He was employed in railroad construc- 
tion in Iowa and Minnesota from 1868 to 1871 ; 
was admitted to the bar of Michigan in 1872 ; 
and practised law at St. Joseph, Mich., from 1872 
to 1877, during three years of which time he 
served (gratuitously) as superintendent of public 
instruction. In 1877 he was made professor of 
history and English literature at the State uni- 
versity of Kansas ; later he held the chair of his- 
tory and {)olitical science, and then that of 
American history and civics until 1891, when he 



became chancellor of the University of Ne- 
braska. He was president of the Kansas state 
teachers* association, and of the same association 
in Nebraska ; for four years acted as secretary of 
the National educational association, and for one 
year as its president ; was a member of the 
American economic association, and of the 
American historical association. He received the 
degree LL.D. from Williams, 1893 ; was president 
of the Ohio State university, 1895-'99, and libra- 
rian of Columbia university from 1899. He pub- 
lished The College Student and His Problems 
(1902). 

CANNON, Prank Jenne» senator, was bom at 
Salt Lake City, Utah, Jan. 35, 1859, son of George 
Q. and Sarah (Jenne) Cannon. He was graduated 
from the University of Utah in 1878 and became 
a printer and newspaper writer. He was a dele- 
gate to the Republican national convention at 
Minneapolis in 1892, was defeated for delegate to 
the 53d congress in 1892, was a delegate to the 
54th congress in 1894 and was elected United 
States senator, serving from Jan. 22, 1896, to 
March 3, 1899. 

CANNON* George Q., Mormon elder, was bom 
in Liverpool, England, Jan. 11, 1827. He im- 
migrated to the United States with his parents, 
who were Mormons, and settled in Nauvoo, 111., 
where he was employed as a printer. He re- 
moved to Salt Lake city in 1847 ; was a mission- 
ary to the Sandwich Islands in 1850, became 
an apostle in 1859, and was a delegate to con- 
gress to ask that Utah be admitted as a state 
in 1862. He was president of the European mis- 
sion, 1862-64, which resulted in the sending of 
13,000 converts to Zion ; served as a member 
of the legislative council, 1865-'66, and 186^72, 
and was sent to congress again in 1872, to urge 
the admission of Utah as a state. He was a 
delegate to the 43d, 44th, 45th and 46th con- 
gresses, 1873-'81, was appointed first councillor 
to President John Taylor in 1880; served as re- 
gent of Deseret university and as editor of the 
Descret News, He died at Monterey, Cal., April 
12, 1901. 

CANNON, Henry White, financier, was born 
in Delhi, Delaware county, N. Y., Sept. 27, 1850, 
son of George Bliss and Ann Eliza (White) Can- 
non. On his mother's side he is a direct descen- 
dant from Peregrine White of the Man/lower. He 
was educated at the Delaware literary institute, 
and was clerk and afterwards teller in the first 
national bank of Delhi. In 1870 he removed to 
St. Paul, Minn., as teller in the second national 
bank, and in 1871 he organized the Lumberman's 
national bank at Stillwater, Minn. He remained 
cashier and acting president of that bank for thir- 
teen years and became prominently identified with 
the banking interests of the state, Tisiting New 



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CANNON. 



CANNON . 



York and Washington, D. C, in the interest of 
the sale of bonds of the cities of the northwest, 
and in purchasing government securities for the 
national banks of that section. In May, 1884, he 
was appointed by President Arthur comptroller 
of the ourrenoy, to succeed John Jay Knox. The 
financial orisis of 1884 began in the same month as 
Mr. Cannon's appointment, and his official posi- 
tion required great executive skilL By his 
prompt action he saved many banks from a re- 
ceiver's handsy communicating his knowledge 
of the science of banking to the examiners he ap- 
pointed. He reported to the senate finance com- 
mittee the condition of New York city banks, and 
Advised that no publicity be given to their condi- 
tion as disclosed to the committee, in order that 
a further panic might be averted and the banks 
enabled, through the course advised by the comp- 
troller's department, to regain their normal con- 
dition without resort to extraordinary legislative 
measures, which they in aU cases did. The cor- 
porate existence of 971 national banks expired 
'during his term of office, and as this represented 
A capital of over two hundred and seventy mil- 
lion dollars, the extension of these bank charters 
greatly added to his labors. Upon the accession 
of President Cleveland, in 1885, Secretary Man- 
ning and the President united in asking Mr. 
Cannon to continue his duties for the whole presi- 
dential term, but he resigned Feb. 1, 1886, to 
accept the vice-presidency of the national bank of 
the republic. New York city. On Oct. 3, 1886, he 
resigned, to become president of the Chase 
national bank. Mr. Cannon was prominently 
identified with the New York clearing-house 
-association, as chairman of the clearing-house 
committee. President Harrison appointed him 
■as one of the delegates from the United States 
ito the International monetary conference held in 
Brussels in 1892. He was appointed by Mayor 
strong one of the aqueduct commissioners for the 
city of New York, and was made a director in 
many financial institutions. 

CANNON, James Spencer, clergyman, was 
bom on the island of Curacoa, Jan. 28, 1776. He 
acquired an academic education at Hackensack, 
N. J., and, after studying theology, he was 
licensed to preach in 1796, and became pastor of 
the Dutch Reformed churches at Millstone and at 
Six Mile Run, N. J. Later he resigned his work 
at the former church, and from 1826 until his 
death he held the chair of pastoral theology and 
'ecclesiastical history in the seminary at New 
Brunswick. He was also for a time professor of 
metaphysics at Rutgers college. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Union college in 1819. He 
is the author of Lectures on Chronology and 
Lectures on Pastoral Theology (1853). He died in 
I^ew Brunswick, N. J. July 25, 1853. 



CANNON, Joseph Q., representative, was 
born at Guilford, N. C, May 7, 1886. He was 
educated for the bar in the schools of his native 
state, and commenced practice at Tuscola, IlL, 
removing subsequently to Danville. He served 
as state's attorney from March, 1861, to Decem- 
ber, 1868, and as a representative from the fif- 
teenth district of Illinois to the 4dd and every 
successive Congress, including tlie 55th, except 
the 52d Congress, to which he failed of an elec- 
tion by reason of an ill-advised speech, which 
was made the instrument of his defeat. On the 
organization of the 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th Con- 
gresses he was made chairman of the committee 
on appropriations. 

CANNON, Marlon, representative, was bom 
near Morgantown, Va., Oct. 80, 1884; son of 
James and Lucinda Cannon. After acquiring 
a district-school education he learned the trade of 
blacksmith, and in 1852 he started for California, 
driving an ox-team across the continent. He 
settled in Nevada county and mined until 1874, 
when he removed to Ventura county and pur- 
chased a farm. From 1869 to 1871 he was record- 
er of Nevada county. He was elected first state 
president of the Farmers' alliance, Nov. 20, 1890, 
and was re-elected in Oct. 1891 On Oct. 20, 1891, 
he organized the People's party of California, and 
was chosen a representative to the supreme 
council at Indianapolis in November. He was 
selected by that body to represent California in 
the industrial conference at St. Louis, Feb. 22, 
1892, and was chosen temporary chairman of the 
conference. On July 4, 1892, he was made chair- 
man of the California delegation to the national 
convention of the People's party at Omaha, and 
the same year was elected a representative to the 
53d congress as a Democrat. 

CANNON, Newton, governor of Tennessee, 
was bom in Guilford county, N. C, about 1781. 
He was educated in the public schools and re- 
moved to Tennessee, where he served in the state 
legislature during 1811-'12. He enlisted in the 
war of 1812 as colonel of the Tennessee mounted 
rifles — three months men — and commanded the 
left column in the battle of Tallahatchee against 
the Creek Indians, November, 1818. He served 
as a representative in the 14th, 15th, 17th and 
18th congresses. He was appointed by President 
'Monroe one of a commission to treat with the 
Chickasaw Indians in 1819. He was elected 
governor of Tennessee in 1885, and served until 
1889. He died at Harpeth, Tenn., Sept. 29, 1842. 

CANNON, William, governor of Delaware, 
was born in Bridgeville, Del., in 1809. He was a 
Methodist class-leader and preacher from 1828 
until his death. He served in the state legisla- 
ture from 1845 to 1849, and for a time filled the 
office of state treasurer. He was a delegate to 



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CAPEN. 



CAPERS. 



the peace congress in 1861 and was a stanch ad- 
vocate of the Crittenden compromise. He was 
elected governor of Delaware in 1862 and advised 
that body to emancipate the slaves in the state. 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., March 1, 1865. 

CAPBN9 Edward, librarian, was bom at Dor- 
chester, Mass.. Oct. 20, 1821, son of the Rev. 
Lemuel and Mary Anne (Whiting) Capen. He 
graduated from the Boston Latin school with the 
Franklin medal in 1838; from Harvard college 
in 1842, and in 1845 from the Cambridge divinity 
sohooL He engaged for one year as minister 
over the Unitarian society in Westford, but 
owing to liis sympathy with the views of Theo- 
dore Parker he was obliged to abandon the minis- 
try. In 1852 he became secretary of the school 
committee of Boston, and later in the same year 
was appointed librarian of the Boston public 
library. In 1853 he resigned the office of secre- 
tary of the school committee, and under direction 
of the library trustees prepared the first catalogue. 
He resigned in 1874 ; was librarian at Haverhill, 
Mass., 1874-'99 and librarian emeritus 1899-1901. 
He died at Haverhill, Mass., Oct. 20, 1901. 

CAPEN, Elmer Hewitt, educator, was bom 
in Stoughton, Mass., April 5, 1838, son of Samuel 
and Almira (Paul) Capen. In 1856 he entered 
^_ Tufts college, and 

while still an under- 
graduate the people 
of his native town 
elected him to the 
Massachusetts legis- 
lature, where he 
served during 1859- 
'60, being by some 
years the youngest 
representative in the 
house. He was grad- 
uated with his class 
in 1860, was admitted 
to the bar in 1864, and 
practised one year. 
He then studied 
theology, and in 1865 
was ordained a minister in the Independent 
Christian church of Gloucester, Mass. He subse« 
quently occupied pulpits in St. Paul, Minn., and 
in Providence, R. I. In 1875 he resigned pastoral 
work to accept the presidency of Tufts college. 
Under his administration the financial resources 
of the college were greatly augmented, the nimi- 
ber of instructors increased more than fivefold, 
the number of buildings more than threefold, 
and many beneficial changes were introduced. 
In addition to the work of administration, 
he conducted the department of political science 
and supplied the college pulpit. He was 
president of the New England commission on col- 




lege admission examinations, from its establish* 
ment in 1885. He was for twenty years a trustee 
of the Universalist general convention, and from. 
1888 a member of the Massachusetts state board 
of education. He was president of the Citizens* 
law and order league, and in 1888 was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention. He wrote 
the articles on the Atonement in the Universa- 
list section of the Columbian congress of relig- 
ions ; was the orator at the unveiling of the John 
Boyle O^Reilly monument June 20, 1896, and re- 
ceived the degree D.D. from St. Lawrence uni- 
versity 1876 and LL.D. from Buchtel college 1899. 

CAPEN, Nahum, author, was bom in Canton, 
Mass., April 1, 1804. In 1825 he began business 
in Boston as a publisher, with the firm of Marsh, 
Capen & Lyon. He was among the first to 
agitate the matter of an international copyright, 
his memorial to Congress on the subject being 
one of the first presented to that body ; a letter 
of his, printed by the senate, led to the organiza- 
tion of the census bureau at Washington, and h& 
established the custom of collecting letters from, 
street boxes. He was postmaster of Boston from 
1857 to 1861. He contributed to the press many 
articles on history and political economy. He> 
edited a translation of the Works of Dr. Oall (6 
vols.) ; the Annala of Phrenology (2 vols.) ; the 
Writings of Hon. Levi Woodtmi^y, LL.D and 
the Massachiutetts State Records from 1847 to 
1851 (5 vols.). He publi.shed The Republic of 
the United States (1848) ; Reminiscences of 
John O, Spurzheim and Oeorge Combe, and a 
Revieto of tlie Science of Phrenology (1881). 
At the time of liis death he was engaged on a. 
History of Deinoci^acy, one volume of wliich 
was published in 1874. He died in Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 4, 1886. 

CAPERS, Ellison, 7th bishop of South Caro- 
lina and 169th in succession in the American 
episcopate, was bom in Charleston, S. C, Oct. 14, 
1837 ; son of William and Susan (MagiH) Capers. 
His father was one of the bishops of the southern 
Methodist church. He was graduated at the 
South Carolina military academy in 1857, was- 
appointed assistant professor of mathematics in 
that college, and resigned in 1861 to serve in the^ 
Confederate army. He continued in the service 
until the close of the war, rising to the rank of 
brigadier-general. In May, 1867, he was ordained 
a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church, and 
was priested Sept. 18, 1868, by Bishop Thomas F. 
Davis. He was rector of Christ church, Green- 
ville, S. C, from 1867 to 1887, with the exception 
of one year spent as rector at St. Paul's, Selma, 
Ala. In 1887, he became rector of Trinity 
church, Columbia, S. C, where he remained until 
his elevation to the episcopal office. He was sec- 
retary and treasurer of the diocesan board of 



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CAPERS. 



CARDENAS. 



missions, 1879-'98, and deputy to the general con- 
vention, 1880, 1888, 1886. He received the degree 
of D.D. from South Carolina university in 1888, 
and from the University of the south in 1898. 
He was consecrated coculjutor bishop of South 
Carolina, July 20, 1898, and on the death of Bishop 
Howe, Nov. 24, 1894, became sole adminstrator of 
the diocese. 

CAPERS, Wllllaniy M. E. bishop, was born in 
St. Thomas parish, S. C, Jan. 26, 1790, son of a 
revolutionary soldier of Huguenot descent. He 
was educated at an academy in Statesburg, S. C, 
and at South Carolina college. He was not g^^' 
nated, but in 1808 entered a lawoflSce, and after a 
few months of study decided to become a Metho- 
dist preacher, and was licensed Nov. 25, 1808. 
In 1816 he started a school in Oeorgetown, S. C, 
and after two years resumed his work in the 
church. For a time he was missionary to the 
Creek Indians, and later was editor of the Wes- 
leyan Journal, In 1827 he was chosen presiding 
elder of the Charleston district, which he repre- 
sented at the conference in England the follow- 
ing year. He refused in 1829 a professorship in 
Franklin college, G^rgia, and later the presi- 
dency and professional chairs of several southern 
colleges. He edited the Southern Christian Ad- 
vocate, and in 1840 was elected secretary of the 
southern missionary district, holding the ofiSce 
four years. In May, 1846, he was consecrated 
bishop of the southern branch of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He wrote a Catechism for 
Methodist Missionaries in instructing the Negroes ; 
an autobiography published after his death, to 
which was appended a memoir by the Rev. Dr. 
Wightman (1858), and Short Sermons and Tales 
for Children. He died Jan. 29, 1855. 

CAPBRTON, Allen Taylor, senator, was bom 
near Union, Monroe county, Va., Nov. 21, 1810. 
He was educated at Huntsville, Ala., and in the 
university of Yirgim'a, and after his graduation 
at Yale college in 1882 he studied law at Staunton 
Ya., and there engaged in its practice. He was 
a member of the Virginia house of delegates and 
of the state senate, his last senatorial term ending 
in 1860. As a member of the Virginia state con- 
vention, which met in 1861 to consider the im- 
pending troubles, he stood for the Union, but 
when the state seceded he espoused the cause of 
the Confederacy. He was a member of the Con- 
federate states senate from 1868 to 1865, and after 
the close of the war he resumed his law practice. 
He rendered valuable service to the new state of 
West Virginia in bringing its rich coal, timber and 
grazing lands to the notice of the capitalists. His 
political disabilities were removed by President 
Johnson, and in 1875 he was elected to the U. S. 
senate from West Virginia. He died in Washing- 
Ion, IX a, July 26, 1876. 



CAPPA, Carlo, Alberto, bandmaster, was born 
at Alessandria, Sardinia, Dec. 9, 1884, son of a 
major in the Sardinian army. He attended the 
Royal academy at Asti, 1844-'9 ; enlisted in the 
band of the 6th lancers and afterward in the 
U. S. navy, making a two years' cruise in the 
Congress, and becoming leader of the ship's band. 
He joined Kendall's band in 1858, and later Sliel- 
ton's New York band of which Grafulla wjis 
leader. He continued with Grafulla when lie 
became leader of tlie 7th regiment band 1860-'81, 
and succeeded him as leader in 1881 ; played first 
trombone in the Theodore Thomas orchestra 1869- 
'76; the euphonium with the Mapleson oi>era 
company, three years ; and with the Philharmonic 
society in New York and Brooklyn five years. 
He filled engagements in the principal cities in 
the United States and Canada as leader of the 
7th regiment band. He was knighted by the 
King of Italy and the Venezuelan government 
and received various medals. He died in New 
York city, Jan. 6, 1898. 

CAPRON, Adin Ballou, representative, was 
born in Mendon, Mass., Jan. 9, 1841 ; son of Car- 
lile W. and Abby (Bates) Capron. He was 
educated at Woonsocket high school and 8u!)se- 
quently attended Westbrook seminary, Maine. 
He enlisted as a sergeant in the 2d Rhode Island 
infantry in May, 1861, and was promoted succes- 
sively sergeant-major, July 11, 1861, lieutenant, 
September, 1861, and 1st lieutenant m the U.S. 
signal corps, March 3, 1868. He served through 
the war, and received the brevets of captain and 
major, lie was representative in the state legis- 
lature, 1887-'92 ; speaker of the house, 1891-92 ; 
and a Republican representative from Rhode 
Island in the 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th and 58th con- 
gresses, 1895-1905. 

CARDENAS, Luis PenalverV, first R. C' 
bishop of New Orleans, was bom in Havana, 
Cuba, April 8, 1749; son of Don Diego Pefialver 
and Maria Louisa de Cardenas. He entered the 
Jesuit college of St. Ignatius, in Havana, to pur- 
sue his theological course, and there remained 
until the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish 
dominions by Charles III. ; he then passed to the 
University of St. Jerome, where he obtained his 
doctor's degree in 1771, and in the same year was 
appointed vicar-general to the bishop of Santiar^o 
de Cuba. In 1793, when New Orleans was mac'e 
an independent see, he became its first bishop. 
The papal bulls appointing him bear date April 
25, 1798; he was consecrated at Havana in the 
same year, but did not take formal possession of 
his diocese until 1795. In 1802 he was trans- 
ferred to the see of Guatemala, where he was 
archbishop for four years, when he in 1806 re* 
turned to Havana, where he devoted himself to 
charitable works, and died July 17, 1810. 



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CARDOZO. 



CAREY. 



CARDOZO, Isaac Newton, journalist, was 
born in Savannaii, Ga., June 17, 1786. His par- 
ents removed in 17d4 to Charleston, S. C, where 
he received his education. In 1816 he became 
the editor of the Southern Patriot, a Charleston 
paper, of which he also became proprietor in 
1823. He sold this journal in 1845 and established 
the Evening News, on which he served for several 
years as commercial editor. He was a close stu- 
dent of political economy, and numerous articles 
from his pen on that ^subject appeared in various 
periodicals of the time. He was an able and 
enthusiastic advocate of free trade, and a fear- 
less opponent of the nullification movement. His 
Notes on Political Economy were published at 
Charleston in 1826. He was drown3d in James 
river, Va., Aug. 26, 1850. 

CAREY, Henry Charles, political economist, 
was bom in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 15, 1798; 

son of Matthew 
Carey, publisher. He 
was a bookseller in 
his father's store and 
was sent to New York 
to attend a trade-sale 
when only nine years 
old and when eleven 
hadchargeof abranch 
book- store carried on 
by his father in Balti- 
more. On Jan. 1, 
1817, he became a 
partner with his 
father as M. Carey & 
Son ; subsequently the 
firm became Carey, 
Lea & Blanchard. He retiree from business in 
1886 leaving Lea & Blanchai«t to continue the 
publishing business. In 1835 meeting with 
the lectures of Nassau W. Senior, and think- 
ing Senior in error, he published in refuta- 
tion his Essay on the Rate of Wages, This 
was followed in 1836 by The Harmony of 
Nature^ which when printed he found that he 
could not publish as a presentation of his then 
actual views, and the entire edition, with the 
exception of, perhaps, less tlian a dozen copies, 
was destroyed. His Principles of Political 
Economy was published between 1837 and 1840. 
The first volume, in which he promulgated his 
theory of value, immediately attracted the atten- 
tion of the economists of Europe, and especially 
of Professor Ferrara, of Turin, where the whole 
treatise was translated into Italian and published. 
The Credit System in FrancCy Great Britain , 
and the United States (1838), taken from the 
second volume, has been characterized as '* his 
masterly theory of the banking system.** Mr. 
Carey regarded the financial panic of 1837-42 as 




fU^f-:^ 



the result of Mr. Clay's compromise tariff act of 
1888, forced upon the country by the nullification 
movements of South Carolina. ** Up to this 
time," says Dr. Elder, ** Mr. Carey had been, as 
he supposed, a free trader; but, in the closing 
months of 1842, seeing the wonderful change 
effected by the protective tariff then in opera- 
tion, he became a practical protectionist and voted 
for Mr. Clay in 1844, but was still imable to rec- 
oncile protection with any economic theory. In 
1848 he published Pa»t, Present and Future, a 
book that marks an era in the history of political 
economy. He did an immense amount of almost 
continuous work in newspapers, magazines, pam- 
phlets and books from this time forward to the 
close of his life. In 1857, and again in 1859, Mr. 
Carey made extended tours in Europe, where he 
made the personal acquaintance of many of the 
eminent men of the time, including Humboldt, 
Liebig, Cavour, Count Sclopis, Professor Ferrara, 
Sir John Barnard Byles, J. Stuart Mill and others. 
In 1856 he assisted in the organization of the 
Republican part y, and was a member of the con- 
vention that nominated Fremont and Dayton. 
During the war he was repeatedly in consulta- 
tion with President Lincoln and Secretary Chase. 
For many years he was a member of the Wistar 
club, and in the winter of 1862-'63 he was one 
of the organizers and original members of the 
Union club, which superseded the Wistar 
parties, at the same time taking part in the 
organization of the Union league, which grew 
out of the Union club. In 1863 the honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the 
University of the city of New York. In his 
greatest work. Principles of Social Science 
(1858-*60), Mr. Carey places the crown upon his 
system in the demonstration of the fact of the 
over-mastering necessity of man's association 
with his fellow -men ; money he recognizes and 
treats as the instrtunent of association, and hence 
his determined opposition to, and condemnation 
of, the policy of resiunption of specie payments 
by contraction, and his urgent advocacy of the 
remonetization of the silver dollar in 1878. His 
last production, written within a year of his 
death, was entitled Repudiation : Past, Present, 
and Future, and was published in the Ptnn 
Monthly Magazine in 1879. His chief works have 
been translated into French, German, Italian, 
Swedish, Russian, Magyar, Japanese and Portu- 
guese. The complete copy of his works in all the 
different languages, bequeathed by him to the 
University of Pennsylvania, is comprised in 
forty-two volumes, mostly octavos. In 1854, at 
the conmiencement of the Crimean war, he put 
the New York TrUnme, to which he was then a 
constant contributor, into the attitude of siding 
with Russia, which indirectly resulted in Russia 



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CAREY. 



CARHART. 



siding with the United States government in the 
civil war. He was a member of the Sooi6t6 des 
economistes, Paris, of the American philosophi- 
cal society and of the Pennsylvania historical 
society, Philadelphia. Among his publications 
not before mentioned are: The Harmony of 
Interests (New York, 1852) ; The Slave-Trade, 
Domestic and Foreign : Why it Exists and How 
it may he Extinguished^ Letters on International 
Copyright (Philadelphia, 1853, 1868) ; Letters 
to the President on the Foreign and Domestic 
Policy of the Union, and its Effects as Exhibited 
in the Condition of the People and the States 
(1858) ; A Series of Letters on Political Economy 
(I860, and another in 1865) ; The Way to Chitdo 
England toithout Fighting her (1865) ; Revieto 
of the Decade 1857 to 1867 (1867) ; Revieto of 
Wdls' Report (1868); Shall tve have Peace f 
(1869) ; and The Unity of Law (1872). He died 
Oct. 13, 1879. 

CAREVy Joseph, clergyman, was bom in New 
York city, Dec. 28, 1839. He came of English and 
Scotch ancestry, his mother being a descendant 
of the (jbrdons of Aberdeen, Scotland. He was 
fitted for college at Newburgh academy, and 
was graduated at St. Stephen's college, An nan - 
dale, N. Y., in 1861, when he entered the general 
theological seminary of the P. E. church in New 
York city. He was ordained a deacon in October, 
1864, and a priest in the following February. He 
was rector of Grace church, Waterford; Christ 
church, Ballston Spa; and from 1873 of Bethesda 
church, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. He received the 
degree of S.T.D. from St. Stephen's college in 
1878. 

CARBYy Joseph M. » senator, was bom in 
Sussex county, Del., Jan. 19, 1845; son of Robert 
H. and Susan (Davis) Carey. Hfe was educated 
at the Fort Edward collegiate institute and at 
Union college. New York, and in 1867 finished his 
law course at the University of Pennsylvania. 
He was admitted to the bar and practised for 
two years in Philadelphia, removing in 1869 to 
Wyoming, where he was appointed U. S. district 
attorney for that territory. From 1871 to 1876 
he was associate judge of the Wyoming supreme 
court, and from 1872 to 1876 he was a member of 
the United States centennial conmiission. He 
was elected mayor of Cheyenne in 1881, and was 
twioe re-elected, serving until 1885, when he 
took his seat as territorial delegate in the 
49th Congress. He was re-elected delegate to 
the 50th and 51st congresses, and introduced the 
biU which admitted Wyoming as a state. On 
Nov. 15, 1890, he was elected to the U. S. senate 
as the first senator to represent the state in 
C3ongres8, his term of service expiring March 3. 
1895. In 1894 Union college conferred upon him 
the degree of LL.D. 



CAREY» Matthew, philanthropist, was bom 
in Ireland Jan. 28, 1760. He was liberally edu- 
cated, and at the age of fifteen he adopted the 
printer's trade, and two years later published 
an address to the Irish Catholics, which was so 
offensive to the authorities that, to escape arrest, 
he was obliged to fiee to France. He there met 
Benjamin Franklin, who befriended him and gave 
him such advice as infiuenced his entire subse- 
quent career. Returning to Ireland at the age 
of eighteen, he became a power, and contributed 
largely to the subsequent liberal legislation re- 
specting Ireland ; but for a violent attack upon 
the ministry, Mr. Carey was brought before parlia- 
ment and imprisoned until 1784. On his release 
he immigrated to the United States, landed in 
Philadelphia in November, 1784, and soon after- 
wards engaged in the publication of the Phila- 
delphia Herald and the American Museum, the 
latter a monthly magazine, which he continued 
through thirteen half-yearly volumes. He also 
wrote numerous pamphlets on the topics of the 
day, all of which had a marked influence on pub- 
lic opinion. In 1791 he opened, in connection 
with his printing business, a small book store, 
which gradually grew into one of the largest and 
most important publishing houses in the coimtry. 
Mr. Carey, in connection with Bishop White, 
organize^ the first Simday-school society that 
was formed in the United States, and he was, 
throughout his life, active in all public enter- 
prises that were calculated to promote the inter- 
ests of the city and state of his adoption. He set 
on foot the system of internal improvements that 
resulted in the construction of the Pennsylvania 
canals, and himself established many of the 
charitable institutions for which Philadelphia is 
so justly celebrated. His friend, John Sargeant, 
wrote of him: ** He has given more time, money 
and labor to the public than any man I am ac- 
quainted with, and in truth he has founded in 
Philadelphia a school of public spirit." He died 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 16, 1839. 

CARHART, Henry Smith, physicist, was bom 
in Coeymans, Albany county, N. Y., March 27, 
1844; son of Daniel S. and Margaret (Martin) 
Carhart. He supported himself at school by 
teaching, and was graduated at the Wesleyan 
university as valedictorian of the class of 1869, 
and then taught Latin in the Hudson river insti- 
tute, Claverack, N. Y., for two years. After 
one year spent at Yale he became instructor of 
civil engineering and physics at the Northwest- 
ern university, Evanston, HI. ; in 1873 he became^ 
professor of physics in the same institution. He 
served on the international jury of awards at the 
Paris electrical exhibition in 1881, and then pur- 
sued a course of study at the University of Ber- 
lin. He remained at the Northwestern university 



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CARHABT. 



CARLETON. 



until 1886, during which time a laboratory was 
erected and furnished with modem apparatus. 
In 1886 he accepted the chair of physics in 
the University of Michigan. He was elected 
a feUow of the American association for the 
advancement of science, a foreign member of 
the (London) institution of electrical engineers, 
and a fellow of the American institute of 
electrical engineers. He was one of the official 
dalogates chosen to represent the United States 
at the Chicago world's electrical congress, 
and was president of the board of judges of 
award for the department of electricity at the 
Columbian exposition in 1893. He was married 
in 1876 to Ellen M. Soul^. dean of the woman's 
college of the Northwestern university. He has 
published, besides numerous contributions to 
scientific and technical journals, Primary Bat- 
teries (1891) ; Elements of Physics (with H. N. 
Chute, 1893) ; University Physics Part /., Me- 
chanics, Sound, and Light (1894) ; Electrical 
Measurements (with Geo. W. Patterson, Jr., 1895), 
and University Physics, Part 11. , Heat, Elec- 
tHcity, and Magnetism (1896). 

C ARM ART, Jeremiah, inventor, was bom in 
Dutchess coimty, N. Y., in September, 1813. At 
the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to a cabinet- 
maker, and worked at his trade for some years. 
Between 1836 and 1846 he secured patents on 
several inventions, among them being the 
exhaustion bellows and tubular reed board, 
afterwards used in all reed instruments. In 
partnership with E. P. Needham, he began the 
manufacture of organs and melodeons at Buffalo, 
N. Y. , in 1846, and the firm, afterward removing 
to New York, enlarged its business to include the 
manufacture of several ingenious machines 
invented by Mr. Carhart, for use in making reeds 
and reed boards. He died in New York city, 
Aug. 16, 1868. 

CARLETON, Henry (born Coxe), jurist, was 
born in Virginia in 1785. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1806, after which he went to Mississippi, 
where he was engaged in various occupations 
until 1814, when he removed to New Orleans, La. 
He served as a lieutenant of infantry imder Gen- 
eral Jackson in the 1814-'15 campaign, which 
resulted in the capture of New Oi leans, and after 
the war he engaged in the practice of law. He 
was United States attorney for the eastern dis- 
trict of Louisiana, and judge of the supreme 
court of the same state in 1832-^39. He then 
travelled extensively, and finally settled in Phila- 
delphia, where he engaged in biblical and meta- 
physical studies. He was a stanch supporter of 
the Union during the civil war, notwithstanding 
his property in the south. He was twice mar- 
ried; first, to Mile. d'Avezac de Castera, and after 
her death to Miss Vanderburgh. He was the 



author of Liberty and Necessity (1857), of an 
Essay on the Mill (1863), and, in collaboration 
with Mr. L. Moreau, of a translation of such por- 
tions of Las Siete Partidas, a celebrated Spanish 
code of law, as obtained in Louisiana. He died 
in Phikidelphia, Pa., March 28, 1863. 

CARLETON, Henry Guy, playwright, was 
born at Fort Union, New Mexico, June 21, 1855. 
He was graduate from Santa Clara college, San 
Francisco, Cal., and, removing to New Orleans 
in 1876, began writing acceptable verses, stories 
and sketches. In 1881 he wrote his first play, 
Memnon, an Egyptian tragedy, which was pur- 
chased for five thousand dollars by John Mc- 
Cullough, who regarded it as one of the best 
tragedies produced since Shakespeare's time, 
but did not present it. In 1882 Carleton re- 
moved to New York city, and in 1883 became 
editor of Life. He resigned in 1884, to devote his 
entire attention to dramatic authorship. In that 
year he produced Victor Durand, a society 
drama. Then followed The Pembertons, and, 
in 1889, The Lion's Mouth, played over five 
hundred times by Frederick Warde. Ye Earlie 
Trouble, The Princess Erie, and TJie Gilded Fool 
met with pronounced success. In 1892 he wrote 
A Bit of Scandal, and in 1893 The Butterflies, 
In 1894 Lem Kettle was brought out in New 
York, and Ambition, a political comedy, was 
written. 

CARLETON, James Henry, soldier, was bom 
in Maine in 1814. He took part in the * * Aroostook 
war," which arose from a dispute in regard to the 
northeastern boundary of the United States, and 
in 1839 received a commission as 2d lieutenant of 
the 1st U. S. dragoons. March 17, 1845, he was 
promoted 1st lieutenant and assigned to conunis- 
sary duty in Kearny's expedition to the Rocky 
mountains in 1846. He served in the Mexican 
war, was promoted to a captaincy in 1847, and 
obtained the brevet rank of major for his ser- 
vices at Buena Vista. He was employed in ex- 
ploring, and in keeping the Indians in check, and 
in 1861 was advanced to the rank of major and 
ordered to California in command of the 6th 
cavalry. In 1862 he raised and organized the 
'* California Column,*' and conducted it to Mesilla 
on the Rio Grande. He was made commander of 
the department of New Mexico with the rank of 
brigadier-general of volunteers. In March, 1865, 
he was promoted brigadier -general of the regular 
army, passing the intermediary ranks by brevet, 
for his services in New Mexico; and for his 
gallantry during the civil war was brevetted 
major-general, U. S. A. He was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel 4th cavalry, July 31, 1866; colonel 
of 2d cavalry, June 1870, and ordered to Texas. 
He published The Battle of Buena Vista (1848). 
He died in San Antonio, Texas, Jan. 7, 1873. 



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CARLETON. 



CARUSLE. 



CARLBTON, Will, author* was born at Hud- 
son, Lenawee county, Mich., Oct. 21, 1845. He 
was graduated from Hillsdale college in 1869, and 
entered the journalistic field, first in Chicago, 
and later in Brooklyn, N. Y. He became well 
known as a lecturer in the United States, 
Canada, and Great Britain. His first and most 
noted poem, Betsy and I are Out, was sent 
anonymously to the Toledo Blade in 1871 ; its 
authorship being afterwards claimed by another. 
His publications are Poems: (1871) ; Farm Bal- 
lads (1873) ; Farm Legends (1875) ; Young 
Folks' Centennial Rhymes (1876) ; Farm Fes- 
tivcds (1881); Oeraldine: a Romance in Verse 
(1881) ; City Ballads (1880) ; City Legends (1890); 
and City Festivals (1892) ; The Old Infant and 
similar stories (1896) ; Young Folks Centennial 
Rhymes, 

CARLlLEt John Snyder, senator, was born in 
Winchester, Va., Dec. 16, 1817. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1840, and practised his profession at 
Beverley, Va. He was a member of the state 
senate from 1847 to 1851 ; was a delegate in 1850 
to the state constitutional convention. He was 
elected as a representative to the d4th Congress 
by the Unionist party, of which he was a promi- 
nent member. In 1861, as a member of the 
Virginia convention, he persistently opposed 
secession, and after the passage of the secession 
ordnance he became a leader of the Unionists in 
Virginia. Later he was a delegate to the Wheel- 
ing convention. He was elected as a representa- 
tive to the 87th dJongress, but served in the house 
for a few days only, being elected to the U. S. 
senate, to succeed R. M. T. Hunter, where he 
served throughout the 37th and 88th congresses. 
He died in Clarksburg, W. Va., Ckjt. 24, 1878. 

CARLIN, John, painter, was bom in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., June 15, 1818, a deaf mute. He 
entered the Pennsylvania institute for the deaf 
and dumb in 1821, and was graduated in 1825, 
after which he studied art in Philadelphia. In 
188S-*34 he studied drawing in New York city 
under J. R. Smith, and portrait painting under 
John Neagle. He went to London in 1838, and 
studied the antique in the British museimi. 
Thence he went to Paris and became a pupil of 
Paul Delaroche. In 1841 he made his permanent 
residence in New York city, devoting his time 
to miniature painting and afterwards to genre 
subjects and landscapes. He also won some 
success as a magazine writer. Among his paint- 
ings : The Flight into Egypt, Red Riding 
Hood, Pulpit Rock, Nahant, The Village Gos- 
sips (1880) ; The Twin Grandchildren (1881) • 
Old and Young (1882) ; Solid ComfoH (1884), 
and The Grandfather's Story (1885), were sent 
to the exhibitions of the artists* fund society, 
and An Autumn Afternoon (1871) ; A View 



of Trenton Falls (1873) ; The ToU-Gate (1876) ; 
After Work (1878), and The Orphaned Grand- 
child (1886), were exhibited at the National 
academy of design. He died in New York city, 
April 23. 1891. 

CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, was 
bom in Greene county, HI., Nov. 24, 1829. He 
was graduated at West Point with the rank of 
brevet 2d lieutenant of infantry in 1850, and 
assigned to duty at Fort SneUing, Minn. He 
was in active service during the Sioux expedition, 
and also in the Cheyenne and Utah campaigns, 
as 1st lieutenant, which rank he received in 
March, 1855. In 1858 he marched to California, 
where he remained in service for two years. In 
1861 he received the rank of captain, and entered 
the volunteer service as colonel of the 88th niinois 
volunteers. He was present at the defeat of G^en. 
Jeff Thompson at Frederickton, Mo., after which 
he commanded the district of southeastern Mis- 
souri. In October, 1862, he won, at Perryville, 
Ky., the promotion to brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. He took part in the Tullahoma campaign, 
and the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain and Missionary Ridge. In November, 1863, 
he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for distin- 
guished service at Chattanooga; and in February, 
1864. as major of the 16th United States infantry, 
was engaged in the Georgia campaign and at 
the surrender of Atlanta. On Sept. 1, 1864, at 
Jonesboro, Georgia, he won the brevet of colonel 
in the regular army; and for his faithful and 
efficient service in the march to the sea, the sur- 
render of Savannah, and the invasion of the 
Carolinas, he was made, in March, 1865, brevet 
major-general U. S. volunteers, and in the same 
month received the rank of brevet brigadier- 
general U. S. army. At the close of the war he 
was brevetted major-general of the regular army. 
He left the volimteer service in August, 1865, 
and was engaged in frontier duty during the 
Indian troubles, and in April, 1882, was made 
colonel. He was retired as brigadier-general, 
1893. He died on a train in Montana, Oct. 4, 1903. 

CARLISLE, James Henry, educator, was 
born in Winnsboro, S.C, May 4, 1825 ; son of Wil- 
liam and Mary Amy (Buchanan) Carlisle, and 
grandson of James and Mary Carlisle, who emi- 
grated from Ireland in 1820. He was graduated 
from South Carolina College in 1844, and became 
professor of mathematics at Wofford college, 
Spartanburg, S.C, in 1854, and was president, 
1875-1902. He received the degree of LL.D. 
from Southwestern university in 1868, and is the 
author of the Lives of Ascham and Arnold (1886). 
The Young Astronomer (1890). 

CARLISLE, James fl., educator, was born in 
Coffee county, Tenn., May 11, 1851, son of James 
M. and May (Bird) Carlisle. He was educated 



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CARLISLE. 



CARLL. 



at Cumberland university ; graduated at Beech 
Grove college, Tennessee, A.B., 1876, and was 
professor of mathematics in that institution, 
1876-78. He had charge of an academy in Lincoln 
county, Tenn., for a short time and then removed 
to Texas, where he became principal of a private 
normal school at Whitesboro. He occupied this 
position for more than seven years, and in 1887 
was elected superintendent of the Corsicana city 
schools. He was elected in 1890 superintendent 
of Fort Worth city schools and in 1891 was chosen 
superintendent of public instruction for the state 
of Texas, and successively re-elected by popular 
vote to that position. 

CARLISLE, John Qrlffin, statesman, was 
bom in Campbell (now Kenton) county, Ky., 
Sept. 5, 1885. He was the son of a farmer, was 
educated at the common school and for a time 
employed himself with farm work and in teach- 
ing school at Covington. He was admitted to the 

bar in March, 1858, 
and within two years 
he acquired a large 
practice. During 
185a-'61 he was a 
member of the state 
house of representa- 
tives. In 1864 he 
was nominated for 
presidential elector 
on the Democratic 
ticket but declined 
to nm. He was elec- 
ted to the state sen- 
ate in 1867 and again 
in 1869. He served 
as a delegate-at large 
from Kentucky to 
the national Democratic convention at New 
York, in July, 1868. In June, 1871, he resigned 
his seat in the state senate, and was elected lieu- 
tenant-governor of Kentucky, serving until 1875. 
In 1876 he was chosen alternate presidential elec- 
tor for the state and the same year was elected a 
representative to the 45th Congress, being re- 
elected to every succeeding Congress up to and in- 
cluding the 51st. He immediately acquired 
prominence as a legislator, and made a notable 
speech on revenue reform in which policy, as well 
as in the revival of American shipping, he was 
greatly interested. The Carlisle internal rev- 
enue bill, introduced in the house during the 46th 
Congress, made him the recognized leader of the 
Democratic party on the tariff question. He was 
elected speaker of the house of representatives 
upon the assembling of the 48th Congress, Dec. 8, 
1888, over Samuel J. Randall, and served during 
the 48th, 49th and 50th congresses. He obtained 
the respect of the house by the impartial manner 




V' ^0^.^*6^ 



in which he performed his duties in the midst of 
much confusion and opposition, and he became 
an authority on parliamentary law. He was an 
advocate of tariff for revenue, though in no sens^ 
a free-trader, and he successfully headed the 
several campaigns against the Republican party 
on the issue of protection. He was elected to 
the United States senate as a Democrat, to fill 
the unexpired term of James B. Beck, deceased, 
and took his seat May 26, 1890. He resigned his 
seat in March, 1898, oh his appointment as secre- 
tary of the treasury in President Cleveland's 
cabinet, and entered upon the duties of his office 
March 7, 1898. In February, 1895, the depletion 
of the gold reserve made it necessary for the 
government to issue $62,800,000 worth of thirty- 
four-year 4 percent bonds, and through Mr. Car- 
lisle an arrangement was made with a syndicate 
of New York bankers to take the whole loan at 
104i. The bonds were soon after quoted on the 
market at 118, which result greatly alarmed the 
people as to the wisdom of the financial policy of 
the administration, and when in 1896 it was 
announced that there would be another issue of 
bonds to supply a further necessity for gold, and 
that Mr. Carlisle intended to again sell the bonds 
to the New York syndicate, the public journals 
took up the matter and demonstrated that the 
people could be depended on to take all the issue 
if they were permitted to do so. This led the 
government to invite a popular subscription to 
the loan, which resulted in establishing a much 
higher market price and called from the same 
syndicate a bid by which they bought the larger 
part of the issue at 110.6877, a saving to the coun- 
try of $20,000,000, principal, and accruing interest 
for thirty years. Mr. Carlisle in this seeemingly 
unbusiness-like transaction was severely criti- 
cised and the majority of his party repudiated 
his action. He retired from the cabinet in 
March, 1897, and resumed the practice of his 
profession in New York city. 

CARLL, John Franklin, civil engineer, was 
bom in Bushwick, Long Island, N. Y., May 7, 1828. 
He was educated at the Union Hall academy at 
Flushing, N. Y., and in 1849 purchased an interest 
in the Newark Eagle, of which he was associate 
editor. In 1858 he abandoned journalism and be- 
came a civil engineer and land surveyor in Flush- 
ing, N. Y. He removed to Pleasantville, Pa., in 
1864, and remained there ten years, engaged in 
the oil industry. Meanwhile he produced several 
valuable inventions for developing oil, including 
a static pressure sand piimp, and an adjustable 
sleeve for piston rods. As a member of the Penn- 
sylvania geological survey he contributed several 
papers descriptive of petroleiim districts to the 
annual reports of 1874-*85, known as I (1874) ; 1* 
(1877) : V (1880) ; I* (1888), and I» (1885). 



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CARMACK. 



CARNEGIE. 



CARMACK, Edward Ward, representative, 
was born near Castalian Spiings, Tenn., Nov. 5, 
1858 ; son of F. M. and Catherine Car mack, and 
grandson of Cornelius Carmack. He attended 
Webb's school, Tenn., and Jacinto academy, 
Miss., was admitted to tlie bar in 1879 and prac- 
tised in Columbia, Tenn. He was a Democratic 
representative in the state legislature, 1884; 
joined the editorial staff of the Nashville Amer- 
ican in 1886 ; founded the Nashville Democrat 
in 1888 ; became editor-in-chief when the two 
I^apers were combined under the name of the 
Nashville American^ and was subsequently edi- 
tor of the Memphis Commercial, He was dele- 
gate for the state at large to the Democratic 
national convention in 1896, and was a repre- 
sentative from the tenth Tennessee district in 
the 55th and 56th congresses, 1897-1901, and U.S. 
senator, 1901-'07. 

CARMALT, William H., educator, was born 
at Friendsville, Pa., Aug. 3, 1836, son of a Quaker. 
He studied medicine at the Boylston preparatory 
school, Cambridge, Mass., and at the College of 
physicians and surgeons, New York, ia57-'61 ; 
served as interne in St. Luke's hospital. New York, 
in 1868, and engaged in practice in that city in 
1863. He was assistant surgeon and surgeon to 
the New York eye and ear infirmary ; visiting 
ophthalmic surgeon to the Charity hospital and an 
assistant commissioner to the New York state 
agricultural society in 1867 to investigate the 
dairy cows of the state. In 1870, desiring to 
make some especial studies in pathological an- 
atomy, he went to Europe, and after four years 
spent in Vienna, Breslau, Strasburg, and Paris, 
returned to the United States, and in the winter 
of 1876 was appointed to teach ophthalmology in 
the medical department of Yale college. In 1879 
he was made professor of ophthalmology and otol- 
ogy, and in 1881 was transferred to the chair of 
the principles and practice of surgery. 

CARMAN, Bliss, journalist, was bom at Fred- 
ericton. New Brunswick, April 15, 1861 ; son of 
William and Sophia (Bliss) Carman. He giad- 
uated from the University of New Brunswick, 
in 1881, and until 1888 studied at Edinburgh 
and Harvard. For a time he taught school, 
read law, and studied civil engineering. In 
1890 he went to New York city, where, until 
1893, he was office editor of the Independent. 
In 1894 he started the Chap-Book, and con- 
ducted it for a few months, disposing of his 
interest in the paper at the end of that time. 
His published writings include: Low Tide 07i 
the Grande Pri (1893, 2d ed., 1894) ; Songs from 
Vagabondia with Richard Hovey (1894) ; A 
Seamark: a Threnody for Robert Louis Steven- 
son (1895) ; Behind the Arras (1895); More Songs 
From Vagabondia, with Mr. Hovey (1897). 



CARMICHAEL, Henry, chemist, was bom m 
Brooklyn, N. Y., March 5, 1846, son of Daniel and 
Eliza (Otis) Carmichael. He was prepared for 
college at the academy and high school of Am- 
herst, Mass., and was graduated at Amherst col' 
lege in 1867. He studied chemistry, mineralogy, 
and geology at the University of Qottingen, (Ger- 
many, from 1868 to 1873, receiving in the latter 
year the degree of Ph. D., and the highest rank 
in his class. In 1872 he was professor of chemis- 
try in Iowa college, Grinnell, Iowa, and from 
1872 to 1886 was professor of chemistry and 
allied sciences in Bowdoin college, at the same 
time teaching in the Maine medical school, and 
holding the position of assayer for the state of 
Maine. While at Bowdoin he invented ** indur- 
ated fibre'' which came into wide use in thd 
manufacture of pails, tubs, and other fibre ware. 
In 1886 he removed to Boston, where he practised 
as an analytical chemist and chemical engineer, 
inventing several new processes of great value. 
He succeeded in converting common salt into 
chlorine by electricity, thus reducing the expense 
of the process. 

CARMICHAEL, William, diplomatist, was 
born in Maryland, where he acquired a classical 
education. He went to Paris as secretary to the 
commissioners of the American states, Nov. 28, 
1777, and on his return home was elected a dele- 
gate from Maryland to the (Continental Congress, 
for the term 177a-'80. On Sept. 28, 1779, he went 
to Spain as secretary of legation, and on April 20, 
1790, was appointed chargi d' affaires, servmg 
until May, 1794. While holding this office he 
attempted to negotiate jointly with William 
Short, a treaty concerning the free navigation of 
the Missisfflppi river, but was unsuccessful. He 
died in Maryland in February, 1795. 

CARNAHAN, James, educator, was bom in 
Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 15, 1775. He was graduated 
from the college of New Jersey in 1800, and was 
licensed to preach in April, 1804. In 1805 he was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, and offi- 
ciated as pastor of the united churches of Whites- 
boro and Utica, N. Y., until 1814. From 1814 to 
1823 he taught a school at Georgetown, D. C. 
From 1823 to 1854 he was president of the <Ik>llege 
of New Jersey, being the ninth in succession. 
In 1848 he was made president of the board of 
trustees of the Princeton theological seminary. 
Hamilton college conferred on him the degree of 
S.T.D. in 1821, and Princeton, that of LL.D. in 
1K54. Upon his retirement from the presidency 
of the college he was made a trustee. He died at 
Newark, N. J., March 2, 1859. 

CARNEQIE, Andrew, manufacturer, was bom 
in Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25. 1835; son of 
William Carnegie. His father immigrated to 
the United States in 1847, and, after a short stay 



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CARNEGIE. 



CARPENTER. 



in Allegheny, Pa., settled in Pittsburg. In Alle- 
gheny young Andrew was employed in a cotton 
factory, and when the family removed to Pitts- 
burgh he became a stoker. Shortly afterwards 

he was em- 




CARNKCic rnee LiftitAKY.AiLiCHANv.raNN. 



ployed by the 
Ohio telegraph 
company as 
messenger, and 
soon rose to 
the position of 
an operator, 
then a clerk, 
and later the 
confidential 
clerk of the 
superintendent and manager of the telegraph 
lines. When an operator for the Ohio com- 
pany his spare time was employed by the Penn- 
sylvania railroad company, and in their office 
he mastered the details of train despatch- 
ing. This led to his subsequent appointment to 
the position of superintendent of the western 
division of the Pennsylvania railroad. At this 
time he became associated with Mr. Woodruff, 
inventor^ of the sleeping car, and in this venture 
obtained the nucleus of his fortune. He next 
joined the syndicate which purchased the Storey 
farm on Oil Creek for forty thousand dollars, and 
in one year the company made from its oil wells 
over one million dollars. A rolling mill was his 
next investment, and he added steadily to his 
poanessions until he became master of the largest 
and most complete system of iron and steel in 
dustries in the world. The relations existing 
between Mr. Carnegie and the thousands of work • 
men in his employ were the subject of much inter- 
est to the public. He adopted at several works, 
the plan of paying the men on a sliding scale, 
based on production. In 1881 he offered to donate 
^250,000 for a free library in Pittsburgh, on the 
condition that the city would appropriate $15,000 
annually for its maintenance. The gift was 
accepted in 1887, and in 1890 he notified the 
mayor that he would increase the amount to 
$1,000,000, to provide more extensive buildings 
which would contain reference and circulating 
libraries, accommodations for the exhibition of 
works of art, assembly rooms for scientific socie- 
ties, and branch libraries, conditioned on the 
city increasing its appropriation to $40,000 an- 
nually. The gift was accepted in 1890, and was 
afterwards increased by $100,000. In 1895 he 
endowed the art gallery with $1,000,000, the in- 
terest to be used for the purchase of works of 
art. In 1890 Mr. Carnegie gave $300,000 to 
Allegheny for a public library. He gave his 
employees at Braddock, Pa., a library of 10.000 
volumes in 1889, and a building in 1894. He ex- 



pended several million dollars in free public 
libraries in the United States and Scotland, and 
received the degree LL.D. from Glasgow in 1901. 
He published An American Four-in-Hand in 
Britain (1883) ; Bound the World (1884), Trir 
umphant Democracy (1886). 

CARNOCHAN, John Murray, surgeon, was 
bom in Savannah, Qa., July 4, 1817. He was 
educated at the University of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, and studied medicine under Dr. Valentine 
Mott, a distinguished New York physician. He 
decided to devote his attention entirely to sur- 
gery, and in view of this he again visited Europe, 
studying at several of the large European hos- 
pitals. Returning to the United States in 1847, 
he began to practise in New York, and soon won 
a wide reputation as a skilful surgeon, perform- 
ing many remarkable operations which had not 
hitherto been attempted. He was professor of 
surgery at the New York medical college, and 
was surgeon-in-chief of the state inmiigrant hos- 
pital. Among his publications are : Elephan- 
tiasis Arabiim Successfully Treated by Ligature 
of the Femoral Artery: A Treatise on the 
Etiology, Pathology, and Treatment of Vie Con- 
genital Dislocations of the Head of the Femur 
(1850) ; Address on the Study of Science (1857) ; 
A Case of Exsection of tlie Entire Os Calcis 
(1857) ; and Contributions to Operative Surgery 
and Surgical Pathology (1877-'86). He died in 
New York city, Oct. 28, 1887. 

CARPENTER, Benjamin, patriot, was bom at 
Swansea, Mass., May 17, 1725; soti of Edward 
and Elizabeth (Wilson) Carpenter. He removed 
in early life to Rhode Island, where he was a 
magistrate in 1744, and where he was married, 
Oct. 3, 1745, to Annie, daughter of Abial and Pru- 
dence Carpenter. He settled in Guilford, Vt., in 
1770, and was the first delegate from that town 
to a Vermont convention. He was a member of 
the Westminster convention in 1775, of the Dorset 
and Westminster conventions in 1776, and of the 
Windsor convention, which framed the constitu- 
tion of the state. In 1776 he was chairman of the 
Cumberland coimty committee of safety, and was 
made lieutenant-colonel of militia. In 1779 he 
was elected lieutenant-governor of the new state, 
and was re-elected the following year. He was 
a member of the council of censors in 1783. He 
died at Guilford. Vt, March 29, 1804. 

CARPENTER. Charles C. naval officer, was 
born in Leyden, Mass., Feb. 27, 1834; son of David 
N. and Maria P. (Newcomb) Carpenter. He was 
appointed midshipman from Massachusetts, Oct. 
1. 1850, and from ia51 to 1855 was attached to the 
sloop Portsmouth of the Pacific squadron. Dur- 
ing 1855-'56 he was at the naval academy, and 
June 20, 1856, he was promoted passed midship* 
man. Until 1858 he was with the home squadron 



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CARPENTER. 



CARPENTER 



He was promoted lieutenant, Jan. 23, 1858; 
served on the Mohawk off Cuba, 1859-'60, and on 
the Flag and the Catskill of the South Atlantic 
squadron, 1862-'6d ; participating in the attacks 
on Charleston, S.C. He was promoted Ueutenant 
commander, July 16, 1862 ; served at the naval 
academy, 1864-'65 ; on the flagship Hartford of 
the Asiatic squadron, 1866-'67, and commanded the 
Wyoming 1868. He was stationed at the Navy 
Yard, Portsmouth, N.H., 1868-*69, and in 1871 ; was 
promoted commander in March, 1869 ; served on 
the North Atlantic squadron, 1871-73 and 1875 76, 
and was promoted captain March 25, 1 880. He was 
at the Boston navy yard 1880-'2 : commanded the 
Hartford 1882-'4 ; the receiving ship Wabash 1888- 
'90, and the Portsmouth navy yard 1890-'94. He 
was promoted commodore, May 15, 1893 ; rear ad- 
miral 1894 ; commanded the Asiatic squadron 
1894-'96, and was retired, Feb. 27, 1896. During 
the Spanish- American war he served as command- 
ant of the Portsmouth navy yard. He committed 
suicide at Jamaica Plain, Mass., April 2, 1899. 

CARPENTER, Cyrus C, governor of Iowa, was 
born in Susquehanna county, Pa., in 1829. He 
attended a district school and apprenticed himself 
to a tailor. He later removed to Iowa, where he 
engaged in surveying government lands, and was 
teacher of the first school at Fort Dodge, Iowa. 
He then became land agent, and was elected a 
representative in the state legislature in 1858. 
He served as commissary of subsistence in the 
Civil war, and attained the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He was elected register of tlie state land 
office in 1866 and 1868 and was governor of Iowa, 
1872-76. He died at Fort Dodge, May 29, 1898. 

CARPENTER* Ellen M., artist, was bom at 
Killingly, Conn., Nov. 28, 1836; daughter of 
Oliver and Amy (Smith) Carpenter. She com- 
menced her art education under the tutelage of 
Thomas Eld wards of Worcester, Mass., in 1858. 
Later she attended the classes at the Lowell insti- 
tute, and in 1867 went to Paris to continue her 
studies. On her return to the United States she 
opened a studio in Boston, where she became 
noted as a teacher. In 1873 she accompanied 
some of her students on a Europeaif tour for the 
purpose of sketching. In 1878 she studied figure 
painting under Gusson in Berlin, and under 
Julien and Carlo Rossi in Paris. Among her 
commissions were several portraits for Masonic 
hall, Boston, Mass. In 1890 she visited Exurope, 
having received commissions to copy The Imr 
maculate Conception and The Holy Family by 
Murillo, and several of the noted paintings in the 
Luxembourg. She visited Algiers in the same 
year, where she made sketclies of eastern scenes, 
and later went to Spain, where she painted bits 
from the interior of the Alhambra and from the 
palaoe in Seville. 



CARPENTER, Francis Bicknell, painter, was 
born at Homer, Cortland county, N. Y., Aug. d 
1830; son of Asaph H. Carpenter and grandson oi 
Noah Carpenter, a nephew of Ethan Allen. He 
early evinced a talent for drawing, which he 
persistently cultivated in the face of his father's 
opposition. For five months he was a pupil of 
Sanford Thayer of Syracuse, N. Y., and, return- 
ing to Homer, he opened his first studio in 1846, 
where he painted many portraits. In 1847 he 
sent an ideal female head, entitled ** The Jew- 
ess,*' to the exhibition of the American art 
union of New York city, which was purchased 
by the union. In May, 1851, he removed to New 
York, and his first important work in that city 
was a full-length portrait of David Leavitt, presi- 
dent of the American exchange bank, which was 
exhibited at the National academy of design in 
1852, and the young artist was elected an associ- 
ate academician. His portraits of Presidents 
Fillmore and Pierce, and of Ex-President Tyler 
brought him into propiinence. The year 1855 he 
spent in Washington, where he painted Cass, 
Marcy, Seward, Chase, Houston and Cushing. 
On his return to New York, eminent people from 
all parts of the country fiocked to his studio; 
some of the more prominent of those whose 
portraits he painted were Charles Sumner, Henry 
Ward and Lyman Beecher, Schuyler Colfax, 
James Russell Lowell and Ezra Cornell In 1864 
Mr. Carpenter was invited by President Lincoln 
to the White House to paint the historic group, 
Tlie First Reading of the Emancipation Procla- 
mation^ which was afterwards placed at the 
head of the stairway in the national oapitol, a 
gift to the government from Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thompson. In 1871 he commenced, and in 1891 he 
completed, 1i is second liistorical composition, the 
First Intermitional Court of Arbitration^ which 
hangs in Windsor castle, a gift to Queen Victoria 
from the women of America, through the bene- 
ficence of Mrs. Wm. W. Carson. In 1874 he com- 
pleted a full-length portrait of Lincoln for the 
capitol at Albany, and in 1885 painted a portrait 
of President Garfield, which was presented to 
Dartmouth college by H. C. Bullard of New York. 
His portrait of President Lincoln, the original 
study from which the face in the emancipation 
group was painted, is the acxiepted portrait of the 
great emancipator. Mr. Carpenter published 
** Six Months in the White House with Abraham 
Lincoln" (1886). He died in New York city, 
May 2:5, 1901. 

CARPENTER, Frank Qeorge, journalist, was 
born at Mansfield, Ohio, in 1865 ; son of George 
Frank and Jeanne tte (Reid) Carpenter. He was 
graduated at the University of Wooster (Ohio) 
in 1877, and in 1878 became the legislative cor- 
respondent of the Cleveland Leader at Columbus. 



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CARPENTER. 



CARPENTER. 



In 1881 he travelled extensively in Europe and 
Egypt, and in 1882 went to Washington, D. C, 
as correspondent of the Cleveland Leader, 
Shortly after this he became connected with the 
American press association and the New York 
World, In 1888 he organized a combination of 
twelve leading journals for which he was to fur- 
nish one letter per week during a trip around the 
globe. He spent the years of 1888 and 1889 in 
Asia ; returning to Washington, he next made a 
tour of Mexico for his combination of news- 
papers, and following this went to Russia to write 
up the great famine there. In 1894 he again 
visited Asia, sailing from America with the 
avowed object of travelling twenty-five thou- 
sand miles for twenty-five letters, and having 
what is perhaps one of the biggest newspaper 
assignments ever made. He spent 1898 in South 
America, and 1900 in the Philippines, China, 
Australia, New Zealand and Java. He became 
especially noted as an interviewer, having pub- 
lished interviews with the most famous of Amer- 
icans, and such foreigners as the King of Corea, 
the King of Greece, the Khedive of Egypt, Prince 
Otto Von Bismarck, and others. He is the 
author of South America : Social, Indiuttrial 
and Political (1900), and of other books of 
travel. 

CARPENTER, Qeorge Moulton, jurist, was 
bom at Portsmouth, R. I., April 22, 1844; son of 
€^eo^ge and Sarah (Lewis) Carpenter. At an 
early age he removed to New Bedford, Mass., 
where he attended the common schools. He was 
graduated at Brown university in 1864, and was 
admitted to the Rhode Island bar in 1867. He 
established himself in Providence, R. I., and in 
1880 was appointed a commissioner for the revi- 
sion of the public laws of the state. He was 
elected associate justice of the supreme court of 
Rhode Island in 1882, and resigned in 1885 to be- 
come U. S. district judge for the district of 
Rhode Island. He was a 33d degree Mason ; first 
vice-president of the Rhode Island historical 
society, and president of the Providence art as- 
sociation, the Providence art institute, and of the 
Providence homoeopathic dispensary. He died at 
Katwyk, Holland, July 31, 1896. 

CARPENTER, George O., merchant, was bom 
near Copp's Hill, Boston, Dec. 26, 1827, son of 
George and Mary Bently (Oliver) Carpenter. 
He attended the Eliot school and had one year 
at the English high school. He served in several 
business houses in various capacities, and in 1847 
became connected with the firm of Pratt, Rodgers 
& Co. ; in 1849 he was made a partner, and two 
years later the firm name was changed to Banker 
& Carpenter ; in 1864 the style was again changed, 
to Carpenter, Banker & Morton, and in 1893 was 
incorporated under the title of the Carpenter- 




I^rton Company, with Mr. Carpenter as presi- 
dent. In 1876-'77 he was president of the Boston 
fire underwriters union; was vice-president of 
the Home savings bank; for forty years a di- 
rector of the national bank of South Reading, and 
for twenty-five years a director in the Eliot na- 
tional bank. He held various municipal and 
local offices, and belonged to many social organi- 
sations. He was married in 1850 to Josephine 
Eknerson, and left two sons, George O. and Fred- 
erick B. He died in Boston, Mass., Dec. 26, 1896. 

CARPENTER, Qeorge Thomas* educator, was 
born in Nelson county, Ky., March 4, 1834. In 
1842 he was taken to Bureau county, HI, where 
his early education was acquired. He was pre- 
pared for college in the Princeton academy, 
where he supported himself by manual labor* 
He taught school 
until 1855, when he 
entered Abingdon 
college, and was 
graduated with 
valedictory honors 
in 1859. He re- 
moved to Iowa, 
where he was large- 
ly instrumental in 
establishing Oska- 
loosa college, with 
which he was con- 
nected during 
twenty years. In /^y/Jt • ^— 
1873 he was ap- -*&«a«</t^^*<^ . 
pointed a United 

States honorary conmdissioner to the World's fair 
at Vienna, Austria. For several years he was 
editor-in-chief of the Christian Evangelist, and 
in 1879 declined the nomination for governor of 
Iowa on the Prohibition ticket. In 1881 he 
aided in founding Drake university in Des Moine><, 
Iowa, and was elected its chancellor. Under his 
management the university greatly prospered. 
He died at Des Moines, Iowa, July 29. 1893. 

CARPENTER, Qeorge W., scientist, was born 
in G^ermantown, Pa., July 31, 1802. He engaged 
in commerce, in which he was very successful, 
and employed his leisure in scientific pursuits. 
He attained celebrity as a geologist, was for 
thirty-six years treasurer of the Academy of 
natural sciences in Philadelphia, and a member 
of nimierous scientific societies in the United 
States and Europe. His more important publica- 
tions are : Experiments and Remarks on Sev- 
eral Species and Varieties of Cinchona Bark 
(1825) ; Observations and Experiments on 
Opium (1828) ; Remarks on the Use of Piper- 
ine (1828) ; Ow the Mineralogy of Chester county, 
with an Account of some Minerals of Dela- 
loare, Maryland, and other localities (1828) ; 









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CARPENTER. 



CARPENTER. 



Cbservationa on the Inefflciency of the Cathar- 
tic Poxoer of Bhubarbarint (1828) ; On the 
Muriate of Soda or Common Salt, with an ac- 
<x>unt of the Salt Springs of the United States 
(1829) ; Observations and Experiments on Peru- 
vian Bark (1829) ; Observations on a new 
variety of Peruvian Bark (1831) ; Tlie Vesicat- 
ing principle of Cantharides (1832), and Notice 
of New Medical Preparations (1832). He died in 
Oermantown, Pa., June 7, 1860. 

CARPENTER, Louis Qeors:e, educator, was 
born at Orion, Mich., March 28, 1861 ; son of 
Cliarles Ketclium Carpenter. In 1879 he was 
graduated at the Michigan agricultural college ; 
studied at Johns Hopkins university, 1879-*81, 
and from 1881 to 1883 was a student in the 
literary department of the University of Michi- 
gan. He received the degree of M.S. from the 
Michigan agricultural college in 1883, and was 
for several years a teacher of mathematics in 
that institution. In 1888 he accepted the chair 
of engineering and physics in the Colorado state 
agricultural college. He was elected a member 
of the British and American associations for the 
advancement of science. He was connected 
with the Colorado experimental station from 
1888 ; was decorated by the French government, 
1895, and received a gold medal from the 
Paris exposition, 1900. He edited geological re- 
ports. 

CARPENTER, Gilbert Saltonstall, soldier, 
was born in Medina, Ohio, April 17, 1836. He 
was graduated from Western Reserve university 
in 1859 ; studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in 1861. He entered the volunteer army as 2d 
lieutenant in the 19th Ohio infantry, April 22, 
1861, serving till Aug. 31, 1861, when he entered 
the regular army as a private in the IBth infantry 
Sept. 14, 1861, attaining the rank of 1st lieuten- 
ant, Nov. 25, 1862. He was bre vetted captain, 
Dec. 31, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn. ; was pro- 
moted captain, Dec. 21, 1866 ; transferred to the 
45th infantry, Jan. 22, 1867, and to the 14th in- 
fantry, July 22, 1869 ; was promoted major and 
assigned to the 4th infantry, March 1, 1894, and 
lieutenant-colonel of the 7th infantry, July 7, 
1897. He served in the Spanish- American war 
at the battle of El Caney, July 1-2, 1898 ; was 
commissioned colonel in the regular service and 
brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 21, 1898, 
commanded the 18th infantry in the Philippines 
from June to December, 1899, when he was de- 
tached from service in the field and ordered home. 
He was retired Dec. 27, 1899, with the rank of 
brigadier-general in the regular army. 

CARPENTER, Matthew Hale, senator, was 
bom in Moretown, Vt., Dec. 22, 1824; son of Ira 
and Esther Ann (Luce) Carpenter. His parents 



gave him the name Decatur Merritt Hammond, 
which he afterward changed to Matthew Hale. 
He was a student at West Point, 1843-'45 ; studied 
law in the office of Paul Dillingham at Water bury , ' 
Vt., and was admitted to the bar in 1847. He 
studied law in the office of Ruf us Choate in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 1847-48 ; removed to Beloit, Wis., in 
1848 ; engaged in practice, and in 1855 man-ied 
Caroline, daughter of Paul Dillingham, governor 
of Vermont. He removed to Milwaukee, Wis., 
in 1858 ; served as judge advocate of Wisconsin 
dunng the Civil war, and after the slaves became 
free insisted upon their being enfranchised and 
protected in their newly accorded rights. He 
was employed as government counsel in the Mc- 
Cardle case in 1868, a test case involving the 
legality of the reconstruction act. He also acted as 
counsel for William W. Belknap, secretary of 
war under President Grant, who was impeached 
by the houses of representatives, and secured his 
acquittal, and represented Samuel J. Tilden be- 
fore the electoral commission in 1877. He was 
elected to the U.S. senate as a Democrat, serving 
1869-'75. and 1879-'81. His most notable speeches 
in the senate were those in defence of President 
Orant against the attack of Charles Sumner ; on 
the Ku-Klux act ; on Charles Sumner's second 
civil rights bill ; on President Johnson*s amnesty 
proclamation ; on the bill to restore Fitz John 
Porter to his place in the army ; and on the iron- 
clad oath. He died in Washington, D.C., Feb. 
25, 1881. 

CARPENTER, Rolla Clinton, civil engineer, 
was born at Orion, Mich., June 26, 1852; son of 
Charles Ketchum Carpenter. He was graduated • 
at the Michigan agricultural college in 1873, and 
two years later finished a course in civil engineer- 
ing at the University of Michigan. In 1875 he 
became professor of mathematics and civil en- 
gineering at the agricultural college. He invented 
among other devices a furnace for steam boilers 
and a level for draining ; both of which came into 
extensive use ; became secretary of the Michigan 
Engineering society in 1880, and professor of ex- 
perimental engineering at Cornell in 1890. He is 
the author of A Text-Book of Experimental 
Engineeering (1892). 

CARPENTER, Stephen Hasklns, educator, 
was born in Little Falls, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1831. He 
was graduated at the University of Rochester in 
1852, when he removed to Madison, Wis., and 
served as a tutor in the University of Wisconsin. 
He did excellent service from 1858 to 1860 as 
assistant superintendent of public instruction for 
Wisconsin. In 1860 he was appointed professor 
of ancient languages in St. Paul's college, Pal- 
myra, Mo. On the opening of the civil war the 
college was closed and he returned to Wisconsin, 
where for a time he earned his support as a com- 



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poeitor. He was city clerk of Biadifion from 1864 
to 1868. Later he filled the chair of rhetoric and 
English literature in the University of Wisconsin, 
and afterwards that of logic and English litera- 
ture. In 1871 he declined the position of presi- 
dent of the University of Kansas. He published 
many valuable treatises, including : Moral 
Forces in Education; twelve lectures on the 
Evidences of Christianity; The Metaphysical 
Basis of Sciences; The Philosophy of Evolu- 
tion; English of the Fourteenth Century (1872) ; 
An Introduction to the Study of Anglo-Saxon 
(1875) ; and The Elements of English An- 
alysis (1877). He died in Geneva, N. Y., Dec. 7, 
1878. 

CARPENTER, William Lewis, soldier, was 
bom in Dunkirk, N. Y., Jan. 13, 1844, son of 
William Lewis, and Frances (Bristol) Carpenter, 
and direct descendant from William Carpenter, 
who landed at Plymouth, Mass. from the ship 
Bevis in 1688. In 1861 he joined the U. S. navy 
as acting midshipman, serving as such until May, 
1864, when he enlisted in the U. S. artillery. He 
was promoted 2d lieutenant, 9th U. S. infantry, 
April 5, 1867, and Ist lieutenant, Dec. 81, 1873. In 
1873 he vTas made naturalist of the U. S. geograph- 
ical survey and in 1875 was transferred to the 
U. S. geological survey. He was made fellow of 
the American association for the advancement of 
science in 1877, and was a member of the loyal 
legion and of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion. On Oct. 2, 1887, he was promoted captain. 
He died at Madison Barracks, N.Y., July 10, 1898. 

CARR, Caleb, colonial governor of Rhode 
Island, was bom in 1623. He was third assistant 
under Qov. Cranston, and in May, 1695, was chosen 
governor, serving until his death, Dec. 17, 1695. 

CARR, Dabney, patriot, was bom in Virginia, 
Oct. 26, 1743; son of John Carr. He was grad- 
uated at William and Mary college in 1762, and 
entered the profession of the law. In 1773, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia house of 
burgesses, and was selected to move the resolu- 
tions for a conmiittee of correspondence. On 
July 20, 1765, he was married to Martha, sister of 
Thomas Jefferson. He died at (I!harlottesville, 
Va., May 16, 1778. 

CARR* Dabney, jurist, was bom in Virginia, 
April 27, 1773; son of Dabney and Martha (Jef- 
ferson) CJarr. He was chancellor of the Winches- 
ter district, 1811-'24, and judge of the court of 
appeals, 1824-*37. He died Jan. 8, 1887. 

CARR, Dabney Smith, diplomatist, was bom 
in Baltimore, Md., March 5, 1802, son of Peter 
and Hetty (Smith) Carr, and grandson of Dabney 
and Martha (Jefferson) CJarr. He was for a long 
time editor and proprietor of the Republican and 
Argus, a leading Democratic daily in Baltimore. 
From 1826 to 1843 he was naval officer of the port 



of Baltimore, and was appointed by President 
Tyler, in the latter year, minister to Ck>nstanti- 
nople, where he remained until 1850. He died in. 
CharlottesviUe, Va., March 24, 1854. 

CARR, Ellas, governor of North Carolina, was> 
bom in Edgecombe coimty, N. C, Feb. 25, 1839, 
son of Jonas Johnston and Elizabeth (HiUiard) 
Carr. Among his ancestors were Jonas Johnston,, 
of revolutionary fame, and the Hon. Richard 
Hines, a member of CTong^ress. He attended school 
at the Oaks in Orange county, and subsequently 
completed his education at the universities of 
North CJarolina and Virginia. He served in th& 
Confederate army during the civil war, returning- 
at its close to his private agricultural interests in. 
Edgecombe county. He was connected with the 
first planters' clubs, and was an active member in 
the Farmers' alliance. In 1886 he was a delegate 
from North Carolina to the national farmers* 
convention at St. Paul, and in 1891 was appointed 
commissioner to the World's fair. He was gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, 1898-97. He died at Old 
Sparta, N.C., in 1900. 

CARR, Busene A., soldier, was bom in Erie 
county, N. Y., Biarch 20, 1830. He was graduated 
at West Point in 1850. In March, 1855, he was. 
made 1st lieutenant in the 1st cavalry, and ia 
1858 received his conmiission as captain. The 1st 
became the 4th cavalry in 1861. During the civil 
war he was actively engaged in many important 
operations and battles, and was rewarded with 
several brevets in the regular service '* for gallant 
and meritorious service "^ in the field, and in some 
notable engagements in the southwest. He was 
made major of the 5th cavalry, IT. S. army, in 
1862, and received numeroiis brevet ranks in the 
volunteer service, being mustered out of the vol- 
unteers in 1865 as brevet major-general. In 187$ 
he was made lieutenant-colonel in the 4th cavalry, 
being transferred later to the 5th cavalry, and in. 
1879 he was promoted to be colonel of the 6th 
cavalry. He was actively concerned in many of 
the Indian wars of the west, and proved himself 
an able and efficient soldier. The commission of 
brigadier-general was given him in July, 1892, and 
he was retired Feb. 15, 1893. He was awarded a 
congressional medal of honor for ''having most 
distinguished himself in action " at the battle of 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas, March 7, 1862. 

CARR, Joseph B.» soldier, was bom at Albany r 
N. Y., Aug, 16, 1828. His military career began. 
in 1849, when he joined as a private the Troy Re- 
publican guards. At the close of a year he was- 
commissioned as 2d lieutenant, and rose to the 
rank of colonel of the 24th raiment, N. Y. S. M., 
which position he held at the outbreak of the civil 
war. On May 18, 1861, he went to the front in 
command of the 2d N. Y. volunteers. The regi- 
ment arrived at Fort Monroe on the 24th of that 



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month, and was the first to encamp on the soil 
of Virginia. Colonel Carr commanded his regi- 
ment at Big Bethel, Newmarket Bridge, the 
Orchards, Fair Oaks and Glendale. At Malvern 

Hill he commanded 
the 2d New Jersey 
brigade. On Sept. 7, 
1862, he was commis- 
sioned a brigadier- 
general for *' gallant 
and meritorious ser- 
vices in the field," and 
he subsequently 
served with conspicu- 
ous bravery in the 
battles of Bristow 
station, 2d Bull Run, 
Chantilly, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Wapping 
Heights, and Robin- 
son's tavern. He afterwards served in front of 
Petersburg in command of the 1st division, 18th 
corps, and supported General Burnsidein the Mine 
fight with th^ 1st division of the 18th corps, and 
the 8d division of the 10th corps (colored). On 
Oct. 1, 1864. he was given charge of the James 
river defences with his headquarters at Wilson's 
Landing. On the 20th of May he was transferred 
to City Point, and on the 1st of June was pro- 
moted by the President brevet major-general "for 
gallant and meritorioiis services during the war," 
to rank as such from the 18th of March, 1865. 
He was mustered out of the U. S. service in 
October, 1865, and in 1867 was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Fenton, major-general of the 3d division, 
N. Y. S. M. He commanded the forces that 
quelled the railroad riots at Albany, West Albany, 
and Troy in 1877, and was complimented by (Gov- 
ernor Robinson. In 1887 he was placed upon the 
retired list of the state militia, after a service of 
more than twenty years. In 1879 he was elected 
secretary of the state of New York, and was re- 
elected in 1881, and again in 1883. He was a 
prominent candidate before the Republican state 
convention of 1885 for governor, but failing to 
receive the nomination, the convention nom- 
inated him for lieutenant-governor by accla- 
mation, and he led his defeated ticket by fifteen 
thousand votes. He died at Troy, N. Y., Feb. 
24, 1895. 

CARR, Samuel, soldier, was bom in Virginia, 
Oct. 9, 1771 ; son of Dabney and Martha (Jeffer- 
son) Carr. He was graduated at William and 
Mary college in 1798. He commanded the cavalry 
at Norfolk, in 1812-'15; was a member of the 
Virginia house of delegates from Albemarle in 
1815, and later was elected to the state senate. 
He died in Albemarle county, Va., July 25, 1855. 



CARRELL, Oeorse Aloysius, R.C. bishop, 
was bom in the old mansion of William Penn. 
Philadelphia, Pa., June 13, 1803; son of John and 
Mary Judith (Moore) Carrell and grandson of 
Thomas and Elizabeth Mary (Clater) CarrelL 
He was a student at Mount St. Mary's, Emmitts- 
burg. Md., 1813-'16, at Georgetown college, 1816- 
'20; a novice at Whitmarsh House, 1821- 23, at- 
tended the theological seminary of St. Mary's, 
Baltimore, 1823-'25, and the seminary at Mount 
St. Mary's college, 1825-'27. He was ordained in 
St. Augustine's churchy Philadelphia, Dec. 20 
1827, by Bishop Henry Conwell, and was assist 
ant at St. Augustine's, 1827-'33, and pastor of 
Holy Trinity, 1833-'35. He again became a nov- 
ice of the Society of Jesus in the western Prov- 
ince, Aug. 19, 1835; was a scholastic at St. Louis, 
professor at the university, and pastor of the 
college church, 1837-'45; rector of the university, 
1845-'48 ; and president of Purcell Mansion college, 
Cincinnati. Ohio, 1851-'53. On July 23, 1853, the 
• see of Covington was established and be was 
made its first bishop. He was consecrated by 
Archbishop Purcell, Nov. 1. 1853. He built St. 
Mary's, the cathedral church in Covington ; or- 
ganized twenty-eight churches; established St. 
Elizabeth's hospital and an orphan asylum, and 
founded St. Joseph's priory of the Benedictine 
order. He died in Covington, Ky., Sept. 25, 1868. 

CARRICK, Samuel, educator, was bom in 
Adams county, Pa., in July, 1762. He came 
from Scotch ancestors, who immigrated to Penn- 
sylvania from the north of Ireland. He was ed- 
ucated at Augusta academy, Va , and entered 
the Presbyterian ministry. He was a trustee of 
Liberty Hall academy, 1784-'91; migrated to 
Knoxville, Tenn., in 1788, when he founded the 
First Presbyterian church, and organized Blount 
college, known as East Tennessee college after 
1808, and of which he was president, 1794-1809. 
The inscription on his gravestone at Knoxville. 
near the graves of Gov. William Blount and 
Col. James White, founder of the city of Knox- 
ville, reads as follows: "Sacred to the memory 
of the Rev. Samuel CZR. Carrick, who died Aug. 
17. 1809, aged 49 ys., 1 mo. He first planted the 
Presbyterian religion in the wilds of Tenn. He 
was the founder & the first pastor of the church 
and the first president of E T. college." 

CARRINQTON, Edward, soldier, was bom in 
Charlotte coimty, Va., Feb. 11, 1748; son of 
George and Anne (Mayo) Carrington. He re- 
ceived an academic education, and served during 
the revolutionary war, first as lieutenant-colonel 
and later as quartermaster -general for the south- 
em army under General Greene. He also served 
atHobkirk'sHillandatYorktown. Inl785-'86he 
was a delegate from Virginia to the Continental 
Congress. HediedatRichmond, Va.,Oct.28,1810. 



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CARRINQTON, Henry Beebee, soldier, was 
born at Wallingford, Conn., March 3, 1824; son 
of Miles M. and Mary (Beebee) Carrington, and 
grandson of James Carrington, a partner of Eli 
Whitney. He was graduated from Yale in 1845. 
During 184^'47 he was professor of natural 
science and Greek at the Irving institute, 
Tarrytown, N. Y. In 1847 he studied at Yale 
law school, and the following year removed to 
Colimibus, Ohio, where he practised his profes- 
sion in partnership with William Dennison. He 
was an active anti-slavery Whig, and helped in 
organizing the Republican party in 1854. He was 
appointed judge-advocate-general by Governor 
Chase in 1857. As adjutant -general he placed ten 
regiments of Ohio militia in West Virginia be- 
fore volunteers could be mustered ; organized the 
first twenty -six Ohio regiments. He was com- 
missioned colonel of the 18th U. S. infantry, May, 
1861; established Camp Thomas, Ohio; com- 
manded a brigade at Lebanon, Ky., and in 1863 
mustered 100,000 Indiana troops. He was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 2fr, 
1862, conmianded the district of Indiana, exposed 
the Sons of liberty, raised the siege of Frankfort* 
Ky., and was mustered out of the volunteer ser- 
vice in 1865. In 1866 he was in command of Fort 
Kearny, Neb., and was in charge of the military 
operations in Colorado during 1869. In 1870 he 
was retired from active service on accoimt of 
wounds, and was professor of military science 
at Wabash college, Ind.. from 1870 to 1878, after 
which he made his home in Hyde Park, Boston, 
Mass. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
Wabash college in 1873. He published : The 
Scourge of the Alps (1847) ; Rusf>ia Among the 
Nations and American Classics (1849) ; Ab-sa- 
ra-ka, Land of Massacre (1868) ; Battles of the 
American Revolution^ 1775-81 (1876) ; Cnsis 
Thoughts ( 1878) ; Battle Maps and Charts of the 
American Revolution (1881) : The Indian Qties- 
tion (1884) ; Battles of the Bible and Boston and 
New York, 1775 and 1776 (1885) ; The Exodus of 
the Flat Head Indians (1902). 

CARRINQTON, Paul, statesman, was born in 
Virginia, March 16, 1733 ; son of George and Anne 
(Mayo) Cyarrington, and grandson of Dr. Paul 
and Henningham (Codrington) Carrington. 
About 1748 he went to the part of Lunenburg 
which afterwards became Charlotte county, Va., 
and studied law under Col. Clement Read. He 
began to practice in 1754, and was licensed in 
1755. He was married, Oct. 1, 1755, to Margaret, 
daughter of Col. Clement Read, and in 1756 he 
was appointed king's attorney of Bedford coimty. 
He was made major of militia in 1761, and colonel 
in 1764. He represented Charlotte coimty in 
the house of burgesses from its formation in 
liaroh, 1765, until 1775. In 1772 he became 



county lieutenant and presiding justice of Char- 
lotte county, and in the same year was clerk of 
Halifax county. He was a member of all the 
conventions from 1774 to 1776, and was chairman 
of the Charlotte county committee which en- 
dorsed the resolutions of the late Continental 
Congress. He was also a member of the first and 
second state committees of safety, 1775-*76. On 
Jan. 23, 1778, he was elected judge of the first 
general court, and filled the office until 1807. He 
died at Charlotte county, Va., Jan. 28, 1818. 

CARRINQTON, Paul, jurist, was bom in 
Charlotte coimty, Va., Sept. 20, 1764; youngest 
child of Paul and Margaret (Read) Carrington. 
He served in the army of the revolution, being 
present at the battles of Guilford and Green- 
spring. His two brothers, George and Clement, 
also fought in the war of the revolution. He 
was graduated at William and Mary college in 
1783, and practised law. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the house of delegates of Virginia, and sub- 
sequently became judge of the court of appeals. 
He died in Charlotte county, Va., Jan. 8, 1816. 

CARROLL, Anna Ella, military genius, was 
born in Somerset coimty, Maryland, Aug. 29, 
1815; daughter of Thomas King Carroll, gov- 
ernor of Maryland. When but three years of 
age she would listen with great gravity to read- 
ings from Shakespeare. Alison's History and 
Kant's Philosophy were her favorites at eleven, 
and (!k>ke and Blackstone at thirteen. Her lit- 
erary career began early in life, when she con- 
tributed political articles to the daily press. In 

1857 she published The Great American Battle 
or Political Romanism, and in 1858 Tfie Star 
of the West, a work describing the exploration 
and development of our western territories. In 

1858 she rendered valuable assistance in electing 
Thomas H. Hicks governor, and her influence 
held Maryland loyal to the Union. She freed her 
own slaves and devoted tongue and pen to up- 
holding the Union. In July, 1861, when Senator 
Breckinridge made his speech in favor of seces- 
sion. Miss Carroll issued a pamphlet in which she 
refuted each of his arguments, and a large edi- 
tion was published and circulated by the war 
department. Her ability was now recognized, 
and she was requested by the government to 
write on topics bearing on the war. She pub- 
lished in 1861 The War Pmcers of the Govern- 
meni, and for her next pamphlet, The Relation 
of the National Government to tlie Revolted Citi- 
zens Defined, President Lincoln furnishing the 
theme. In the fall of 1861 Mr. Lincoln and his 
military advisers had planned a campaign to 
extend operations into the southwest, opening 
the Mississippi to its mouth by means of a fleet 
of gunboats descending the river. Miss Carroll, 
at the suggestion of government authorities. 



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CARROLL. 



personally investigated the scene of the proposed 
operations, and made a study of the topography 
of the country, and reported that the unfortified 
Tennessee river and not the Mississippi was the 
true key to the situation. Her letters, explana- 
tory maps, and invaluable geographical and topo- 
graphical information resulted in her plan being 
adopted, and the land and naval forces were 
massed on the Tennessee. Fort Henry, Fort Don- 
elson, Columbus, Bowling Green, Pittsburg Land- 
ing and Corinth, one after another, fell into the 
hands of the Federals ; Missouri was saved, and 
Kentucky and Tennessee brought back into the 
Union. She also suggested the final plans 
adopted by the war department which resulted 
in the capture of Island No. 10, and the siege 
and capture of Vicksburg which opened the way 
to the gulf. It was deemed wise at the time to 
keep secret the fact that this campaign had been 
conceived by a civilian and a woman. Mr. Lin- 
coln's death prevented his acknowledgment of 
the credit, and though Miss Carroll had ample 
documentary proof of the vab'dity of her claim, 
which was acknowledged by several congres- 
sional military committees to be " incontroverti- 
ble," no further action was taken in the matter, 
and Miss Carroll was dependent for support in 
her declining years upon her sister, a clerk in 
the treasury department at Washington. See 
A Military Oenitut : Life of Anna Ella Carroll, 
the Qreat Unrecognized Member of Lincoln's 
Cabinet, by Sarah Ellen Black well (1891). She 
died Feb. 17, 1894. 

CARROLL, Charles, of CarroUton, signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, was bom at 
Annapolis, Md., Sept. 19, 1787; son of Charles and 
Elizabeth (Brooke) Carroll His grandfather, 
Charles Carroll, was of a good Irish famUy, and 
inmiigrated to Maryland in the year preceding 
the revolution in England, which terminated in 
the dethronement of James II. When about 
eleven years old he was sent by his father to the 
college of St. Omer in France, where he remained 
until 1758. He then spent a year in a college at 
Rheims, going thence to Paris, where he studied 
at the College of Louis le Grand. All these col- 
leges were taught by Jesuits. In 1758 he went 
•to Ehigland and studied law in the Inner Temple 
for a few years, returning to America in 1765. 
At the breaking out of the revolutionary troubles 
he took a decided stand in support of the rights of 
the colonists. In 1774 he was made a member of 
the committee of correspondence, and in the 
following year was appointed one of the commit- 
tee of safety established by the legislature. He 
also served in the convention which formed the 
constitution of the state. In 1776, in conjunc- 
tion with Benjamin Franklin. Samuel Chase, and 
his cousin, the Rev. John Carroll, afterwards 



archbishop of Baltimore, he was sent to Canada 
to persuade the inhabitants of that section of 
America to unite with the provinces which had 
thrown off their allegiance to England. On his 
return he took his seat in the convention of Mary- 
land. Finding that the convention had in- 
structed their delegates in Congress not to vote 
for independence, Mr. Carroll exerted all his 
influence to change their decision, which they 
did, and they elected him a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress on July 4, 1776. Two days later 
the state of Maryland was declared free and in- 
dependent. Mr. Carroll took his seat in the Con- 
tinental Congress on July 18, 1776, and, on August 
2, he affixed his signature to the Declaration of 
Independence. His term in Congress ended on 
Nov. 10, 1776, and in the following month he 
became a member of the first senate convened in 
his native state. In 1777 he again served in 
Congress, and in 1788 was chosen the first U. S. 
senator from Maryland, under the constitution, 
taking his seat in New York, April 30, 1789. His 
short term expired March 8, 1791, and he was 
re-elected, and resigned in 1793, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Richard Potts. He returned to Mary- 
land, where he was elected to the state senate, 
and remained in that body ten years. He was 
one of the first directors of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad company, of which he laid the 
foundation-stone July 4, 1828. He was married 
in June, 1768, to Mary, daughter of CoL Henry 
Damall, by whom he had one son, Charles Car- 
roll, and two daughters, Mrs. Harper and Mrs. 
Caton. He was the last surviving signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and died in Bal- 
timore. Md., Nov. 14, 1882. 

CARROLL, Daniel, patriot, was bom in Prince 
George's county, Md., in 1756. He acquired a 
classical education, and engaged in agricultural 
pursuits on his estate, which afterwards became 
a part of the city of Washington, D. C. From 
1780 to 1784 he was a delegate from Maryland 
to the Continental Congress. He was also a dele- 
gate to the convention that framed the Federal 
constitution. In 1788 he was elected a represen- 
tative from Maryland to the 1st U. S. Congress, 
and served from March 4, 1789. to March 8, 1791. 
He was active in securing the establishment of a 
seat of government, and in 1791 was appointed by 
President Washington a commissioner to locate 
the District of Columbia and the capital city. 
He died at ** Duddington,'* his mansion house, 
near Washington, D. C, in 1829. 

CARROLL, John, R. C. archbishop, was bom 
at Upper Marlboro. Prince George's coimty, 
Maryland, Jan. 8, 1735 ; son of Daniel and Eleanor 
(Damall) Carroll. His father and grandfather 
came from Ireland in the reign of James II. and 
settled in Maryland. His education was begun 



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at a grammar school established at Bohemia, 
where he had as classmates, his cousin Cliuiies 
Carroll of CarroUton, and his relative, Roucit 
Brent, and finished at the Jesuit college of 

St. Omer in Frencii 
Flanders, where he 
remained six years. 
In 1753 he began his 
novitiate in the So- 
ciety of Jesus, and 
in 1755 entered the 
theological seminary 
at Lifege. In 1761 
he was ordained to 
the priesthood, and 
renounced his share 
of the family prop- 
erty in favor of his 
brothers and sisters. 
For some time he 
was employed as 
a professor at St. 
Omer and at Lifege. and in 1771 was re- 
ceived as a professed father in the society of 
Jesus. For tw^o years he was employed as a 
tutor, and in 1773 was appointed prefect at 
Bruges, where the Jesuit fathers, driven from St. 
Omer by the parliament of Paris, liad removed 
their college. In 1773 the Society of Jesus was 
suppressed by the brief of Pope Clement XIV., 
and Father Carroll retired to England, where he 
held the post of chaplain to the Earl of Anmdel 
at Wardour castle. In 1774 he returned to Mary- 
land and devoted himself to missionary duty in 
that state and in Virginia. In 1776 he accom- 
panied Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase, and 
Charles Carroll to Montreal in order that he 
might endeavor to obtain the support of the 
Canadian clergy to the patriot cause. The mis- 
sion proved fruitless and, Dr. Franklin falling 
ill. Father Carroll devoted himself to caring for 
him, and thus formed a friendship which was 
cherished through life. He continued his mis- 
sionary work during the revolutionary war, and 
did good service to the cause of the colonists by 
means of his correspondence with friends in 
Europe regarding the events of the war. In 1784 
he was appointed by the state of Maryland one of 
the commissioners to establish St. John's college 
at Annapolis, which institution was opened in 
1789, and which afterwards conferred upon him 
the degree of LL.D. He was appointed superior 
of the clergy of the United States in 1784, and 
made his first visitation in 1785, which included 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, the Jerseys, and New 
York, and for five years promoted in that 
capacity the growth and welfare of the Ameri- 
can church. On Nov. 6, 1789, the holy see issued 
a papal bull appointing Father Carroll the first 



bishop of the United States, and selected tne 
city of BaltuiioAe as his episcopal see. He re- 
ceived consecration Aug. 15, 1790, at the hands 
of Rt. Rev. Charles Walmesley, vicar-apostolic of 
London, in the chapel of Lulworth castle, Elng- 
land. Returning to the United States, he reached 
Baltimore, Dec. 7, 1790. He had established the 
college at Georgetown in 1788, the buildinga 
were erected in 1789, the first classes held in 
1791, and in 1815 it was raised to the rank of a 
university. In 1790 the first Carmelite convent 
was established in Charles county, Md., and the 
Visitation nuns founded their first house at 
Georgetown. The rigors of the French revolution 
drove from France to America numbers of her 
clergy, and Bishop Carroll's diocese was enriched 
by a colony of Sulpitians and one of the Domini- 
can priests. The Society of Jesus was restored 
by him, and the Jesuits were placed in charge of 
Georgetown college and of their former missions 
in Maryland and Pennsylvania. On Feb. 22, 
1800, Bisliop Carroll, at the unanimous request of 
Congress and the Protestant clergy, delivered 
the panegyric on Washington in the national 
capitol. In 1803 he visited Boston and conse- 
crated the Church of the Holy Cross, the first 
R. C. church erected in that city, and in 1806 he 
laid the corner-stone of the cathedral at Balti- 
more. In 1809 he encouraged Elizabeth Ann 
Seton, who had established a school for girls in 
Baltimore, to found at Emmittsburg, Md., in 
1809, a community called ** Sisters of St. Joseph," 
which in 1811 adopted the rules and constitu- 
tion of the order of St. Vincent de Paul, with 
some modifications, the community becoming 
the religious order known as the Sisters of 
Charity. Pope Pius VII. erected Baltimore into 
an archiepiscopal see April 8, 1808, and estab- 
lished four suffragan sees, — Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, and Bardstown, Ky. Owing to 
the imprisonment and death of Bishop Concan- 
non, who had been consecrated bishop of New 
York in Rome, the pallium of the archbishop and 
the bull conferring his ofiice, which had been 
placed in his keeping to convey to the United 
States, did not arrive until 1810, when the new 
archbishop in the cathedral at Baltimore conse- 
crated Bishops Egan, Flaget and Cheveras. The 
learned prelate wrote and published many contro- 
versial pamphlets and addresses, the chief of 
which are : An Address to the Roman Catholics 
of the United States of America, A Concise 
view of the Principal Points of Controversy be- 
ttveen the Protestant and Roinan Churches; A 
Review of tfie Important Controversy between^ 
Dr. CarroU and the Rev. Messrs. Wharton and 
Hawkins, and A Discourse on General Washing^ 
ton. Archbishop Carroll died in Baltimore, Md.» 
Dec. 3, 1815. 



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CARROLL. 



CARSE. 



CARROLL, John Lee, governor of Maryland, 
was born at Home wood, near Baltimore, Md., in 
1880; grandson of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
He was educated at (Georgetown (D. C.) univer- 
sity, at Mount St. Mary's college, Enmiittsburg, 
Md., and at Harvard law school. He was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1851, and from 1859 to 1862 
practised in New York city, meanwhile serving 
as U. S. commissioner. In 1862 he returned to 
his native place, and in 1867 was elected a mem- 
ber of the state senate, and was again elected in 
1871. He served as governor of Maryland from 
1876 to 1880. 

CARROLL, Samuel Sprigg, soldier, was born 
in Washington, D. C, Sept. 21, 1832. He was 
graduated at West Point in 1856, and served on 
frontier duty, on the Utah expedition and as 
quartermaster at the military academy until 
November, 1861, when he was promoted captain 
of the 10th infantry. In December of that year 
he was promoted colonel and transferred to the 
8th Ohio volunteers. He commanded a brigade 
in the operations in central Virginia from May 
to August, 1862; was engaged in the northern 
Virginia campaign, in the battle of Cedar moun- 
tain, and was wounded in a skirmish on the 
Rapidan, Aug. 14, 1862. He commanded a brigade 
at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettys- 
burg, receiving for his services at Chancellors- 
ville the brevet rank of major. May 3, 1863. In 
July, 1863, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel 
for Gettysburg. In May, 1864, he was engaged 
in the battle of the Wilderness, receiving for his 
gallantry the brevet rank of colonel. He was 
twice wounded at the battles of Spottsylvania 
in May, 1864. On May 12, 1864, he was promoted 
brigadier -general of volunteers, and on March 13, 
1865, was brevetted major-general of volunteers 
for gallantry during the rebellion, and brigadier- 
general, U. S. A., for his services at Spottsylvania. 
He was mustered out as a volunteer, Jan. 15, 1866, 
and from June, 1866, to April 1, 1867, was on re- 
cruiting service. He was promoted lieutenant - 
colonel, 21st infantry, Jan. 22, 1867. He was 
retired as major-general, June 9, 1869, ** for dis- 
ability from wounds received in battle." He 
died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 28, 1893. 

CARROLL, William, soldier, was bom in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., in 1788. He removed to Nashville, 
Tenn., in 1810, and in 1813 was appointed captain 
and brigade inspector in Jackson's division. He 
fought gallantly at the battles of Enotochopco 
and Horseshoe Bend, being severely wounded in 
the latter engagement, March 27, 1814. In Novem- 
ber, 1814, he was appointed major-general of Ten- 
nessee militia, of which state he was elected 
governor in 1820. He remained in office until 
1827, and was again elected in 1828, serving until 
1835. He died in Nashville, Tenn., March 22, 1844. 



CARRUTH, James Harrison, botanist, was 
bom at Phillipston, Mass., Feb. 10, 1807. He was 
graduated-at Yale in 1832, attended the Auburn 
theological seminary in 1837, and in 1838 was 
graduated at Yale theological seminary. After 
preaching for four years he removed to Kansas, 
and in 1863 accepted a call to the chair of natural 
sciences at Baker university, Baldwin, Kan., 
where he remained until 1866. He again preached 
in various parishes until 1873, when he was made 
state botanist of Kansas. He published the re- 
sults of his botanical research and lectured on 
spiritualism and in opposition to woman's rights. 
He died in Van Buren, Ark., Sept. 15, 1896. 

CARRUTHERS, William A., author, was bom 
in Virginia about 1800. He acquired his educa- 
tion in the schools of his native state, and at- 
tended Washington college for a *iime. Later he 
practised medicine in Virginia, and in Savannah, 
Ga. He contributed numerous articles to period- 
ical literature, and was the author of The Cava' 
Hers of Virginia (1832) ; The Kentuckian in 
New York; The Knights of the Horseshoe; a 
Traditionary Tale of the Cocked-Hat Gentry in 
The Old Dominion (1845), and Life of Dr. Cald- 
well, He died in Savannah, Ga., about 1850. 

CARSE, Matilda B., philanthropist, was de- 
scended from Scotch ancestors who fled from 
Scotland during the time of religious persecution 
in the 17th century. In 1858 she removed to 
Chicago with her husband, Thomas Carse, a rail- 
road manager. In 1869 they went abroad, and 
Mr. Carse died in ^^ 

Paris, France, in '^ 

June, 1870, leaving 
Mrs. Carse with three 
boys. On her return 
to Chicago she be- 
came prominent in 
temperance work, 
and in 1878 was elec- 
ted president of the 
Chicago central wo- 
man's Christian tem- , 
perance union. She 
established, under the 
auspices of the union, 
the Bethesda day 
nursery, the first in- 
stitution of the kind 

her labor are kindergartens, gospel temperance 
meetings, Sunday-schools, missions, employment 
bureau, a reading-room, dispensaries, industrial 
schools, and mothers' meetings, the annual cost 
being upwards of ten thousand dollars. In 1880 
she founded, and became president of, the 
woman's temperance publishing association, ancl 




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CARSON. 



CARTER. 



in January they published the first number of 
the Signal, a sixteen-page weekly paper. In 1882 
Our Union was merged into it. The publishing 
association was the Urst stock company composed 
entirely of women. In 1885 she began to plan 
the woman's temperance temple at Chicago, the 
national headquarters of the W. C. T. U., which 
was completed in 1894 at a cost of $1,200,000. 
Mrs. Carse was president and founder of the 
woman's dormitory association of the World's 
Columbian exposition, established for the purpose 
of erecting dormitories for working women who 
att 3nded the exposition. She aided in establish- 
in ; the Chicago foundling's aid society, and in 
building and maintaining the home. She was 
president of the society from its foundation. 

CARSON, Christopher, **Kit Carson," soldier, 
was born in Madison coimty , Ky . , Dec. 24, 1809. 
In early childhood he was taken to Missouri by 
his parents who settled in Howard county, then 
an almost unbroken wilderness. During his child- 
hood be lived out of doors, becoming an expert 
hunter and fisherman, but acquiring no knowl- 
edge of books. In 1824 he was apprenticed to a 
saddler, but after serving two years he joined an 
exploring expedition. The following eight years 
he spent in hunting and trapping, meanwhile 
acquiring a knowledge of French, Spanish, and 
about ten Indian dialects. The depreciation in 
tlie value of furs led him to abandon the occupa- 
ti m of trapper, and from 1832 to 1840 he was en- 
gaged as hunter for Fort Bent, a trading post 
belonging to American merchants. Wliile thus 
employed he was married to a beautiful Indian 
girl, who died shortly after the birth of a daugh- 
ter. In 1842, when the child was six or seven 
years old, her father placed her in a school at 
St. Louis, Mo., and while returning from this 
visit he met Lieut. John C. Fremont, who had 
been commissioned by the government to explore 
the coim try between the frontiers of Missouri and 
the Rocky mountains. Carson was engaged as 
guide to the expedition, and proved invaluable on 
account of his knowledge of the territory and his 
acquaintance with the Indians. He also accom- 
panied Fremont on his second expedition to the 
west, the party reaching Fort Lawson, on the 
Sacramento river, while the Mexican war was in 
progress. On two occasions during the war, Car- 
son was directed to carry despatches to Washing- 
ton. The first journey, a distance of four thou- 
sand miles, he accomplished in three months, and 
while he was in Washington, President Polk ap- 
pointed him lieutenant in the U. S. rifle corps. On 
his second expedition he learned that the senate 
had refused to ratify his appointment. About 
1853 he was appointed Indian agent by the U. S. 
government, an office for which he was peculiarly 
adapted and in which he rendered great service 




to the country. For his gallant and efficient ser- 
vices in tliC Union army during the civil war he 
was made brevet brigadier-general of volunteers 
in 1835. From the close of the war to his death 
he was employed as an Indian agent. See Life 
of Kit Carson (1869), by Charles Burdett. He 
died at Fort Lyon. Col.. May 23, 1868. 

CARTER* Franklin, educator, was bom at 
Waterbury, Conn., Sept. 80, 1887; son of Preserve 
Wood and Ruth Wells (Holmes) Carter. He was 
fitted for college at Phillips academy, Andover, 
Mass., and entered Yale in 1855. In 1857, in con- 
sequence of ill-health, he left college and after 
three years of travel 
and study resumed 
college work at 
Williams in 1860 
and was graduated 
in 1862. He went 
abroad early in 1863 
and in 1865 began | 
his duties as pro-'yf| 
fessor of Latin and 
French in Williams 
college, to which jv/iriM 
position he waselec- JiiSu 
ted in 1868. In 1872 \ 
he was elected pro- ^"^ W^Yj^y 
fessor of the Ger- ^'^ 

man language and 
literature in Yale 
college and spent another year in study in Berlin, 
preparatory to beginning the duties of this position. 
In 1881 he was elected president of Williams col- 
lege, giving most of his time to executive work 
but teaching the doctrines of natural religion one 
term in senior year. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Union college in 1881. He was 
elected a trustee of the Andover theological sem- 
inary and of the Clark school for the deaf 
at Northampton, and became president of the 
latter in 1896. He was the first president of the 
Modem language association of America, and also 
of the Berkshire Congregational club. He was 
made president of the Massachusetts home mis- 
sionary society, a member of the colonial society 
of Massachusetts and of the American oriental 
society, and a corporate member of the American 
board of commissioners for foreign missions. He 
was elected a fellow of the American academy of 
arts and sciences. In 1896 he was the presidential 
elector of the first district of Massachusetts. He 
resigned as president of Williams college in 1901, 
but continued to serve as acting president until 
1902. He received the degree LL.D. from Yale 
in 1901. He published an edition of Goethe's 
Iphigenie (1877) and Life of Mark Hopkins 
(1892) and contributed to magazines and 
journals. 



^tUAA^UCxA^ Qa/JSk 



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CARTER. 



CARTER 



CARTER* James Coolidge, lawyer, was born 
in Lancaster, Mass., Oct. 14, 1827. He was pre- 
pared for college at Derby academy, Hingbam, 
Mass., and was graduated at Harvard in 1850, 
and at the Harvard law school in 1853, LL.B., 
and practised law in New York city. In 1875 he 
was appointed by Governor Tilden a member of 
the commission to devise a form of municipal 
government for the cities of the state of New 
York. He prepared numerous monographs on 
legal subjects, one of the best known being The 
Attempted Codification of the Common Law, 
Among his most noted addresses are the Prov- 
inces of the Written and Unwritten Law, de- 
livered before the State bar association of Vir- 
ginia in 1889. and The Ideal and the Actual in 
Law, before the American bar association in 
1890. He was one of the counsel for the 
United States, in the Behring sea controversy. 
He received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard, 
1885, of which institution he was elected an over- 
seer in 1892. He was elected president of the 
American bar association in 1894, and received 
the degree LX..D. from Yale in 1901. 

CARTER, James Qordon, educator, was bom 
at Leominster, Mass., Sept. 7, 1795. In 1820 he 
was graduated from Harvard college, and for ten 
years was occupied as a teacher in his native 
town. His papers, entitled. Essays on Popular 
Education, contributed to the Boston Patriot in 
1823,. drew attention to him as an educational re- 
former. He was the first to advance the idea of 
seminaries for the instruction of teachers in his 
Letters to WUliam Prescott on the Free schools 
of New England, with Remarks on the Principles 
of Instruction (1828). He was instrumental in 
founding the American institute of instruction, 
in 1830, and was active in furthering its interests. 
He was a member of both branches of the state 
legislature during the years 1835-'40. He was 
chairman of the legislative committee on educa- 
tion, and in 1837 drafted the bill establishing the 
board of education, of which he was appointed 
the first member by Governor Everett. He pub- 
lished Geography of Massachusetts, a work on 
Middlesex and Worcester counties (1830) ; and 
the Geography of New Hampshire (1831). He 
died in Chicago, 111., July 22, 1849. 

CARTER, John C, naval officer, was born in 
Virginia in 1805. He entered the naval servige in 
1825 as midshipman, and served in the Mediter- 
ranean squadron until Jime 4, 1831. He was 
promoted lieutenant Feb. 9, 1837, and as such 
served throughout the Mexican war. He was 
commissioned commander Sept. 14, 1855, and in 
1805 was stationed on the receiving ship Vermont 
at San Francisco, Cal. On April 4, 1867, he was 
retired with the rank of commodore, and died in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1870. 



CARTER, Nathaniel Hazletine, author, was 
born at Concord, N. H., Sept. 17, 1787. He at- 
tended Phillips Exeter academy, was graduated 
from Dartmouth college in 1811, and was em- 
ployed as a teacher at Salisbury, N. H., and Port- 
land, Me. About 1818 he removed to New York 
state, and in 1819 assumed the editorship of the 
Albany Register, of which he was also proprietor. 
The name of his periodical was later changed to 
that of New York Statesman, and in 1822 he re- 
moved to New York city and entered into part- 
nership with G. W. Prentiss, they combining their 
respective papers as the Statesman. He travelled 
extensively in Europe, contributed to the States- 
man, and embodied his reminiscences of his tour 
in two volumes, published in 1827. He withdrew 
from the editorship in 1828, and made a voyage 
to Southern France ih the autumn of 1829. He 
died at Marseilles, France, Jan. 2, 1830. 

CARTER, Peter, publisher, was bom in Earls- 
ton, Berwickshire, Scotland, July 19, 1825, son of 
Thomas and Agnes (Ewing) Carter. He was 
brought to the United States at the age of seven, 
and settled in Galway, N. Y. After attending 
the public schools he obtained employment in 
a bookstore. There he mastered the details of 
the business, and in 1848 was admitted with 
his brother Walter into partnership with his 
older brother, Robert Carter, who had established 
a bookstore in New York city in 1834. He is the 
author of Crumbs from the Land 6* Cakes (1851); 
Scotia's Bards (1853) ; BeHie Lee (1862) ; 
Donald Frazer (1867), and Little Ejgie's Home 



CARTER, Robert, publisher, was born at Earl- 
ston, Berwickshire, Scotland, Nov. 2, 1807, son of 
Thomas and Agnes (Ewing) Carter. His father 
was a prosperous weaver, and the son was taken 
from school at the age of nine and put at the 
loom. AH his spare time was employed in read- 
ing, and at an early age he acquired an excellent 
knowledge of Latin and Greek under the tutelage 
of a cousin. In 1824 he taught a small school 
near his home, and in 1825 opened a school at 
Earlston, where he had seventy day and twenty 
evening pupils. In 1830 he entered Edinburgh col- 
lege, where he remained one year. In 1831 he 
came to the United States and was elected class- 
ical instructor in the New York city liigh school. 
In 1834 he opened a bookstore in Canal street, 
and afterwards began to publish books, his first 
publishing venture being Symington on the Atone' 
ment. In 1848 he admitted his two brothers, 
Walter and Peter, into partnership, the firm be- 
coming Robert Carter & Brothers, and removing 
to a new store on Broadway, where they remained 
eight years. In 1856 they purchased the building 
on the comer of Broadway and Spring street, and 
the prosperity of the business steadily increased. 



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CARTER. 



CARTER. 



Mr. Carter was a manager of the American Bible 
society; a member of the board of directors of 
Princeton seminary ; for fifty years a member of 
the board of foreign missions; an earnest temper- 
ance worker, and a prominent abolitionist. In 
later years much of his time was spent in foreign 
travel. See Robert Carter : His Life and Work 
(1891). He died in New York city, Dec. 28, 1889. 

CARTER* Robert, editor, was bom in Albany, 
K. Y., Feb. 5, 1819, of Irish parentage. He was 
educated at the Jesuit college of Chambly in 
Canada. In his sixteenth year his guardian, who 
was librarian of the New York state library, made 
him his assistant. In 1841 he removed to Boston 
to undertake some literary work in the interest of 
the Swedenborgians, whose faith he had adopted, 
and two years later he joined James Russell 
Lowell in editing the Pioneer, which was short- 
lived. Mr. Carter then found employment with 
book publishers as editor and literary adviser. 
He also held small government positions, and in 
1847 became secretary to William H. Prescott, the 
historian, with whom he worked for more than a 
year, in the meantime gathering material for his 
sketch on the character and literary habits of 
Prescott. In 1848 he became active in the Free 
Soil party, and in 1850 wrote for the Boston Atlas 
a series of articles in reply to Prof. Francis 
Bowen, who attacked the Hungarian revolu- 
tionists in the North American Review. He then 
became an editorial writer on the staff of the 
Boston Daily Commonwealth, and later sole editor. 
In 1854, as secretary of the Massachusetts state 
committee of the Free Soil party, he personally 
called the Worcester convention of July 20, which 
founded the Republican party, by adopting that 
name chosen by him, and approving a platform 
which he had prepared. In 1855 he became an 
editor of the Telegraph, and in 1856 was made 
editor of the Daily Atlas. In 1857 the Telegraph 
and Atlas were united with the Traveller. After 
the failure of the Traveller he removed to Wash- 
ington, where he was special correspondent to the 
New York Tribune imtil 1859. He then became 
connected with Charles A. Dana and George Rip- 
ley in editing the New American Cyclopcedia, 
From 1864 to 1869 he was editor of the Rochester 
(N.Y.) Democrat, and in the latter year became 
editor of Appleton's Journal. In 1873 he resigned 
this position to become an associate editor of 
Tlie American Cyclopcedia. His published writ- 
ings include The Hungarian Controversy (1852), 
and A Summer Cruise on the Atlantic Coast of 
New England (1858 ; new ed., 1888). He died in 
Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 15, 1879. 

CARTER, Russel Kelso, educator, was bom in 
Baltimore, Md., Nov. 19, 1849. He was educated 
at the Pennsylvania military academy, graduat- 
ing in 1867. In 1869 he was appointed instructor ; 



in 1872, professor of chemistry and natural sci- 
ences ; and in 1881, professor of civil engineering 
and higher mathematics in that institution. He 
was connected with the '"Holiness" schism of the 
Methodist church. He contributed to the Micro- 
cosm (N. Y.), and in 1886 began at Chester, Pa., 
the publication of The Kingdom. He published: 
Miracles of Healing (1880) ; Pastor Blum- 
hardt (1882) ; and several pamphlets on Faith 
cure. 

CARTER, Samuel PowhaUn, naval officer, 
was bom in Carter county, Tenn., Aug. 6, 1819. 
He attended Washington college, Tenn., studied 
at Princeton, and was appointed a midshipman 
in the U. S. navy in 1840. In 1846 he was on 
duty at the naval school in Philadelphia, when 
he was promoted passed midshipman. He served 
in the Mexican war, participating in the taking 
of Vera Cruz. During 1847-'48 he was attached 
to the U. S. naval observatory in Washington; 
1851-'58 was assistant instructor at the U. S. 
naval academy; was promoted master in 1854, 
and lieutenant in 1855. During 1855-'57 he was 
attached to the San Jacinto of the Asiatic squad- 
ron, and participated in the taking of the Barrier 
forts in the Canton river. He was assistant in- 
structor in seamanship at the naval academy 
from 1858 to 1860, and on July 11, 1861, was 
ordered on special service with the army in east 
Tennessee. He was commissioned acting briga- 
dier-general Sept. 16, 1861, and brigadier-general 
May 1, 1862; was provost-marshal of east Tennes- 
see during 1868-'64; was brevetted major-general 
of United States volunteers March 13, 1865; was 
mustered out January, 1866. He was distin- 
guished for his gallantry in the engagements at 
WUdcat, Ky., October, 1861, Mill Spring, 1862, and 
in the capture of Cumberland Gap. He com- 
manded the left wing of the army at Kinston, 
N. C, March 10, 1865, and defeated the Confed- 
erates at Goldsboro. At the close of the war he 
returned to naval duty, was promoted com- 
mander June 25, 1865 ; during 1869-*72 was com- 
mandant at the U. S. naval academy; was 
promoted captain, 1870; was a member of the 
lighthouse board, 1867-*80; was promoted com- 
modore Nov. 13, 1878; was retired Aug. 6, 1881, 
and promoted rear-admiral on the retired list 
May 16, 1882. He died in Washington, D. C, 
May 26, 1891. 

CARTER, Thomas Henry, senator, was bom 
at Junior Furnace, Scioto county, Ohio, Oct. 30, 
1854; son of Edward and Margaret Carter, who 
were bom in Ireland, and first settled in the 
state of Maryland, moving to Ohio about 1849. 
The family removed from Ohio to Illinois in 1865. 
The son attended the public schools for a brief 
time and then engaged in railroading, fanning 
and school-teaching. In 1875 he removed to 



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CARVER. 



Bnrlington, Iowa, and later to the state of Ken- 
tucky. In 1882 he settled in Helena, Montana, 
where he practised law until 1888, when he was 
elected territorial delegate to the 51st Congress. 
In 1889, the territory having been admitted as a 
fitate, he was elected its first congressional repre- 
sentative. He was chairman of the committee 
on mines and mining in the 51st Congress, and in 
March, 1891, was appointed by President Harri- 
son commissioner of the general land office. On 
July 16, 1891, he was elected chairman of the na- 
tional Republican committee, and as such con- 
ducted the presidential campaign of 1892. He was 
U.S. senator from Montana, 1895-1901, and in 1900 
was appointed U.S. commissioner to the St. Louis 
^exposition. 

CARTTER, I>avid Kellogg, jurist, was born in 
Rochester, N. Y., June 22, 1812. He was admit- 
ted to the bar and practised first at Massillon, 
Ohio. He was twice elected to the state legisla- 
ture, and in 1848 was elected a representative to 
the 31st Congress as a Democrat. He removed 
to Cleveland, Ohio, in the late fifties, and was 
active in the presidential canvass of 1860 as a 
Republican. During 1861 and 1862 he served as 
United States minister to Bolivia. In 1868 he 
wBs made chief justice of the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia. He died in Washington, 
D. C, April 16, 1887. 

CARTWRIGHT, Peter, clergyman, was bom 
in Amherst county, Va., Sept. 1, 1785. About 
1790 liis father, who was a soldier in the revolu- 
tionary army, moved to Logan county, Ky., then 
a wild and unsettled region. He received a 
meagre education, was converted at the age of 
sixteen, and became 
a local preacher. In 
1803 he became a regu- 
lar preacher, and was 
ordained an elder in 
1806 by Bishop Asbury. 
In 1823 he moved to 
Illinois, where he set- 
tled in Sangamon 
county, being twice 
V elected to represent 
that district in the 
state legislature. He 
was a delegate at all 
the conferences for 
many years. Pe was a Democrat in politics and 
opposed slavery. In 1846 he was a Democratic 
candidate for representative in Congress, but 
was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. He was for 
fifty years a presiding elder of the Methodist 
church, his quaint and forcible style of preach- 
ing was suited to the times and to the people 
among whom he labored, and he was both feared 
and beloved. He published several pamph- 




lets, of which his Controversy with the Devil 
(1853), and an Autobiography of Rev. Peter 
Carturright were the most notable. He died 
near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon county, 111., 
Sept. 25, 1872. 

CARTWRIQHT, Samuel Adolphus, physician, 
was bom in Fairfax county, Va., Nov. 30, 1798. 
He pursued his medical studies at the University 
of Pennsylvania, and practised his profession at 
Huntsville, Ala., and at Natchez, Miss. In 1848 
he removed to New Orleans. He made a special 
study of epidemic diseases, and in 1862 he con- 
tracted an illness, which proved fatal, while 
improving the sanitary conditions of the Con- 
federate soldiers at Port Hudson and Vicksburg. 
He died in Jackson, Miss., May 2, 1863. 

CARUTHERS, Robert L.» jurist, was bom in 
Smith county, Tenn., in 1800. He was left an 
orphan at an early age, and worked hard to ac* 
quire the means for an education. He attended 
Greenville college, studied law in the office of 
Judge Samuel Powell, was admitted to the bar 
in 1823, and in September of the same year was 
elected clerk of the house of representatives of 
the general assembly of Tennessee. At the close 
of his term he practised his profession in Leb- 
anon, Wilson county. In 1827 he was elected 
attorney-general for his circuit, serving until 
1832, when he resigned. In 1835 he was the 
representative from Wilson county in the first 
general assembly held after the adoption of the 
new constitution. He served with distinction 
on the judiciary committee, and after the ad- 
journment of the legislature made a compilation 
of the statutes of the state. In 1840 he was 
elected as a representative to the 27th Congress, 
succeeding John Bell. In 1852 he was appointed 
supreme judge to succeed Matthew Greene on 
his resignation. He was re-elected to the office 
by the legislature in 1853, and, on the adoption of 
the constitutional amendment, providing for 
election by the people, he was elected by them 
in 1854 In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace 
commission, and later served as a member of the 
provisional congress of the Confederate states. 
In 1863 he was elected governor, but the occupa- 
tion of the state by the Federal forces prevented 
his induction into office. At the close of the war 
he formed a law partnership with Judge Wil- 
liam F. Cooper at Nashville. A few years later 
he retired from practice, and became professor of 
law in Cumberland university, of whose board of 
trustees he had been president since 1842, which 
position he held until his death, Oct. 2, 1892. 

CARVER, John, first governor of Plymouth, 
Mass., was bom in England about 1590. He was 
a brother-in-law of Rev. John Robinson and a 
member of his church at Scrooby, Nottingham- 
shire. With the rest of the congregation he 



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CARVER. 



CARVER. 



aocompanied his pastor to Holland, and settled in 
Leyden in 1609. There he became a deacon of 
the church and a man of influence, and was 
among those who urged the departure of the 
colony from Leyden, **lest their young men 
should enlist in foreign service, and the little 
community be lost in a foreign nation, its Eng- 




lish speech being forgotten and its religious faith 
disturbed. " In 161 7 he was sent to England with 
Robert Cushman, to secure from the Virginia 
company the right to settle in its territory, and 
from the king security for religious freedom, 
should they go to Virginia. These agents were 
also empowered to secure transportation, and 
hired the Mayflower in London. His name stands 
at the head of those signed to the compact on 
board that vessel Nov. 11, 1620. [The illustration 
above represents the Mayflower^ from a paint- 
ing at Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, Mass.] He was 
chosen governor of the colony for the first year 
at the same time, and the policy he pursued in 
harmonizing the diverse elements among the 
colonists, encouraging the despondent, control- 
ling the enthusiastic, and in conciliating the 
Indians, did much to secure the peace of the 
colony. He was re-elected governor, March 25, 
1621. and died in April, 1621. 

CARVER* Jonathan, traveller, was bom in 
Canterbury, Conn., in 1732; grandson of William 
Joseph Carver of Wigan, Lancashire, England, 
an oflScer in the colony of Connecticut. The 
father of Jonathan was a justice of the peace, 
who gave the son as good an education as the 
locality and period afforded, and died about 1747. 
Until 1750 Jonathan studied medicine, and in 
that year was appointed an ensign in a Connecti- 
cut regiment. He served in the Canadian cam- 
paign in 1755, and in 1757 was a lieutenant in the 
Massachusetts battalion, raised by Colonel Par- 
tridge, to serve against Canada. He was promoted 
captain in 1760, and in 1762 led a company in 
Baltonstall^s regiment. He retired from the ser- 
vice in 1763. In June, 1766, he set out from Bos- 
ton for the purpose of exploring the portion of 
the American continent which was claimed by 
Great Britain. Travelling by the way of Albany 



and Niagara he reached Mackinaw, where he was 
supplied with credit on the traders at Prairie du 
Chien for an assortment of goods, believing that 
he would thus be received by the Indians with 
less suspicion. From Prairie du Chien he pro- 
ceeded down the Wisconsin river and arrived at 
Prairie du Sac, Ck3t. 8, 1766. From the Wisconsin, 
river they went to the Mississippi He paddled 
a canoe up the Mississippi to Lake Pepin, leaving 
the water at the mouth of the Minnesota and 
proceeding on foot to the Falls of St. Anthony. 
He then penetrated to the shores of Lake Superior 
and returned to Boston, arriving there in Octo- 
ber, 1768, having been absent two years and 
seven months, and travelled nearly seren thousand 
mUes. He went to England to communicate his 
discoveries, where he was subjected to a long 
examination before he was given permission to 
publish his papers. He was soon after obliged 
to repurchase his manuscript from his publisher 
at great expense, and deliver it to the council, 
they allowing him for it but a small sum, quite 
insufficient to meet the expense he had mcurred. 
Ten years after the completion of his tour he 
received permission to publish his book, which 
appeared in London in 1778, imder the title 
** Three years' Travels through the Interior Parts 
of North America.'* This book was translated 
into several languages and printed in about 
twenty-three editions. The following year he 
published a Treatise on the Culture of Tobacco. 
The> proceeds from his books were small, and he 
died in London, according to the Oentleman^s 
Magazine, "absolutely and strictly starved." 
The benevolent Dr. Lettsom secured the publica- 
tion of a new edition of his travels for the bene- 
fit of his widow and children, and this act led to 
the institution of the Royal literary fund of Lon- 
don. The date of his death is Jan. 31, 1780. 

CARVER, Leonard Dwight, librarian, wa» 
bom at LaGrange, Penobscot county. Me., Jan. 
26, 1841. He received a high-school education, 
and attended Foxcroft academy for a short time, 
leaving school in April, 1861, to volunteer in the 
army. He served with his regiment in every 
skirmish and battle in which it was engaged,, 
and was discharged in June, 1863. In August, 
1864, he entered Colby university at Waterville, 
Me., and was gp:«duated in 1868 with the highest 
honors. Until 1873 he taught school in Maine, 
removing then to Illinois, where for three years 
he taught school and studied law. In 1876 he 
was admitted to the bar in Maine, and until 1890- 
practised in Waterville, meanwhile holding vari- 
ous local offices. He was appointed state librarian 
at Augusta in December, 1890. He reorganized 
the library, procured the passage of various 
library laws, and organised free public libraries 
throughout the state. 



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GARY. 



GARY. 



CARY9 Albigence Waldo, inventor, was born 
in Goventry, Kent county, R. I ., May 23, 1801. 
He invented Gary's steam rotary force pump, 
which was used in mines, in the construction of 
railways, in raising sunken vessels, and on the 
first steam fire-engines built in the United States. 
He died in Brockport. N. Y., Aug. 30, 1862. 

CARVf Alice, author, was bom near Gincin- 
nati, Ohio, April 20, 1820; daughter of Robert 
and Elizabeth (Jessup) Gary. She received a 
limited education and early evinced literary 
ability. In 1835 her mother died, and two years 
later her father married again, and established a 
separate home for himself near the cottage wliere 
his children resided. Ahoe began to write at the 
age of eighteen, and from that time contributed 
largely to the periodical press, both prose and 
poetry. The Child of Sorrow, her first literary 
venture, appeared in the Sentinel (afterwards 
the Star of the West). The Star was for many 
years her only regidar medium of publication. 
Her first prose work was contributed to the 
National Era, established at Washington by Dr. 
Bailey in 1847. She wrote stories for this per- 
iodical under the pen name of Patty Lee, and 
received as her first honorarium the sum of 
ten dollars from Dr. Bailey. In 1849 appeared 
the Poem8 of Alice and Phaibe Gary. Men of 
letters all over the United States had written to 
the sisters words of praise and encouragement on 
reading their poems in the corners of newspapers 
and magazines, and the reception of their first 
book determined them to visit the east. They 
went to New York, Boston and Amesbury, and 
the poet Whit tier commemorated their visit to 
him in his poem of the Singer, the subject of 
which was Alice. In November, 1850, she started 
forth alone to make for herself a home in New 
York city. Of this venture she writes, ** Had I 
known the great world as I have learned it since 
I should not have dared." She made friends 
from the first, and in 1851 wrote for her sisters 
to join her. In 1852 she published the Clover- 
nook Papers^ which sold largely in Great Britain 
as well as in the United States. This encourage- 
ment led to the publication of a second series in 
1853. The influence of Alice Gary's beautiful 
character was felt in her home, and in her inter- 
course with others; the house on Twentieth 
street, where the sisters resided after 1855, as 
they attained literary distinction, became the 
centre of the New York world of letters, and to 
name all the distinguished men and women who 
met there for inspiration and refreshment would 
be to call the roll of the notable clergymen, pub- 
lishers, authors and artists of the day. She was 
an indefatigable worker, writing for a great part 
of each day for twenty years, during which time 
she produced eleven volumes, in addition to 



almost innumerable contributions to periodical 
literature. She left unfinished a novel entitled 
The Bom Thrall, Her published works are : 
Clovemook Papers (1851-53) ; Hagar, a Story of 
To-day (1852) ; Tfie Clovemook Children (1854) ; 
Lyra and other Poems (1853) ; The Maiden of 
Tlascala (1855) ; Married, not Mated (1856) ; 
Pictures of Country Life (1859); Lyrics and 
Hymns (1866) ; Tlie Bishop's Son (1867) ; Hie 
Lover's Diary (1867) ; Snow Berries (1869). She 
died in New York city, Feb. 12, 1871. 

CARVy Annie Louise, singer, was bom at 
Wayne, Kennebec county. Me., Oct. 22, 1842; 
daughter of Dr. Nelson Howard and Maria (Stock- 
bridge) Gary. She was graduated at the (>orham 
(Me.) female seminary in 1862. After studying 
music in Boston under Lyman W. Wheeler she 
was sent to Milan, 
Italy, in 1866, and 
studied for two 
years under Gio- 
vanni Gorsi. She 
engaged with an 
Italian opera com- 
pany, and early in 
1868 made her debut 

at Gopenhagen as ^|'^,,^ ..J^SSiUS^ \M\'\ 
Azucena in ** II Tro- 
vatore, ' ' afterwards j^^jgi 

singing in Qothen- '^-^M^^ — ^ 

burg and Chrm- ^^^^^ 
ania. During the ^fe^ ^ .9Jw. ^^^^ 
summer she re- v *" ^^ ^ 
mained in Baden- ^^^muc- ^czu^ Ca^t^ 
Baden, pursuing her -^ 

studies under Madame Viardot-Garcia. In the 
early fall of 1868 she sang in Italian opera in 
Stockholm under Ferdinand Strakosch, and 
later in the season sang in the royal Swedish 
opera. The summer of 1869 was devoted to 
study under Bottesini in Paris, and at the begin- 
ning of the fall season she sang in Brussels, and 
made a three years' engagement with Max and 
Maurice Strakosch to sing in the United States. 
She remained in Europe, studying in Paris and 
singing in London, imtil the autumn of 1870, 
when she made her America 1 debut at Stein way 
Hall, New York, in concert with Nilsson, Brignoli 
and Vieuxtemps. She was received everywhere 
in her native country with enthusiasm. Return- 
ing to Europe in 1875 she sang during the season 
at St. Petersburg and Moscow, and again ap- 
peared at those cities in 1876-'77. The next two 
seasons she sang in America with Kellogg and 
Rose in opera. In the fall of 1879 she began an 
engagement with the Mapleson company, and 
remained with them during the two succeeding 
seasons, singing in concerts and festivals in the 




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GARY. 



CASK 



principal musical centre of the United States. 
She also won success in oratorio, and sang fre- 
quently with the Brooklyn philharmonic society. 
Her professional career ceased after her marriage 
to Charles Monson Raymond of New York city, 
June 29, 1882. 

CARY, George Lovell* educator, was bom in 
Med way, Mass., May 10, 1880; eldest son of Wil- 
liam Hiram and Lydia D. (Lovell) Gary. He was 
educated at Williston seminary, Leicester acad- 
emy, and Harvard college, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1852. In 185&-'57 he was professor of 
Greek, and 1857-'62 of Greek and Latin in Antioch 
<x)llege. Yellow Springs, Ohio. In 1862 he was 
called to the chair of New Testament literature 
in the Meadville (Pa.) theological school, subse- 
quently being instructor in philosophy and lan- 
guages. He was elected president of the institu- 
tion in 1890. He became a member of the New 
England historic-genealogical society, the Amer- 
ican Oriental society, the American institute of 
civics, the American academy of biblical and 
social science, the American statistical associa- 
tion, the civil service reform association, and the 
Ajnerican peace society. Harvard college con- 
ferred upon him the degree of A.M. in 1857, and 
Allegheny college gave him an L.H.D. in 1898. 
His published writings include, Introduction to 
the Greek of tJie New Testament (1878), and TJie 
Synoptic Gospel (1900). 

GARY, Joseph Clinton* inventor, was bom in 
Brockport, N. Y., in 1829; son of Albigence Waldo 
Cary. For twenty years he operated as a specula- 
tor in WaU street, and in 1860 built two steam 
fire-engines, to which the Cary steam rotary f orce- 
ptmip, invented by his father, was attached. 
These powerful engines were used in New York 
city, and at large fires were very effective. He 
died at Martha's Vineyard, Mass., Aug. 7, 1884. 

CARY, Phoebe, poet, was bom in Miami valley, 
near Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 4, 1824, daughter of 
Robert and Elizabeth (Jessup) Cary. One of 
nine children, with parents in but moderate cir- 
cumstances, her early educational advantages 
were limited after the death of her mother in 
1835. She was the constant companion of her sis- 
ter Alice, and developed a literary talent scarcely 
less marked. The record of their lives is almost 
identical, and between them grew up a sympathy 
and love of peculiar strength. At the age of 
thirteen she began to write verses. In 1849, with 
her sister, she collected and revised all their poems, 
which were published in 1850 under the title. 
Poems of Alice and PJuebe Cary, She was 
called the ** wittiest woman in America." Her 
published works are : Poems and Parodies 
(1854) ; Poems of Faith, Hope, and Love (1868), 
and in 1869, in collaboration with the Rev. Dr. 
Charles F. Deems, Hymns for all Christians, 



in which ^ was included her beautiful hymn. 
Nearer Home, beginning One Sweetly Solemn 
Thought. A memorial of Alice Cary, published 
in 1871, was her last work, a labor of love. She 
died at Newport, R. I., July 81, 1871. 

CARY, Samuel Fenton, representative, was 
bom in Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 18, 1814, son of 
William and Rebecca (Fenton) Cary. He was 
graduated at Miami university in 1835, and at the 
Cincinnati law college in 1887, practising his pro- 
fession in Cincinnati imtil 1844, when he became 
a lecturer in the interests of temperance reform. 
He lectured throughout the United States, 
Canada, and the British Isles. He edited at vari- 
ous times newspapers and magazines, and in 1847 
was elected to the chief office of the Sons of 
temperance, at Baltimore, Md. In 1866 he was 
elected a representative to the 40th Congress, and 
after the expiration of his term in 1869 returned 
to the practice of law in Cincinnati. In 1876 he 
was nominated as vice-president of the United 
States on the Independent, or ** Greenback," 
ticket. He is the author of Cary Memorials (1874). 
He died at Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 30, 1900. 

CASE, Augustus Ludlow, naval officer, was 
bom in Newburg, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1818. He en- 
tered the navy in 1828 as midshipman, was pro- 
moted passed midshipman, June 14, 1834, and 
lieutenant, Feb. 25, 1841. He served in the Mexi- 
can war, taking part in the battles of Vera Cruz, 
Alvarado, and Tabasco. At the head of twenty- 
five men he succeeded in holding the town of 
Palisada for two weeks. In 1852-*53, he was 
placed in command of the Warren, and for the 
four years following he was stationed in New 
York as inspector of light-houses. On Sept. 14, 
1855, he was promoted commander, and in 1861, 
was made fleet-captain of the North Atlantic 
blockading squadron, taking part in the capture 
of Fort Clark on Aug. 28, and Fort Hatteras on 
Aug. 29, 1861. On Jan. 2, 1863, he was promoted 
captain and assigned to the Iroquois, and from 
1865 to 1866 he was fleet-captain of the Europeaa 
squadron. He was promoted commodore Dec. 8, 
1868, and rear-admiral. May 24, 1872. During the 
troubles with Spain in 1874 he commanded the 
fleet at Key West, Fla. He was retired Feb. 3, 
1875, and died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 17, 1893. 

CASE, Mary Sophia, educator, was bom at 
Washington, Franklin coimty, Ohio, March 2, 
1854; daughter of William Phelps and Fredonia 
Whiting (Burr) Case. Her early education was 
chiefly acquired at home. In 1867 she removed 
to Columbus, Ohio, and was graduated from the 
Columbus high school in 1869. In 1878 she was 
graduated from the Cleveland, Ohio, female semin- 
ary, and afterwards taught in Burlington, N. J., 
in Omaha, Neb., and in Worthington, Ohio. In 
the fall of 1880 she entered the University of 



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CASE. 



casey: 



Michigan, g^raduating A. B. 1884. She was an 
instructor in Latin at Wellesley college, 1884- 
"^, in philosophy, 188d-'90 ; became associate pro- 
fessor of psychology and the history of philoso- 
phy there in 1890, and studied and ti'avelled in 
Europe 1890-'93, resuming her duties at Wellesley 
in 1892. 

CASE, Theodore Spencer, educator, was born 
in Jackson, Ga., Jan. 26, 1832 ; son of Ermine Case. 
He was graduated at Marietta college in 1851, and 
at Starling medical college, Ohio, in 1856. He en- 
gaged in practice in Kansas city. Mo., in 1857; 
Attained the rank of colonel and quartermaster 
general of Missouri during the Civil war ; served 
as curator of the University of the State of Mis- 
souri, 1866-70, and as postmaster of Kansas city, 
1873-*85. He Was professor of chemistry in Kan- 
sas city medical college 1885-1900 ; became presi- 
clent of the city real estate and stock exchange in 
1886 ; edited the Medical Review, 1860--61, and the 
Meview of Science and Industry, 1877-85. He re. 
<»ived the degree Ph.D. from the University 
Medical college of Kansas city in 1883, and pub- 
lished The Quariermastera' Otiide (1865). He 
<iied in Kansas city, Mo., in 1900. 

CA5EY, Lyman R., senator, was born in York, 
N.Y., May 6, 1837 ; son of Lyman and Annie M. 
(Church) Casey ; grandson of John Casey and of 
4^muel Church, and a descendant of Edward 
Casey, who settled in Rhode Island in 1652. He 
early removed to Ypsilanti, Mich., with his par- 
-ents, and was prepared for the University of 
Michigan, but on account of ill health never 
entered. He engaged in the hardware business in 
Detroit, Mich., and on retiring in 1872 spent five 
years abroad in travel and study. He settled in 
Dakota in 1882, and became secretary and general 
manager for the Casey-Carrington land company, 
:a large farming concern, and the owner of over 
100,000 acres, having many thousand under culti- 
vation. He was elected to the U.S. senate from 
North Dakota as a Republican in 1889, and drew 
the short term ending March 4, 1893. 

CASEY* Silas, soldier, was bom at East Green- 
wich, R. I., July 12, 1807; son of Wanton and 
Elizabeth (Gk)odale) Casey. He was gradiiated 
at West Point in 1826, and served on frontier 
duty in Iowa, and in garrison and on recruiting 
•duty in New York state and Michigan until 1836, 
when he was promoted 1st lieutenant. From 
1837 to 1841 he served in the Florida war, being 
-advanced to the rank of captain in 1839. He 
served during 1847-*48 in the Mexican war; on 
Aug. 20, 1847, received the brevet rank of major 
for his conduct at the battles of Contreras and 
Ohurubusco, and on Sept. 13, 1847, was brevet- 
ted Ueutenant-oolonel for gallantry in the battle 
of Chapultepec, in which engagement he was 
wounded. In 1855 he was promoted lieutenant- 



colonel, and served on frontier duty until 1861, 
when he was made brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. In October, 1861, he was promoted colonel, 
and he served with distinction during the civil 
war, winning the brevet rank of brigadier- 
general for Fair Oaks. On May 31, 1862, he was 
made major-general of volunteers, and on March 
13, 1865, was brevetted major-general for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the war. 
He was mustered out of the volunteer service 
Aug. 24, 1865, and later in that year was placed 
in command of troops at Fort Wayne and Detroit, 
Mich. He was retired from active service July 
8, 1868, on his own application, after forty con- 
secutive years of service. He is the author of 
Infantry Tactics (2 vols., 1861), and Infantry 
Tactics for Colored Troops (1863). He was mar- 
ried July 12, 1830, to Abby Perry, daughter of 
the Hon. Dut^ Jerauld and Abigail Coggeshall 
(Perry) Pearce, of Newport, R. I. He died in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1882. 

CASEY, Silas, naval officer, was bom in Rhode 
Island, Sept. 11, 1841; son of Silas and Abby 
Perry (Pearce) Casey. He was graduated from 
the naval academy at Annapolis in 1860, and was 
attached to the steam-frigate Niagara imtil 1862. 
He was promoted master in 1861, and lieutenant 
in July, 1862. In 1862-'63 he was executive 
officer on the gunboat Wissahickon of the South 
Atlantic blockading squadron, and was present 
at the first attack on Charleston and the attack 
on Fort Fisher. On July 25, 1866, he was com- 
missioned as lieutenant-commander, and from 
1867 to 1870 was stationed at the naval academy. 
From 1870 to 1873 he was executive officer on the 
frigate Colorado of the Asiatic squadron, com- 
manding a battalion of sailors in the Corean 
expedition and assault on Fort McKee, S^ul 
river in June, 1872. He was commissioned com- 
mander, Feb. 12, 1874; captain, Aug. 25, 1889, 
and commodore, Feb. 1, 1898. He was in charge 
of the training ship Portsmouth, Pacific station, 
1875-*76; lighthouse inspector, 1876-'79; in com- 
mand of the steamers Wyoming and Quinnebaught 
1880-82, equipment officer at Washington navy 
yard, 1882-*84; lighthouse inspector, 1884-'89; 
commanded the Newark, 1890-'93 ; on leave of ab- 
sence, 1898-'97; commanded the New York, flag- 
ship, 1897-98, and was made commandant of 
the League Island navy yard, Jan. 13, 1898. 

CASBY, Thomas Lincoln, engineer, was bom 
at Madison Barracks, Sacketts Harbor, N. Y., 
May 10, 1881; the eldest son of Gen. Silas and 
Abby Perry (Pearce) Casey, and a descendant in 
the seventh generation from Thomas and Sarah 
Casey of Newport, R. I. (1658). He was gradu- 
ated at the military academy in 1852 at the head 
of his class, and received the appointment of 
brevet 2d lieutenant in the corps of engineers. 



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CASEY. 



CASS. 



He was assistant engineer upon the harbor works 
of Delaware bay and river, and the construction 
of Fort Delaware until 1854; was assistant pro- 
fessor of civil and military engineering at the 
West Point military academy, 1854-'59, and in 
command of engineer soldiers on Puget Sound, 
Washington territory, 185d-'61. He was ap- 
pointed a captain of engineers, Aug. 6, 1861, and 
served during the civil war as engineer on the 
staff of the general commanding the department 
of Virginia, as superintending engineer in the 
construction of forts and batteries on the coast 
of Maine, and on special duty with the North 
Atlantic squadron during the first expedition 
to Fort Fisher, N. C, in December, 1864. He 
was made major of engineers, Oct. 2, 1868, 
and brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel, 
March 13, 1865. He was employed on the coast 
of Maine until 1867, when he was placed in charge 
of the division of fortifications in the oflftce of 
the war department, Washington, D. C. In the 
sunmier of 1873 he was sent to Europe at the 
head of a board to examine the systems of tor- 
pedo construction adopted in Great Britain, 
Germany, Austria, and France. He was made 
lieutenant-colonel of engineers September, 1874. 
In 1877 he was given charge of public build- 
ings and grounds in the Districc of Columbia, 
the Washington aqueduct and the construction 
of the building for the state, war and navy 
departments, finished by him in 1888. In 1878 
he was selected as the engineer and architect to 
complete the Washington national monument. 
This he accomplished Dec. 6, 1884, by first plac- 
ing a new and enlarged foundation beneath the 
old one, by carrying the shaft from a height of 
150 feet to 500 feet, and crowning it with a pyra- 
midion 55 feet in height, in place of the flat 
terminal of the original design. He was pro- 
moted colonel, corps of engineers, March 13, 1884, 
and in 1886 became president of the board of 
engineers in New York city. He was a member 
of a board to advise upon the ventilation of the 
hall of the house of representatives in the capitol, 
1877-'86, and a member of the lighthouse board 
from 1884 to 1892. On July 6, 1888, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general and chief of engineers ; 
by act of Oct. 2, 1888, was designated to erect 
the new building for the library of Congress; 
and by act of Sept. 27, 1890, made one of a 
commission to locate a l^rge park in the suburbs 
of Washington. He was a member of the society 
of the Cincinnati of Massachusetts, the New 
England historic-genealogical society, the Rhode 
Island historical society, an oflScer in the Legion 
of honor of France, and a member of the national 
academy of science of the United States of 
America. He was married to Enmia Weir, and 
left two sons. — Thomas Lincoln, who was gradu- 



ated at West Point in 1879; and Edward Pearce. 
who was graduated at the Columbia college school 
of mines in 1886. Besides numerous official reports 
and articles upon engineering subjects, General 
Casey contributed several sketches to historical 
and genealogical magazines. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, March 26. 1896. 

CAS1LBAR» John William, landscape painter, 
was bom in New York city, June 25, 1811. He 
developed a fondness for art at a very early age. 
At the age of sixteen he began the study of en- 
graving with Peter Maverick, with whom he re- 
mained four years, when, upon the death of Mav- 
erick, he became a pupil of Asher B. Durrand, 
who was then engaged in banknote engraving. 
In 1882 he went into the same business on his 
own account, and continued in it imtil 1864, when 
he devoted himself to the more congenial pursuit 
of landscape painting. During this period he en- 
graved only a single plate of any importance. 
The Head of a Sibyl, his time being chiefly 
occupied in designing and engraving banknote 
vignettes. For the purpose of study he visited 
Europe in 1840. and again in 1857. He was elected 
an associate of the national academy in 1885, and 
a full academician in 1851. Among his important 
pictures are : C^enesee Meadows (1871) ; Sep- 
tember Afternoon ( 1874) ; View of the Bocky 
Mountains (1881) ; Oenesee River (1887) ; 
Landscape with Cattle (1888) ; Roger's Slide, 
Lake George (1891), and UUswater (1892). 
He died suddenly while on a pleasure tour, and 
left, besides numerous examples of his ovm work, 
a valuable collection of foreign arts. His only 
son, John William Casilear, studied art and 
became a prominent marine painter and illus- 
trator. He died at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
Aug. 17, 1893. 

CASS, Lewis, statesman, was bom at Exeter, 
N. H., Oct. 9, 1782; son of Jonathan and Mary 
(Oilman) Cass. His father was a blacksmith 
who, in 1775, left his forge to enter the Conti- 
nental army, and remained in active service un- 
til the close of the revolution, when he received 
a conmiission as major, and was assigned to 
duty under General Wayne in <Jhe northwest. 
Lewis, the eldest of six children, acquired his 
education during the years 1792-*99 at Phillips 
academy, Exeter, where Benjamin Abbot was 
the master. He subsequently taught at the acad- 
emy. About the year 1800 Major Cass resigned 
his commission in the army and removed with 
his family to Ohio valley, settling first at Mari- 
etta, and the next year removing to near Zanes- 
ville, where he located forty 100-acre land war- 
rants. Lewis had gone to Marietta in 1799, 
where he studied law under Return Jonathan 
Meigs. On the arrival of his father and family, 
he assisted them in building their first home in 



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CASS. 



CASS. 




the wilderness. In lbU2 Ohio was admitted to 
the Union, and Lewis Cass was the first candi- 
date admitted to the bar under the new consti- 
tution. The same year he went to Zanesville, 
where he practised law. In 1804 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney 
of the coimty. In 1806 
he was married to 
Elizabeth Spenoer of 
Virginia, and the same 
year was elected to 
the state legislature, 
; and appointed by Gov- 
ernor Tifi&n a member 
of the committee to 
inquire into the move- 
ments of Aaron Burr. 
He drafted the bill 
passed by the Ohio 
legislature ordering 
the arrest of the ex- 
pedition. He also 
framed and presented to the legislature the 
resolution expressing confidence in the adminis- 
tration of President Jefferson, abhorrence of re- 
bellion and insurrection, and attachment to the 
Federal constitution, which was afterwards for- 
warded to the President. In 1807 President Jef- 
ferson appointed Mr. Cass U. S. marshal of the 
state of Ohio, and he continued in that office for 
six years. He was made colonel of the 8d Ohio 
volunteers in the war of 1812, and with an army 
of twelve hundred volimteers assembled at Day- 
ton. Ohio. They were divided into three regi- 
ments under William Hull, governor of Michigan 
territory, who had been commissioned brigadier- 
general. When the troops crossed the river at 
Detroit in July, 1812, to conquer upper Canada, 
Colonel Cass was the first to land on the Cana- 
dian shore, where he made the attack on the 
enemy^s outposts at Aux Canards. The misunder- 
standing with General Hull resulted in the sur- 
render of the little army at Detroit without firing 
a gun. Oeneral Hull had included Colonel Cass's 
force in the capitulation, which action greatly 
incensed Cass, and he hastened to Washington, 
where he made his report of the affair to the gov- 
ernment. He was appointed major-general of the 
Ohio militia, but by reason of his parole was not 
able to take the field. In January, 1813, he was 
instructed by the President to recruit two regi- 
ments of regular troops, and his parole being 
removed he, on Feb. 20, 1813, was commissioned 
colonel in the regular army, was subsequently 
brevetted brigadier-general, and commanded 
the 27th regiment of infantry in General Harri- 
son's army. He was a participant in the battle 
of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, and at the end of 
the campaign commanded the troops in Michigan 



with headquarters at Detroit. He succeeded Hull 
as governor of Michigan, by appointment oi Presi- 
dent Madison, Oct. 29, 1818. On tne return of 
peace. Governor Cass devoted himself to relieving 
the distress of starving French settlers, encourag- 
ing immigration from the eastern states, negotia- 
ting treaties with the Indians, codifying the laws 
and opening roads. He was the first white man 
to ride over the Indian trail which became the 
great highway between Detroit and Chicago. 
He accompanied Schoolcraft's expedition along 
Lake Superior and up the Mississippi, traversing 
five thousand miles, investigating the mineral 
resources of the country and studying the customs 
of the Indians. He wrote an account of this jour- 
ney, which was published in the North American 
Review. He so won the love of the Indian tribes 
as to be known among them as the '* Great 
Father at Detroit." In 1827 he averted a general 
Indian war by his promptness and personal in- 
fiuence, making a voyage in a canoe up the Fox, 
and down the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers to 
warn the troops at St. Louis. In 1831 President 
Jackson appointed him secretary of war. He 
suppressed the Indians in the Black Hawk war, 
and when South Carolina threatened secession 
he was prompt in seconding the President in his 
policy of taking active measures against the 
movement, ordering General Scott to hold 
the forts, but to use the utmost discretion and 
self-restraint. This action, followed by diplo- 
matic legislation, averted civil war. He threat- 
ened to resign when the President proposed the 
removal of the public deposits from the United 
States bank, and was dissuaded only by the Presi- 
dent assuming personally the whole responsi- 
bility. Experience had convinced him of the 
wisdom of isolating the Indian tribes, and he ad- 
vocated the removal of the Creeks and Seminoles 
from Florida to reservations west of the Missis- 
sippi. In 1833 he accompanied the President 
on his tour through the north, and afterwards 
in a general report to Congress he recommended 
the building of coast defences, maintaining a 
strong navy, and a reasonably formidable army. 
He, in the report, carefully detailed the condi- 
tion and resources of the military and naval 
defences of the nation. In 1836 his health failed, 
and he was appointed minister to France, with 
permission to leave Paris on a long trip for rest 
and recreation. Diplomatic intercourse between 
France and the United States had been sus- 
pended for over a year, on account of the failure 
to settle the French spoliation claims ; Mr. Cass, 
however, secured the interest and a promise of 
speedy payment of the principal, and he was 
received with general cordiality, and soon won 
the friendship of Louis Philippe. He travelled 
through Franoe, where he studied the condition 



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CASS. 



CASSIDY. 



of the people, and visited England, where he 
witnessed the coronation of Queen Victoria. He 
made a long voyage m the frigate Constitution 
through the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, 
and his impressions were afterwards published 
in the Southern Literary Messenger, and are 
evidences of his superior scholarship. In 1841 
the quintuple treaty for the suppression of the 
slave trade was negotiated by England, France, 
Prussia, Russia and Austria. By the treaty the 
contracting powers were authorized to detain 
and search one another's vessels on reasonable 
suspicion of being engaged in the slave trade. 
Mr. Cass detected in this an aggressive movement 
against the United States and immediately pub- 
lished a vigorous protest against the treaty, and 
urged the French government against the ratifi- 
cation. This action accomplished its purpose, 
and was afterwards sanctioned by the home gov- 
ernment. His position was that a suspected 
vessel flying a foreign flag can be detained and 
examined only at the detainer's peril. On the 
ratification of the Ashburton treaty, without 
any renunciation by England of the right of 
search, Cass resigned as United State? minister, 
and returned home in 1B42, where he received 
fiattering addresses and banquets in Boston, New 
York, Washington, and at every stage of his 
journey to Detroit. At the Democratic national 
convention of 1844, Mr. Cass, after leading the 
various candidates in many ballots, was de- 
feated for nomination to the presidency by James 
K. Polk. In the canvass following, as well as in 
his administration, Polk received the hearty sup- 
port of Mr. Cass, who, on Feb. 4, 1845, was elected 
United States senator from Michigan and given 
the second place on the committee on foreign 
affairs. In the great slavery controversy he 
deprecated the introduction of the Wilmot pro- 
viso as premature, and he formulated the com- 
promise proposition that the internal concerns of 
the territories should be regulated solely by their 
inhabitants. At the Democratic national con- 
vention of May, 1848, Senator Cass was nomin- 
ated as candidate for President on the fourth 
ballot, and at once resigned his seat in the sen- 
ate. On the nation's choice falling on Greneral 
Taylor, who carried the election largely through 
his personal popularity won in the Mexican war, 
aided by the division in the old parties caused 
by the defection of both Whigs and Democrats to 
Van Buren, the legislature of Michigan re-elected 
Mr. Cass to the senate to fill his own unexpired 
term. Here he disregarded the express instruc- 
tions of his state, and throughout the Slst Con- 
gress was the main ally of Henry Clay, favored 
the doctrine of popular sovereignty and op- 
posed the Wilmot proviso. He was present in 
the senate when the fugitive slave law was 



passed but declined to vote. He urged the 
cessation of unnecessary agitation, and the im- 
portance of harmony with so much force and 
conviction that the legislature of Michigan finally 
revoked its instructions, and re-elected him to 
the senate in 1851 by an increased majority. In 
1852 he was a prominent candidate before the 
Democratic national convention for President^ 
when the nomination went to Franklin Pierce. 
In 1854 the Michigan senators were instructed 
to vote for the prohibition of slavery in the terri- 
tories, and for the repeal of the fugitive law. 
Cass again disregarded his instructions, and in 
1857 Zachariah Chandler was elected senator 
from Michigan, Cass receiving sixteen out of 
one hundred and six legislative votes. When 
James Buchanan became President, Mr. Cas& 
was made secretary of state. He opposed the 
constitutional principle stated in President Bu- 
chanan's message that a state could not be 
coerced, and urged the further garrisoning of the 
Federal forts in the south. Finding that the ad- 
ministration differed with him, on Dec. 14, 1860, 
he handed his resignation to the President. Two 
years later, at Hillsdale, Mich., he made his last 
public address, calling for additional volunteers 
for the suppression of the rebellion, and declar- 
ing his ** love and reverence for our glorious con- 
stitution." His last public act was to urge 
President Lincoln and his cabinet by telegraph to 
surrender Mason and Slidell. General Cass was 
president of the American historical society, and 
his published works include : Inquiries Con- 
ceniingthe History, Traditions and Languages 
of the Indians living within the United States 
(1823) ; France, its King, Court and Oovemvient 
(1840). Schoolcraft wrote his life in 1848, Young 
in 1852, Smith in 1856, and a memorial volume 
was issued in 1866. He died in Detroit, Mich.^ 
June 17, 1866. 

CASSERLY, Eugene, senator, was born in 
Ireland in 1823, and was brought by his parents 
to New York in 1827. He was graduated at 
Georgetown college, D. C, and for about five 
years was connected with the New Y^ork news- 
paper press. He was admitted to the l)ar in 
1845, and was corporation attorney for the city 
during 1846 and 1847. Removing to California 
in 1850 he settled in San Francisco. During 
1850-'51 he published a daily paper, and in 
1851-'52 was state printer, at the same time con- 
tinuing to practise law. He was elected to the 
U. S. senate as a Democrat in 1869, and resigned 
Nov. 29, 1873, on accoimt of ill-health. He died 
in San Francisco, Cal., June 14, 1883. 

CASSIDY , William, journalist, was bom in 
Albany, N. Y., Aug. 12, 1815: son of John Cassidy. 
He was prepared for college at Albany academy, 
and was graduated at Union college in 1884, A 



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CASSIN. 



CASWELL. 



few years later he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1840 was appointed librarian of the New York 
state library, and held the office until 1848, when 
he purchased a share of the Albany Daily Atlas, 
of which he became editor. In 1856 the Atlas 
was joined to the Argtis, both names being re- 
tained until 1865, when the name Argus was 
resumed, and a stock company organized. In 
1868 he succeeded his brother-in-law, Peter Cag- 
ger, deceased, as secretary of the Democratic 
state committee. In 1867 he was made a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, and 
in 1872 was one of a committee of sixteen ap- 
pointed to revise the constitution. He died in 
Albany, N. Y., Jan. 28, 1873. 

CASSIN 9 John* naval officer, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1758, of Irish parentage. 
He was appointed lieutenant in the U. S. navy, 
Nov. 13, 1799, was promoted commander, April 
2, 1806, and captain July 3, 1812. During the 
war of 1812-'15 he was stationed on the Dela- 
ware river, and placed in command of the 
forces which defended Philadelphia. He died in 
Charleston, S. C, March 24, 1822. 

CASSlNy John, ornithologist, was bom near 
Chester, Pa., Sept. 6, 1813. He removed to 
Philadelphia in 1834. Becoming deeply inter- 
ested in natural history, he abandoned his busi- 
ness life in 1850 and gave his entire attention to 
ornithology. Among his published writings are: 
Birds in Outlines of General Zodlogy (1851) ; 
Notes on North American Birds in the Collec- 
tion of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia^ and the National Museum, Washing- 
ton (1856) ; Mammalogy and Ornithology (1858) ; 
The Birds of North America (with Spencer F. 
Baird and others, 1858) ; Third Study of the 
Icteridce (1867) ; and in the U. S. government 
reports, Ornithology of the U. 5. Eacploring Ex- 
pedition (\M5) ; Ornithology of Oillies's Astrono- 
mical Expedition to Chili (1855) ; Ornithology 
of tlie Japan Expedition (1856), and Rapacious 
and Wading Birds (1858). He died in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Jan. 10, 1869. 

CASSIN, Stephen, naval officer, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 16, 1783; son of John 
Cassin. He was appointed a midshipman in the 
navy, Feb. 21, 1800, and was promoted lieutenant, 
Feb. 12, 1807. On Sept. 11, 1814, he was made 
master, and on March 8, 1825, captain. He 
received a gold medal for his gallant action at 
the battle of Lake Champlain. He was placed 
on the reserved list Sept. 13, 1855, and died in 
Georgetown, D. C, Aug. 29, 1857. 

CASTLE, Frederick Augustus, physician, was 
bom in Fabius. N. Y., April 29, 1842; son of 
Orvin E. and Clarinda O. (Pratt) Castle. His 
American ancestors were William Castle, an 
early settler near Stratford, Conn. ; Thomas Cad- 



well, one of the first settlers in Hartford, and 
Mathew Pratt, who appeared in Weymouth, 
Mass., in 1628. His great-grandfather, Selah. 
Castle, was a captain; another great-grandfather, 
Phineas Cadwell, a corporal during the revolu- 
tionary war; and another great-grandfather, 
Mathew Pratt, of (Old) Braintree, was one of the 
"Boston tea-party." He studied medicine at 
the Albany medical college, and during 1862-'63, 
was a medical cadet in the U. S. army, at the- 
Carver hospital in Washington. He was acting 
assistant surgeon in the navy from 1863 to 1865, 
and, at the close of the war, entered the Bellevue- 
hospital medical college, where he was gradiiated 
in 1866. He began general practice in New 
York city, and held various responsible i)osition8. 
in the Belle vue hospital medical college ; among 
them, assistant demonstrator of anatomy ; assist- 
ant to the professor of obstetrics and the dis- 
eases of women and children, and lecturer on 
similar subjects and on pharmacology. He was. 
editorially connected with the Medical Record 
(1872-*76) ; was the editor of New Remedies, after- 
wards known as American Druggist (1878-'92), 
and edited Wood's Household Practice of Medir- 
cine, Hygiene and Surgery (2 vols., 1880). He 
compiled the first and second decennial cata-^ 
logues of trustees, officers and alumni of the 
Belle vue hospital medical college, and is the 
author of many contributions to medical jour- 
nals. He edited the American edition of Mur- 
relVs Manual of Pharmacology (1896), and was 
a member of the committees for revising the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia after 1880; physician to* 
the Presbyterian hospital ; treasurer for the trus- 
tees, and trustee of, the New York academy of 
medicine (1883-'96), and secretary of the Grolier 
club. 

CASWELL, Alexis, educator, was bom in^ 
Taunton, Mass., Jan. 29, 1799; son of Samuel Cas- 
well, a descendant in the fourth generation trout 
Peregrine White, who was born on board the 
Mayflower, He was prepared for college at Bristol 
academy, and was graduated in 1822 from Brown 
university. From 1822 to 1825 he was a tutor in 
Columbian college, Washington, D. C, and from 
1825 to 1827 was professor of ancient languages- 
in that college. In the latter year he was or- 
dained to the Baptist ministry and preached at 
HaUfax, N. S., during 1827-'28. In 1828 he was 
pastor of the first church in Providence, R. I., 
and from 1828 to 1850 held the chair of mathemat- 
ics and natural philosophy in Brown university. 
He was transferred to the chair of mathematics- 
and astronomy in 1850 and served in this position, 
until 1868, when he resigned to attend to his pri- 
vate interests. In 1868, soon after the resigna- 
tion of President Sears, Dr. Caswell was elected 
president of Brown university, and retained the 



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CASWELL. 



CATHERWOOD. 



office until 1872. He was director, and afterwards 
vice-president, of the Providence athenaBum; 
president of the National exchange bank. Provi- 
dence; of the board of trustees of the Newton 
theological institution ; of the Baptist missionary 
union ; of the Rhode Island hospital ; one of the 
founders, and afterwards vice-president, of the 
American association for advancement of science ; 
associate fellow of the American academy of arts 
and sciences ; trustee and fellow of Brown univer- 
sity and one of the corporators of the national 
academy of sciences. Brown university con- 
ferred upon him the degrees of D.D. in 1841, and 
LL.D. in 1865. He is the author of Lectures on 
Astronomy (1858) ; Meteorological Observations 
1831-'G0 (1860) ; Memoir of John Bar stow (1864) ; 
Memoir of Prof . Benjamin SiUiman (1866) ; Life 
and Christian Work of Francis Wayland (1867), 
and Results of Meteorological Observations at 
Providence, ISSl-'lS (1882). He died in Provi- 
dence, R. I., Jan. 8, 1877. 

CASWELL, Lucien B** representative, was 
born in S wanton, Vt., Nov. 27, 1827 ; son of Beal 
and Betsey (Chapman) Caswell. He attended 
Beloit college ; studied law under Matthew H. 
Carpenter, and was admitted to the bar in 1851. 
He engaged in practice at Fort Atkinson, Wis. ; 
was district attorney of Jefferson. county, 1855- 
*56 ; a member of the state legislature in 1863, 
1872, and 1874, and of the Republican national 
convention in 1868. He was a representative in 
congress, 1875-*83, and 1885-'91 ; became president 
of the Citizen's state bank in 1885, and vice-pres- 
ident of the First national bank in 1888. 

CA5WELL, Richard* dplegate, was bom in 
Maryland, Aug. 8, 1729. He removed to North 
Carolina, practised law and was a member of the 
colonial assembly, 1756-70. He was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, 1774-75 ; president 
of the provincial congress in 1775 ; governor of 
North Carolina, 1775-79, and 1784-'87 ; president 
of the state senate, 1782-'84, and 1789 ; comptrol- 
ler-general of the state, 1782-*84, and a delegate to 
the Federal constitutional convention in 1787, and 
to the state convention in 1789. He was major- 
general of the Newbern district in the Revolution. 
He died at Fayetteville, N.C., Nov. 20, 1789. 

CATCHINQS, Thomas Cleiulineii» representa- 
tive, was bom in Hinds coimty. Miss., Jan. 11, 
1847. He entered the university of Mississippi in 
1859, leaving in 1861 to enter Oakland college, but 
soon after volunteered in the Confederate army, 
serving during the entire civil war, after which- 
he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1866, 
and practised his profession at Vicksburg, Miss. 
He was elected to the state senate in 1875 and re- 
signed in 1877 on being nominated for attorney- 
general by the state ; he was elected for a term of 
four years, and was re-elected in 1881, resigning 



Feb. 16, 1885, having been elected a representa- 
tive to the 49th Congress. He was re elected to 
each succeeding Congress up to and inclusive of 
the 56th. 

CATHCART, Charles W., senator, was bom 
in the island of Madeira in 1809. He received an 
English education, and for some years was a 
sailor. He settled as a farmer in Laporte, Ind., 
in 1831, where he was land surveyor for the 
United States; he was also a member of the state 
assembly. In 1844 he was a presidential elector 
on the Democratic ticket. In 1844 he was elected 
as a representative to the 29th Congress; he was 
re-elected to the 80th Congress, and served until 
March 8, 1849. On Dec. 6, 1852 he took his seat 
in the United States senate, having been appointed 
by Gtovemor Wright to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Senator James Whitcomb, the state 
legislature electing at its next session John Pet- 
tee to succeed him for the unexpired term ending 
March 8, 1855. He died in Michigan city, Ind., 
Aug. 22, 1888. 

CATHCART, Wiliiam, clergyman, was bom 
in Londonderry, Ireland, Nov. 8, 1826; son of 
James and Elizabeth (Cously) Cathcart. He was 
brought up in the Presbyterian faith, but in 1846 
entered the Baptist communion. He obtained 
his literary and theological education at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, Scotland, and at Rawdon col- 
lege, Yorkshire, England. He was ordained to tlie 
ministry in 1850, and assumed pastoral charge of 
the Baptist church at Bamsley, near Sheffield, 
England. In 1858 he removed to the United 
States, and became pastor of the Third Baptist 
church of Groton, at Mystic river, Conn., and in 
April, 1857, of the Second Baptist church of Phila- 
delphia, Pa. In 1876 he was elected president of 
the American Baptist historical society, and was 
re-elected annually. The degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon him in 1878 by the university at 
Lewisburg. He published : Tlic Baptists and 
the American Revolution, Tlie Papal System, 
The Baptism of the Ages and of Nations, and 
Tfie Baptist Encyclopcedia, ' 

CATHBRWOOD, Mary Hartwell, author, 
was born at Luray, Licking county, Ohio, Dec. 
16, 1847, daughter of Dr. Marcus and Phoebe 
(Thompson) Hartwell. She was graduated from 
the Granville (Ohio) female college in 1868. 
She was married Dec. 27, 1887, to James S. Cath- 
erwood, of Hoopeston, near Chicago, 111. In 
January, 1891, she became editorially connected 
with The Graphic, a weekly Chicago paper. 
Among her published books are : The Dogberry 
Bunch (1881); Rocky Fork (1882); Old Cara- 
van Days (1884) ; The Secret at Roseladies 
(1888) ; Tlie Romance of Dollard (1889) ; Tlie 
Bells of St. Anne (1889) ; The Story of Tonty 
(1890) ; The Lady of Fort St. John (1891); Old Kas- 



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CATLIN. 



CATTELL. 



kaskia (1893) ; The White Islander (1893) ; The 
Chase of St. Castin, and Other Stories of the 
French in the New World (1894) ; Days of Jeanne 
d'Arc (1897) ; and The Spirit of an Illinois Tovm 
and Tlie Little Renault (1897). She died In Chi- 
-cago. III., Dec. 27, 1902. 

CATLIN* Qeorge, author, was l)om in Wilkes- 
barre, Pa., July 26, 1796 ; son of Putnam and 
Polly (Sutton) Catlin, and grandson of Eli and 
Elizabeth (Way) Catlin, his grandfather being 
A captain in the revolutionary army. He was 
-educated at home, and during 1817 and 1818 stud- 
ied at a law school at Litchfield, Conn., where 
he became noted as an amateur artist. He fol- 
lowed his profession in New York, Buffalo, Nor- 
folk, and in Philadelphia, from 1823 to 1829, and 
later travelled in all parts of America and Europe, 
becoming especially well-known as a painter of 
North American Indians. From 1852 to 1857 he 
travelled in Central and South America, and 
spent the following fourteen years in Europe. 
Among his published writings, all of which are 
profusely illustrated by himself, may be noted : 
Notes of Eight Years' Travels and Residence in 
Europe with his North American Indian Col- 
lection (1848) ; Museum of Mankind (1851); 
Illustrations of the Manners, Customs and Con- 
■dition of the North American Indians (7th ed., 
1848) ; The Breath of Life (1864) ; Last 
Rambles amongst the Indians of the Rocky 
Mountains and the Andes (1868) ; The Lifted and 
Subsided Rocks of America (1870) ; Life Among 
the Indians (1847) ; and OKee-pa ; a Religious 
Ceremony ; and other Customs of the Manr 
dtms (1867). He died in Jersey City, N. J., Dec. 
23, 1872. 

CATON, John Dean, jurist, was born in Mon- 
roe; N. Y., March 19, 1812 ; son of Robert and 
Haimah(Dean) Caton. He attended the distiict 
school for a few years, and in 1829 entered the 
academy at Utica, where he paid especial atten- 
tion to mathematics and surveying. In 1833 he 
weiit to Chicago and established himself in his 
profession, being the second lawyer to practise 
in that city. In 1841 he was appointed judge 
of the supreme court of Illinois, and remained 
-on the bench until his resignation in 18G4, hold- 
ing the chief-justiceship from April to June, 
1855, and from 1857 to 1864. From 1852 to 1867 
he was president of the Illinois and Mississippi 
telegrai>hic company. He travelled widely and 
devoted much time to natural history. In 1866 
Hamilton college conferred upon him the 
degree of LL.D. He is the author of : A Sum- 
mer in Norway (1875) ; TJie Last of the Illinois 
and a Sketch of the Pottawatomies (1876) ; 
Origin of the Prairies (1876) ; and The Antelope 
and Deer of AmeiHca (1877). He died in Chicago, 
IlL, July 30, 1895. 



CATOR, Thomas Vincent., politician, was 
born at Roxbury, N. Y., July 18, 1851. He studied 
at the public school, Roxbury academy, and Cor- 
nell university, where he was graduated in 1871. 
He was admitted to the New York bar in 1878, 
and practised in that city until 1887. In 1881 he 
was one of the organizers of the national anti- 
monopoly league, and for several years a member 
of its congressional committee to secure the 
inter-state commerce act. In 1880 he removed to 
Jersey city, N. J., where in 1882 he was elected to 
the state legislature as a candidate of the anti- 
monopoly union. In the house he introduced the 
equal taxation bill passed in 1884. He serr d 
two years as an alderman of the city. In 1887 
was water commissioner of the state appointed by 
Governor Greene. Later in the same year he re- 
moved to San Francisco, Gal. He was a delegate 
to the Populist convention at Omaha in 1892. 
and in the winter of 1898-'94 was the candidate 
of the Populist members of the state legislature 
for United States senator. In 1896 he was a dele 
gate-at-large from California to the St. Louis 
convention, July 22, and before the convention 
favored the nomination of William J. Bryan for 
President. He was the candidate of the Demo- 
crats and Populists before the legislature in 1897, 
for United States senator, to succeed George C. 
Perkins. He is the author of numerous pam- 
phlets on political topics, of which " National 
Ownership of Railroads" and ** National Credit" 
were largely read. 

CATRON, John, jurist, was bom in Wythe 
county, Va., in 1778, and in 1812 removed to Ten- 
nessee, where he was admitted to the bar. He 
served in the New Orleans campaign of 1812 under 
General Jackson, and later was elected state at- 
torney by the Tennessee legislature. He was 
made one of the supreme judges of the state in 
1824. and from 1830 to 1836 was its chief jui^tice. 
He was a noted duellist, but officially discouinr;ed 
its practice. In 1837 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Jackson an associate justice of the supreme 
court. He opposed secession in 1861, and was, 
for a time, obliged to leave the state because of 
his opinions, but in 1862 returned and continued 
his judicial duties. He died in Nashville, Tenn., 
May 80, 1865. 

CATTBLLt Alexander Qiimore, senator, was 
bom in Salem, N. J., Feb. 12. 1816, son of Thomas 
W. and Keziah (Gilmore) Cattell. In 1840 he 
was elected to the legislature of New Jersey ; in 
1841-42 was clerk of the state house of repre- 
sentatives, and in 1844 served as a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention. In 1846 he re- 
moved to Philadelphia, engaged in busipess. and 
held various local offices. He was a director of 
the Mechanics' bank, president of the com ex- 
change association, and in 1858 organized the 



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CATTELL. 



CAWEIN. 



Com exchange bank of which he continued presi- 
dent for thirteen years. After 1855 he resided in 
New Jersey, and in 1866 was chosen to the United 
States senate as a Republican, succeeding John 
P. Stockton, Democrat, who was unseated. He 
served until the end of Senator Stockton's term, 
March 3, 1871, he having declined an eleotion by 
the legislature that year. President Grant ap- 
pointed him a member of the first civil service 
commission in 1871. During 1878 and 1874 he 
served as financial agent of the United States 
government in London, and while there refunded 
the government loans at a lower rate than for- 
merly. He was a member of the New Jersey 
board of assessors and of education. He died at 
Jamestown, N.Y., April 8, 1894. 

CATTBLLf James McKeeo, psychologist, was 
born in Easton, Pa., May 25, 1860 ; son of the Rev. 
William Cassady and Elizabeth (McKeen) Cattell. 
He was graduated at Lafayette in 1880 and re- 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. from Leipzig in 1886. 
He was a fellow of Johns Hopkins university, 
1882, assistant in the University of Leipzig, 1886, 
lecturer at Cambridge, England, 1888, professor 
of psychology in the University of Pennsylvania, 
1889-'91 ; of experimental psychology in Columbia 
university, 1891-96, and of psychology from 1896. 
He edited Sciefice ; The Psychological Review and 
The Science Series, 

CATTELL, William Cassady, educator, was 
born at Salem, N. J., August 30, 1827; son of 
Thomas W. and Keziah (Gilmore) Cattell. He 
was graduated at the College of New Jersey in 
1848, and at Princeton theological seminary in 

1852, pursuing post-graduate studies there during 

1853, under the instruction of Joseph Addison 
Alexander. During 1853-'55 he was associate 
principal of Edgehill seminary, Princeton, N.J. 
In 1855 he was made professor of Latin and Greek 
at Lafayette college, Easton, Pa., and became 
pastor of the Pine street Presbyterian church at 
Harrisburg in 1859. In 1863 he was called to the 
presidency of Lafayette college, occupying that 
position until 1883, when he resigned and became 
emeritus professor of mental philosophy. When 
he came to the college as its president it had two 
small buildings and was at the point of suspen- 
sion, and he left it with a rank among the fore- 
most institutions of the country. He was ap- 
pointed one of the directors of Princeton theo- 
logical seminary in 1864. He accepted the office 

,of secretary of lihe Presbyterian board of 
ministerial relief, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1884. In 
1896 he resigned the secretaryship because 
of impaired health. He received the degree 
of S.T.D. from both Hanover and Princeton in 
1864, and that of LL.D. from the University of 
Wooster in 1878. He died in Philadelphia, Feb. 
11, 1898. 



CAULK1N5, Frances Manwaring, author, wa» 
bom in New London, Conn., April 26, 1795; 
daughter of Joshua and Fanny (Man waring) 
Cauikins. She was carefully educated, and in 
1820 she opened a select school for young ladies 
at Norwich town, leaving it in 1829 to take charge^ 
of the female academy at New London. In 1832^ 
she became principal of the academy at Norwich 
city. She gave up teaching in 1834, and devoted 
her time to literary work. She prepared numerous 
books and papers for the American tract society, 
some of which were translated into other lan- 
guages. She was elected a member of the Mass- 
achusetts historical society . Her published works 
are : History ofNorunch, Conn., 1660-1846 (1845) ; 
Memoir of the Rev. William Adam.s, and of the 
Rev. Eliphalet Adams (1849) ; History of Neur 
London, Conn. (1852); and History of Norwich, 
Conn., from its Possession by the Indians to the 
year 1866 (1874). She died in New London, 
Conn., Feb. 3, 1869. 

CAVE, Reubeo Liodsay, educator, was bom 
in Orange cx>unty, Va., Jan. 13, 1845. He was- 
graduated from the University of Kentucky and 
entered the Confederate army in 1861, serving 
under Thomas J. Jackson until his death, and 
then under Lee, until the surrender at Appomat- 
tox in 1865. At the close of the war he engaged 
in business and studied for the ministry of tha 
Christian church. He held pastorates at Lexing- 
ton, Ky., Qordonsville, Va., and at the First- 
Christian church, Nashville, Tenn. He was pro- 
fessor of English at Christian university. Canton,. 
Mo., w^as afterward president of that institution^ 
and also of Kentucky university, 1897-1900. 

CAVINBSS, George Washlogton, educator,, 
was born at Fairfield, Iowa, March 29, 1857 : son 
of Alfred and Achsa (Osborn) Caviness. He was- 
prepared for college in the district and high 
schools of Iowa, and was graduated from Battle 
Creek (Mich.) college in 1882. From 1882 to 1885 
he was teacher in various high schools in Michi- 
gan, and from 1888 to 1894 was principal of the^ 
South Lancaster (Mass.) academy. In the latter 
year he was elected president of Battle Creek 
college. 

CAWEIN, fladison Julius, poet, was born at 
Louisville, Ky., March 23, 1865. He was of Hugue- 
not and Qerman descent, and graduated at the- 
Louisville high school in 1886. He began to write^ 
poetry when about sixteen years old, but did not- 
publish his work until 1887. His first volume. 
Blooms of the Berry, issued in that year, re- 
ceived high praise from such critics as W.D. 
Howells, E. C. Stedman, and James Whitcorab- 
Riley. His subsequent works include : Red 
Leaves xtnd Roses, Poems (1893) : Poems of 
Nature and Love (1893) ; Intimations of tlie 
Beautiful (1894); One Day and Another. 



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CESNOLA. 



CHADBOURNE. 



CESNOLA, Luis:! PalmadL (See di Ces- 
nola, L. P.) 

CHABRAT» Quy Ignatius, R. C. bishop, was 
bom at Chambre, France, Dec. 28, 1787. He 
received a good education at the best schools of 
his native place, pursued his theological studies 
at a Sulpitian seminary, and in 1809 was or- 
dained a sub-deacon. Bishop Flaget of Kentucky- 
was at this time seeking recruits for his mis- 
sions, and young Chabrat was one of those who 
determined to accompany him. He arrived in 
Kentucky in 1811, completed his studies under 
Father David, and was ordained by Bishop 
Flaget on Christmas day, 1811, the first Catholic 
priest ordained in the west. His first charge 
was the missions of St. Michael in Nelson, and 
St. Clare in Hardin county ; he also attended the 
mission at Poplar Neck, Nelson county, and in 
1823 was pastor of the church of St. Pius in Scott 
county. In 1824 he was appointed ecclesiastical 
superior of the sisterhood of Loretto, and in 1884 
coadjutor of Bishop Flaget, with the title of 
Bishop of Bohrea His health had been failing 
for some time, and he was now threatened with 
blindness. In 1843 he visited Europe, where 
noted occulists confirmed the hopelessness of his 
case, and he was released from his charge. He 
died at Maurice, France, Nov. 21, 1868. 

CHACB9 Elisabeth Buffum* reformer, was 
bom in Providence, R. I., Dec. 9, 1806; daughter 
of Arnold and Rebecca (Gould) Buffum, and 
grand-daughter of William Buff urn, a member of 
the Rhode Island society for the gradual aboli- 
tion of slavery. She was educated at home and 
at the Friends* school in Providence, R. I. In 
1830 she was married to Samuel Buffington Chace 
of Fall River, in which city she resided until 
1840, when they removed to Valley Falls, R. I. 
With Samuel May, Jr., and other abolitionists, 
she labored in the interest of the anti-slavery 
society, organizing meetings and conventions all 
over the state of Rhode Island. She was a life- 
long advocate of temperance and equal rights, and 
during her ninetieth year made several able con- 
tributions to the daily press on woman suffrage. 
She assisted many negroes to make their escape 
to Canada, and used her voice and pen in behalf 
of the slaves whenever opportunity offered. In 
1872 she was chosen a delegate to the World's 
prison congress, held in London, England. She 
is the author of : Anti-Slavery Reminiscences 
(1891). 

CHACEt George Ide, physicist, was bom in 
Lancaster, Mass., Feb. 19, 1808; son of Charles 
and Ruth (Jenckes) Chaoe. His boyhood was 
passed on a farm. He was prepared for college 
at Lancaster academy, and was graduated at 
Brown in 188(0 with valedictory honors. For a 
brief period he was principal of the academy in 



Waterville, Me. , resigning his position in 1881 to 
become tutor in Brown university. In 1883 he 
was advanced to the position of adjimct professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy, and in 
1834 was appointed professor of chemistry. In 
1836 the chair was enlarged to that of chemistry, 
geology and physiology, and he remained profes- 
sor of these sciences until 1867. In that year the 
presidency of the university became vacant by 
the resignation of Dr. Bamas Sears, and Profes- 
sor Chace assumed the office ad interim, holding 
it for one year, when the Rev. Dr. Caswell was 
elected. At the same time he was transferred 
to the chair of moral and intellectual philosophy, 
and held this position for five years. In 1872 he 
resigned, and passed 1872-*73 in foreign travel 
He was deeply interested in charitable and 
philanthropic institutions, in several of which he 
held prominent offices. In 1841 he declined the 
presidency of Waterville ooDege. He received 
the degree of Ph.D. from the University at Lewis- 
burg, and that of D.D. from Brown in 1853. His 
published works include : Tlie Relation cf 
Divine Providence to Physical Laws (1854) ; 
The Virtues and Services of Francis Wayland 
(1866) ; and Lectures and Essays with a memoir 
of the author (1886). He died in Providenco, 
B.L, April 29, 1885. 

CHACE, Jonathan, senator, was bom at Fall 
River, Mass., July 22, 1829; son of Harvey and 
Hannah (Wood) Chace. He received an academio 
education and entered into the cotton manufac- 
turing industry at Providence, R. I. In 1876 he 
was elected a member of the Rhode Island state 
senate and was re-elected in 1877. In 1880 he was 
elected a representative to the 47th Congress and 
was re-elected to the 48th Congress. On Nov. 20, 
1885, Governor Bourne appointed William P. 
Sheffield senator, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Henry B. Anthony, Sept. 2, 1884, and 
when the legislature met in 1885 it elected Mr. 
Chace to the unexpired term, and he took lis 
seat Jan. 26, 1885. In June, 1888, he was elected 
to the full term to expire March 8, 1895, but 
resigned his seat in the senate early in the 51st 
Congress, and was succeeded by Nathan F. 
Dixon. 

CHADBOURNE, Paul Aosel, educator, was 
bom at North Berwick. Me., Oct. 21, 1823. He 
worked on a farm and as a carpenter until his 
seventeenth year, when he studied two years 
at Phillips Exeter academy, supporting himself 
by copying law papers. He was graduated from 
Williams college, valedictorian, in 1848, and from 
the Berkshire medical school M.D. in 1859. He 
taught school at Freehold, N. J., Great Falls. 
N. H., and at East Windsor, Conn., where he 
also studied at the theological institute. In 1858 
he was licensed to preach, and in the same year 



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CHADWICK. 



CHAILLE. 



was called to the chair of chemistry and natural 
history at Williams college. In 1855-*56 he was 
lecturer at the Western Reserve college. In 1859 
he was transferred to the chair of natural history 
at Williams, and in addition to the duties of this 
professorship also held the chair of natural sci- 
ences at Bowdoin college from 1858 to 1865. He 
was state senator in 1865 and 1866. He became 
president of the Massachusetts agricultural col- 
lege at Amherst in 1867, but was compelled to 
resign on account of ill health. In 1867 he was 
elected president of the University of Wisconsin. 
After three years* successful administration he 
spent two years in Utah and the far west. In 
1872 he succeeded Mark Hopkins as president of 
Williams college. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Williams college in 1868, that of D.D. 
from Amherst college in 1872, and that of D.C.L. 
from Oxford university in 1874. His published 
writings include : Relations of Natural History 
to Intellect, Taste, Wealth and Religion {I860) ; 
Instinct, its Office in the Animal Kingdom and 
its Relation to the Higher Powers in Man (Lowell 
Institute Lectures, 1872) ; Strength of Man 
and Stability of Nations (1877), &nd Hope of the 
Righteous (1877). He edited The Wealth of the 
United States (1880), and Public Service of the 
State of New York (1881). He died in New York 
<jity, Feb. 23, T888. 

CHADWICK, George Whitfield, musician, 
was born in Lowell, Mass., Nov. 13, 1854; son of 
Alonzo C. and Hannah G. Chadwick. He was 
educated in the public schools of Lawrence, and 
in 1872 went to Boston, where for three years he 
studied imder Eugene Thayer. He then taught 
music for a year at Olivet (Mich.) college, and in 
1877 went to Germany, studying at Leipsic under 
Jadassohn and Reinecke, and at Munich under 
Rheinberger. At the close of his musical studies 
at Leipsic he composed an overture entitled 
Rip Van Winkle which was performed at a 
conservatory concert in Leipsic. He returned to 
Boston in 1880, and the Rip Van Winkle over- 
ture was given at a Handel and Haydn festival in 
Boston, with Mr. Chadwick as conductor, and 
also by the Harvard musical association. He 
was made instructor in harmony and composi- 
tion at the New England conservatory of music, 
and in 1881 conducted the music of the CEdi- 
pus in Boston and in New York. In 1887 he 
became conductor of the Boston orchestral club, 
and in 1890 of the Springfield festival association. 
In 1891 he was commissioned to compose the 
music of the ode for the dedication of the build- 
ings of the Columbian exposition. In 1898 his 
Symphony in F major gained for him the 
prize of three hundred dollars offered by the na- 
tional conservatory of music in New York. He 
composed the music of the oi)era Tabasco first 



performed by the 1st corps of cadets in Boston 
in 1894. In February, 1897, he was chosen to 
succeed Carl Faelton as director of the New Eng- 
land oonservatoiy. Among his choral works 
are: The Vikings^ Last Voyage, Phoenix EX" 
pirans. The Lily Nymph, The Lovely Rosa- 
belle, and The Pilgrim's Hymn; and his or- 
chestral works include the overtures Thalia, 
Melpomene, and Rip Van Winkle; also A Pas- 
torale Prelude, Jubilee, Noel, and A Vagrom 
Ballad; symphonic sketches for orchestra, and 
twelve songs from Arlo Bates's **Told in the 
Gate." 

CHAFFEE, Adna Lomanza, soldier, was bom 
at Orwell, Ohio, April 14, 1842. He was educated 
in the public schools, and in July, 1861, entered the 
6th U.S. cavalry as a private. He was promoted 
2d lieutenant. May 12, 1868 ; 1st lieutenant, Feb. 
22, 1865 ; captain, Oct. 12, 1869, and major in the 
9th cavalry, July 7, 1888. He was breveted 1st 
lieutenant and captain for gallantry at Gettys- 
burg and Dinwiddle Court-house, and major and 
lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in engagements 
with the Indians in Arizona and Texas. H^ was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel of the dd cavalry in 
June, 1897, and colonel of the 8th cavalry. May 
8, 1899. He was appointed brigadier-general 
of volunteers. May 4, 1898 ; commanded a brigade 
in the Santiago campaign, June to August, 1898 ; 
the 2d division of the 5th army corps, August to 
September, 1898 ; the 1st division of the 4th army 
corps, November to December, 1898, and was pro- 
moted major-general of volunteers in July, 
1898. He served as chief of staff of the military 
division of Cuba, 1898-1900, was promoted briga- 
dier-general U. S. Army, April 13, 1900, and 
commanded the U.S. forces sent to Peking, China, 
in June, 1900. He was promoted major-general 
in February, 1901, and was assigned to the depart- 
ment of the Philippines, in 1902 and to the depart- 
ment of the East in 1903, and in that year be- 
came the ranking officer of the army. 

CHAFFEE* Jerome Huatlag« senator, was 
born in Niagara county, N.Y., April 17, 1825. He 
engaged in the dry-goods business at Adrian, 
Mich., 1846-*52; resided in Missouri and Kansas, 
and in 1859 removed to what is now Denver, Col., 
where he engaged in mining and other enter- 
prises. He was a representative in the territorial 
legislature, 1861-4 ; serving as speaker, 1863-'4 : 
was a Republican delegate to the 42d and 43d 
congresses, 1871-75, and took his seat in the U.S. 
senate, Dec. 4, 1876. He was chairman of the 
Republican national executive committee of 1884. 
He died in Salem Centre, N.Y., March 9, 1886. 

CHAlLLEt Stanford Emerson, physician, was 
bom in Natchez, Miss., July 9, 1830 ; son of Wil- 
liam Hamilton and Mary E.P. (Stanford) Chaill6. 
About 1633 Pierre Chaill6, a youthful Huguenot, 



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CHAILL^. 



CHALMERS. 



having witnessed the massacre of his family, suc- 
ceeded in escaping to an English vessel at La 
Rochelle, France, and found refuge in England. 
About 1700 he settled in Boston, Mass., whence 
his son Moses emigrated to the eastern shore of 
Maryland in 1710, became wealthy and died in 
1768. Moses, only son of Col. Peter Chailld, was 
a distinguished patriot in the revolutionary war, 
a member of the Maryland convention of 1775, a 
delegate to sign and ratify the U. S. constitution, 
and a member for over twenty years of the Mary- 
land legislature. Peter*s son, William Hamilton, 
was born in 1799, emigrated to Natchez, Miss., in 
1819, and died there in 1886. Stanford Emerson 
was educated by private tutors, was graduated at 
Phillips academy, Andover, in 1847, and at Har- 
vard college in 1851, receiving his A. M. degree in 
1854. He was graduated by the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Louisiana, now the 
Tulane university, in 1853. In 1860-61, he was a 
student in Paris in the laboratory of Claude Ber- 
nard, where he renewed his studies in 1866-'67. He 
was appointed acting surgeon -general of Louisiana 
in the Confederate army, Feb. 17, 1862, and was 
made surgeon and medical inspector of the army 
of Tennessee on the staff of Gen. Braxton Bragg, 
May 12, 1862. On July 24, 1868, he was appointed 
hospital surgeon at Atlanta, Ga., and in January, 

1864, surgeon-in-charge of the Ocmulgee hospital, 
Macon, Qa, In May, 1865, he was captured and 
paroled, returning to New Orleans in September. 

1865. He was resident student of New Orleans 
charity hospital, 1852-*58; resident physician U. S. 
marine hospital, 1858-'54; resident physician 
Circus Street infirmary, 1854-'60; co-editor and pro- 
prietor New Orleans Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal, 1857-68; demonstrator of anatomy, medical 
department University of Louisiana, 1858-'67; 
lecturer on obstetrics, 1865-'66, and professor of 
physiology and pathological anatomy from 1867. 
He was lecturer on medical jurisprudence before 
the international medical congress, Philadelphia, 
1876; appointed by Congress one of the twelve 
experts to investigate the yellow fever epidemic 
of 1878, and served as secretary of this board, 
1878-79; appointed by the national board of 
health one of the four members of the Havana 
yellow fever commission, and served as its presi- 
dent in 1879; appointed by the national board of 
health its supervising inspector, serving from 
March, 1881, to October, 1882; commissioned by the 
President one of the civilian members of national 
board of health, January, 1885; was dean of med- 
ical department, Tulane university, Louisiana, 
from March 81, 1885; professor of physiology and 
hygiene in the collegiate department, 1885-'88. 
He attended Ex-President Jefferson Davis in his 
last illness, November and December, 1889; ap- 
pointed professor of physiology, hygiene, and 



pathological anatomy in the medical department, 
Tulane university, Louisiana, 1890, and the Louis- 
iana member of the committee on the organ- 
ization of the Pan-American medical congress, 
1891-98. His contributions to medical literature 
are valuable, especially as treating authoritatively 
on yellow fever, sanitary science, and hygiene, 
and cover a period from 1852. He was elected 
honorary member of the coUege of physicians, 
Philadelphia; of the medical and chirurgical fac- 
ulty of Maryland; of the academy of medical 
sciences, Havana, Cuba, and of the Louisiana 
pharmacy association ; a member of the American 
medical association, and of many other learned 
societies. 

CHALMERS, JameA Ronald, soldier, was bom 
in Halifax county, Va., Jan. 11, 1831, son of 
Joseph W. Chalmers, U. S. Senator from Missis- 
sippi. He was graduated at the South Carolina 
college in 1851, and in 1858 was admitted to the 
bar. He was made district attorney in 1858, 
and in 1861 was a delegate to the secession con- 
vention. He was commissioned as colonel of 
the 9th Mississippi regiment, in 1861, and in 
February, 1862, was promoted brigadier-general, 
serving with distinction throughout the war. In 
1875 and 1876 he was a member of the Mississippi 
state senate, and in the latter year was elected a 
representative in the 45th Congress. He was re- 
elected to the 46th Congress, and was given a 
certificate of election to the 47th Congress, but 
the office was contested and won by John R. 
Lynch. He was elected to the 48th Congress, 
and contested the election to the 51st Congress. 
He died at Memphis, Tenn., April 9, 1898. 

CHALMERS, Joseph W., senator, was bom 
in Halifax county, Va., in 1807, of Scotch parent- 
age. He studied law in the University of Vir- 
ginia, and in a lawyer's office in Richmond. Va. 
He removed to Jackson, Tenn., in 1885, and prac- 
tised his profession there for five years, at the 
end of that time going to Holly Springs, Miss. 
He was appointed vice-chancellor in 1842, and 
held the office during 1842 and '48. He was ap- 
pointed United States senator from Mississippi to 
succeed Robert J. Walker, and served from Dec. 
7. 1845, to March 8, 1847. He then resumed his 
law practice in Holly Springs, Miss., where he 
died in June, 1858. 

CHALMERS, Liooel, physician, was bom in 
Campbelltown, Scotland , abo ut 1 7 15. He received 
his degree in the University of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, and soon after removed to America and 
practised medicine first in Christ church parish, 
and later in Charleston, S. C. He is the author 
of : Opisthotonos and Tetanus (1754) ; Essay on 
Fevers (1767), and ^n Account of the Weather 
and Diseases of South Carolina (1776). He died 
in Charleston, S.C, in 1777. 



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CHAMBERLAIN. 



CHAMBERLAIN. 



CHAMBERLAIN, Alexander FrancU, anthro 
pologist, was bom at Kenninghall, Norfolk, 
England, Jan. 12, 1865. He was brought by his 
parents to New York in 1870, whence they 
removed to Canada in 1873. He was graduated 
with honors at the University of Toronto in 1886, 
receiving the degree of A.M. in 1889. From 1887 
to 1890 he was fellow in modern languages in 
University college. Toronto, and from 1890 to 
1S92 fellow in anthropology in Clark university, 
Worcester, Mass. In 1892 he received from 
Clark university the degree of Ph.D., the first 
granted in anthropology in America. In 1892 he 
was appointed lecturer on anthropology in Clark 
university, and he spent the summer of 1891 
among the Kootenay Indians of British Colum- 
bia, conducting anthropological investigations 
under the auspices of the British association for 
the advancement of science. He w^as elected 
a member of several anthropological and philo- 
logical societies, and fellow of the American 
association for the advancement of science. He 
devoted especial attention to American aborigi- 
nal anthropology and linguistics, and contributed 
to the American Folklore Journal, The Anthro- 
j)ologi8t. Dialect Notes, Modem Language Notes, 
and the Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, 
He compiled a dictionary and grammar of the 
Kootenay Indian language and a comparative 
Glossary of Algonkian dialects. Among his 
published papers are : Eskimo Race and Lan- 
guage ; Modeim Languages and Classics in 
Europe and America since 1880 (1891): Report 
to the British Association on the Kootenay 
Indians of S, E. British Columbia (1892) ; and 
the Language of tlie Mississagas of SkUgog 
(1892). 

CHAMBERLAIN, Daniel Henry, governor of 
South Carolina, was bom in West Brookfield, 
Mass., June 23, 1835; son of Eli and Achsah 
(Forbes) Chamberlain. Until he was fourteen 
years old he worked on his father's farm and at- 
tended the common schools. In 1849 and 1850 he 
studied at the Amherst (Mass.) academy, and in 
1854 studied at Phillips Andover academy. In 
1857 he completed his preparation for college at 
the Worcester, Mass., high school, where he 
taught in 1857-'58, and in 1859 entered Yale col- 
lege. He was graduated in 1862 and entered 
Harvard law school, wher^ he remained until 
the fall of 1863, when he left to enlist in the 
army. He received a lieutenant's commission in 
the 5th Massachusetts colored cavalry, and served 
until the close of the war. In January, 1866, he 
ongaged in cotton planting on the Sea Islands, 
near Charleston, S. C, but was unsuccessful. In 
1867 he was chosen a member of the constitu- 
tional convention called under the reconstruction 
acts, and took his seat in January, 1868. He was 



made attorney -general in 1868, and held the office 
four years, at tae end of that time returning to 
his law practice in Charleston. He achieved 
distinction at the bar, and in 1874 was elected 
governor of the state. At the close of his term he 
returned to New York city. See Governor Cham* 
berlain's Administration in South Carolina, by 
Walter Allen (1888). 

CHAMBERLAIN, Eugene Tyler, journalist, 
was born at Albany. N. Y., Sept. 28, 1856; son of 
Frank Chamberlain. He was graduated from 
the Albany academy in 1874 and from Harvard 
in 1876, with honors in philosophy. While in 
college he was associate editor of the Harvard 
Advocate. He taught in the Albany academy, 
and in 1879 entered business with his father in 
charge of the Dunlap elevator. In 1882 he began 
his daily newspaper work as a member of the 
staff of the Albajiy Evening Journal. He rose 
to the position of associate editor imder George 
Dawson, and remained as such under Harold 
Frederick and John A. Sleicher. In 1888 he 
transferred his services to the Albany Argu^, 
taking the position of assistant editor. During 
his newspaper career he served as the Albany 
correspondent for a number of influential news- 
papers in all i^arts of the United States. He 
wrote the life of Grover Cleveland as a campaign 
volume, aided in organizing the civil service 
reform association in 1884, and was mentioned 
for the position of civil service commissioner. In 
1892 he assumed the editorship of the Albany 
Argus. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Jacob, clergyman, was bom 
at Sharon, Conn., April 13, 1835. He was gradu- 
ated at the theological seminary of the Reformed 
Dutch church. New Brunswick, N. J., and at 
the College of physicians and surgeons. New York 
city. Immediately upon graduation he went to 
India as missionary, where he had unusual suc- 
cess in the fields of Palamainer and Madanapalli, 
at each of which stations he established a hospital 
and dispensary. He was chairman of the com- 
mittee to bring out a new translation of the Old 
Testament in the Telugu language, and as well 
of that which had in hand the revising of the 
Telugu New Testament. He was elected in 1878 
to the vice-presidency for India of the American 
Tract society. Among his published works are* 
The Bible Tested (1878), which reached a sale 
of twenty-one thousand ; Winding up a Horse, 
or Christian Giving (1879), and Breafc Cocoa- 
nuts over the Wheels (1885), the last reaching a 
sale of twenty thousand. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Jeremiah, educator, was 
born in Adams county, Pa., Jan. 5, 1794 ; son of 
Col. James Chamberlain, an officer in the revo- 
lutionary army. He was graduated at Dickinson 
college in 1814, and after a three-years course at 



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CHAMBERLAIN. 



CHAMBERLAIN. 



Princeton theological seminaiy he was licensed 
to preach in 1817. He spent a year in the south 
k8 a missionary, and in 1818 accepted a call to 
the church at Bedford, Pa. In 1822 he became 
president of Centre college, Kentucky, and held 
the office until 1825, placing the school on a firm 
basis. During his administration he preached 
regularly. He resigned the presidency of Centre 
college in 1825 to accept that of Louisiana col- 
lege, remaining there until 1828, when he estab- 
lished a private school in Jackson, La. In 1880 
he foimded and was elected president of Oakland 
college, Claiborne county, Miss., to which work 
he devoted the rest of his life. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Centre college in 1825. He 
died by the hand of an assassin, a student of the 
college, Sept. 5, laW. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Joshua Lawreoce, gov- 
ernor of Maine, was bom in Brewer, Me., Sept. 8, 
1828 ; son of Joshua Chamberlain, second in com- 
mand in the Aroostook war ; grandson of Joshua 
Chamberlain, a colonel of the war of 1812. He 
attended the military academy at Ellsworth, 
Me., was graduated at Bowdoin in 1852 and at 
Bangor theological seminary in 1855. He was 
professor of rhetoric at Bowdoin from 1856 until 
1862. In August of the latter year he entered 
the Union army as lieutenant-colonel of the 20th 
Maine volunteers, and served continuously in 
the Ist division or the 5th corps, gaining succes- 
sive promotion and finally commanding the corps. 
He was mustered out of service Jan. 10, 1866, as 
brevet major-general. After having engaged 
in twenty-four pitched battles, being six times 
wounded, thrice severely, he received promotion 
as brigadier- general on the field, and was hon- 
ored with the direction of the formal surrender 
of the Confederate forces at Appomattox, April 
9, 1865. After the close of the war he r^un^ed 
his professorship at Bowdoin coUege, but was 
elected governor of Maine in 1866, and by three 
successive re-elections held the office tiU 1871. 
On retiring from the governorship, he was elected 
president of Bowdoin college, and served as such 
till 1863, in the mean time occupying the chair of 
mental and moral philosophy, 1874-'79. In 1876 
he was appointed major-general of Maine militia ; 
in 1878 was a United States commissioner to the 
Paris exhibition ; and till 1885 lectured on public 
law and political economy in Bowdoin college. 
He removed to New York city in 1886, when he 
became interested in railroad affairs and was 
elected president of the Institute of arts of that 
city. He received from Pennsylvania college the 
degree of LL.D. in 1866, and from Bowdoin college 
the same degree in 1869. He is the author of 
Maine : Her place in History (1877), and Educa' 
tian in Europe (1879). He was U.S. commis- 
sioner of education at Paris in 1900. 




CHAMBERLAIN, Mellen, librarian, was bom 
at Pembroke, N. H., June 4, 1821; son of Mellen 
Chamberlain, a lawyer, who died in 1839; He 
was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1844, and 
at the Dane law school, Cambridge, in 1848, and 
began to practise law in Boston Jan. 1, 1849. He 
was a member of both 
houses of the Massa- 
chusetts legislature, 
and when in the sen- 
ate he was chairman of 
the judiciary commit- 
tee. In 1866 he was ap- 
pointed justice, and 
afterw;ards chief jus- 
tice of the municipal 
court of the city of 
Boston, and resigned . ^ "^l' // 

that office in 1878, on \ M^'W 
his election as libra- \\^ * y^|^ >rf^ 
rianin-chief of the ' « ^T ^^ 
Boston public library. MtMi^'t^^ 
After a popular admin- 4^ 

istration of twelve 

years, he retired on account of ill-health, Oct. 1, 
1890. He conducted a literary chib in Chelsea 
for thirty years, which had no inconsiderable 
infiuence on the community, and led to the for- 
mation of similar clubs in other parts of the 
country. He prepared several addresses, re- 
views, and historical papers, which attracted 
much attention, by the learning, originality, and 
critical insight they evinced, and gave the author 
a high place among monographic writers of his- 
tory. Judge Chamberlain was elected in 1878 a 
member of the Massachusetts historical society, 
and its published proceedings evidence the 
value of his historical papers. He prepared 
a history of the municipality of Chelsea, which 
presents novel and interesting phases of judi- 
cial proceedings in the Massachusetts colony. 
He received the degree of LL.B. from Har- 
vard in 1848, LL.D. from Dartmouth in 1885, 
and in 1892 he was elected fellow of the Amer- 
ican academy of arts and sciences. Among 
his- printed works are the following : The His- 
tory of Winnisimmet^ Rumney Marsh and 
PuUin Point (1880) ; Daniel Webster as an 
Orator (1882) ; John Adams the Statesman of 
the Revolution (1884) ; Samuel Maverick's Pal- 
isade House of 1630 (1885); The Authentication 
of the Declaration of Independence (1885) ; The 
Journals of Captain Henry DearhorUy 1175- 
1783 (1886-'87) ; Notes to SexcalVs Letter Book 
(1886) ; Address at tlie Dedication of Wilson Hall, 
Dartmouth College Library (1885), A Review 
of McMaster's History (1888); Landscape in 
Life and in Poeti^ (1886); Remarks at the 
Dedication of a Statue of Daniel Webster, at 



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CHAMBERLAIN. 



CHAMBERS. 



Concord, N, H. (1886) ; Addre^ at the Dedication 
of the Brooks Library Building at Brattleboro, Vt, 
(1887) ; The Constitutional Relations of the Amer- 
ican Colonies to the English Oovemment at the 
Commencement of the American Revolution (1887); 
The Revolution Impending, with a Critical Essay 
(1888); Josiah Quincy, the Great Mayor (1889); A 
Review of Palfrey's History of New England ( 1890); 
Review of the Belknap Papers (1891) ; The Memo- 
rial of Captain Charles Cochrane (1891); Governor 
Winthrop's Estate (1892). He died at Chelsea, 
Mass., June 25, 1900. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Selah, engineer, was born in 
Brattleboro, Vt, March 4, 1812. He was a con- 
tractor for the constructing of the Erie extension 
of the Pennsylvania canal and of other large 
canals in the state of Pennsylvania. In 1845 he 
superintended the improvements made in the 
Canadian canals along the St. Lawrence river. 
Returning to his native state he was contractor 
for the Rutland and Burlington railroad. In 1851 
be completed the construction of the Cleveland 
and Pittsburgh railroad. In 1871 he was made 
president of the Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling 
railroad, of which he was the builder. He died 
in Cleveland, Ohio, Dec. 27, 1890. 

CHAMBERLIN, Humphrey Barker, philan- 
thropist, was bom in Manchester, England, 
Feb. 7, 1847 ; son of Robert and Eliza (Barker) 
Chamberlin. He immigrated to the United States 
with his parents in 1853 ; was educated in the 
State normal school, Oswego, N. Y. ; entered the 
telegraph service in 1862, and served in the 
military telegraph corps, 1863-*65. He engaged 
in the drug business in Oswego, 1866-76; was 
general secretary of the Y.M.C.A. of Brooklyn, 
N.Y., 1876-79, and engaged in the real estate 
business in Denver, Col., in 1879, becoming presi- 
dent of the Denver chamber of commerce in 1889. 
He gave the Chamberlin observatory costing 
$60,000 to the University of Denver, and contrib- 
uted $40,000 to the Trinity M. E. church in Den- 
ver. He died at Staines, England, May 17, 1897. 

CHAMBERLIN, Joseph Edgar, journalist, was 
born atNewburgjVt., Aug. 6, 1851 ; son of Abner 
and Mary (Haseltine) Chamberlin, who removed 
to Wisconsin. He was educated in the public 
schools ; engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
manager of the Chicago Times, and in 1881 re- 
turned to New England, filled editorial positions in 
Newport and Fall River, and became editor of the 
Boston Evening Record and Daily Advertiser, He 
founded the Listener column in the Boston Tran- 
script ; became an editor of the Youth's Com- 
panion in 1890, and was Cuban correspondent of 
the New York Evening Post in 1898. He is the 
author of Tfie Listener in the Tovm (1899) ; The 
Listener in the Country {\S96): Life of John Brown 
in Biographies of Eminent Americans (1899). 



CHAMBERLIN, Thomas Chrowder, educator 
was born near Mattoon, 111., Sept. 25, 1848. He 
was graduated at Beloit college in 1866 ; studiea 
the sciences in the University of Michigan, 
1868-'69, and was professor of natural science in 
the State normal school, Whitewater, Wis., 
1869-'73 ; professor of geology in Beloit college, 
1878-^82 ; assistant on the Wisconsin geological 
survey, 1873-76, and chief geologist of Wisconsin, 
1876. He became chief of the glacial division of 
the U.S. geological survey in 1882 ; was professor 
of geology at Columbian university, 1884"*86 ; 
president of the University of Wisconsin, 1887-92; 
professor of geology and director of the Walker 
museum at the University of Chicago from 1892, 
and geologist of the Peary relief expedition in 
1894. He was president of the Wisconsin acad- 
emy of science and arts, and vice-president of 
the American association for the advancement of 
science. He received the degree Ph.D. from the 
University of Michigan in 1882; from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin in 1888, and LL.D. from 
Beloit, Columbian, and the University of Michi- 
gan in 1887. He wrote Geology of Wisconsin, 

CHAMBERLIN, McKeodree Hypes, educa- 
tor, was born in Lebanon, 111., Nov. 17, 1838 ; son 
of the Rev. David and Susan (Rankin) Chamber- 
lin. He was graduated from McKendree college, 
A.B., in 1859, and from Harvard LL.B. in 1861. 
He practised law in Kansas City, Mo., and at 
Beardstown, 111., 1864-'67, subsequently engaging 
in promoting the construction of railroads in 
Illinois, Iowa and Kentucky ; was secretary of 
the Illinois state railway commission, 1877-81. 
He was elected president of McKendree college 
and professor of mental and moral science in 
1894. • He was a delegate to the quadrennial ses- 
sion of the general conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, in 1896, and in 1900. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from U. S. Grant uni- 
versity in 1896. 

CHAMBERS, Alexander, soldier, was born in 
New York in 1832. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1853, and served in garrison and on fron- 
tier duty until 1855, when he escorted Captain 
Pope's artesian well expedition in New Mexico, 
and in 1856-'57 wasengage<l in tlie war against the 
Seminole Indians in Florida. He was on frontier 
duty, 1857-'60, being promoted 1st lieutenant Jan. 
19, 1859. On May 14, 1861, he was promoted captain 
and transferred from the 5th to the 18th infantry 
regiment. On March 12, 1862, he engaged in the 
Tennessee campaign, and was twice wounded in 
the battle of Shiloh, Apn'l 6, 1862, and once at the 
battle of luka, Sept. 19, 1862. He wasbrevetted 
lieutenant-colonel. He then served in the Vicks- 
burg campaign, and on July 4, 1863, received the 
brevet rank of colonel for gallantry at the siege 
of Vicksburg, and was brigadier-general of vol- 



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CHAMBERS. 



CHAMBERS 



unteere, 1868-'64. He served on Sherman's raid 
to Meridian, and oonmianded a battalion at Look- 
out Mountain, Tenn., from Jan. 15, to Aug. 25, 
1965. On March 18, 1865, he was brevetted brig- 
adier-general, U. S. volunteers, for gallant ser- 
vices in the battle of Champion Hills, Feb. 4, 
1864, and at Meridian, Miss., Feb. 14, 1864. He 
was judge-advocate of the district of Nebraska 
in the early part of 1866, and of the department of 
the Platte until July 31, 1867. He was promoted 
major, March 5, 1867, and lieutenant - colonel 
October, 1876, serving in the interim on garrison 
and frontier duty. From July, 1877, to Sept. 13, 
1878, he was military attach^ of the U. S. lega- 
tion at Constantinople, Turkey, and in Novem- 
ber, 1878, was stationed at Fort Townsend. Wash. 
He died at San Antonio. Tex., Jan. 2, 1888. 

CHAMBERS, Bzeklel P., senator, was bom 
in Kent county. Md., Feb. 28, 1788. He was 
graduated at Washington college in 1805, and in 
1808 was admitted to the bar. He served in the 
war of 1812, attaining the rank of brigadier -gen- 
eraL In 1822 he was a member of the state sen- 
ate, and was elected United States senator from 
Maryland as a Whig, in the place of Edward 
Uoyd, resigned, taking his seat Feb. 22, 1826, 
and serving until 1884. when he resigned. In 
that year he was appointed presiding judge of 
the second judicial court of Maryland and a 
judge of the court of appeals, holding the posi- 
tions until 1851, when, by a change of constitu- 
tion, the judiciary of Maryland became elective. 
He was offered the position of secretary of the 
navy by President Fillmore in 1852, but declined 
on acount of feeble health. He was defeated as 
the Democratic candidate for governor of Mary- 
land in 1864. He received the deg^ree of LL.D. 
from Yale college in 1888, and from Delaware 
college in 1852. He died at Chestertown, Md., 
Jan. 30. 1867. 

CHAMBERS, Qeorge» jurist, was bom in 
Chambersburg, Pa., Feb. 24, 1786. The town was 
founded by his grandfather. He was graduated 
at Princeton college in 1804, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1807. beginning practice at Chambers- 
burg. In 1833 he was elected a representative 
from Pennsylvania in the 28d Congress as a 
Whig, and was re-elected to the 24th Congress, 
serving until March 8, 1837. In the latter year 
he was a member of the state constitutional con- 
vention of Pennsylvania. He was appointed a 
justice of the supreme court of Pennsylvania, 
April 12, 1851, and occupied that position until it 
was vacated by constitutional provision. He 
wrote a history of the Cumberland Valley, the 
manuscript of which was destroyed when the 
Confederate troops burned his house during their 
invasion of Pennsylvania. He died in Chambers- 
burg, Pa., March 25, 1866. 



CHAMBERS, George Stuart, clergyman, was 
bom in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. V4, 1841 ; son of 
John and Margaret (Bready) Chambers. He was 
graduated from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1862 and served as a private in the 118th 
Pennsylvania regiment during the emergency, 
after which he acted as assistant secretary of 
the United States Christian commission, 1863-*65. 
He was ordained in the Presbyterian ininistry 
and was pastor of Ebenezer, later Murray Hill, 
church, New York city, 1867-79, and in 1879 
became pastor of the Pine street church, Harris- 
burg, Pa. The University of Pennsylvania gave 
him the degree of A.M. in 1862, and that of D.D. 
in 1888. He published several sermons 

CHAMBERS, Heory, senator, was bom in 
Lunenbur; county, Va., in 1785; brother of 
Judge Edward Chambers. He practised medi- 
cine in Alabama, and served during the Indian 
wars as surgeon on the staff of Qeneral Jackson. 
In 1819 he was a member of the state constitu- 
tional convention. He was elected U. S. senator, 
serving from Dec. 5, 1825, until his death, which 
occurred in Mecklenburg county, N. C, Jan. 25, 
1826. 

CHAMBERS, John, jurist, was bom about 
1700; son of Admiral William Chambers. He 
was licensed an attorney -at-law in New York 
April 7, 1728. He was married March 26. 1787, 
to Anne, daughter of Col. Jacobus and Eva 
(Philipse) Van Cortlandt of Yonkers, N. Y. On 
Nov. 5, 1789, he was appointed clerk of the com- 
mon council of New York, and on July 80, 1751, 
he was commissioned second justice of the 
supreme court, taking his seat May 8. 1752. On 
May 1, 1753, he resigned his office as clerk of the 
common council. In 1757 he was a member of the 
Congress at Albany. N. Y., convened for the pur- 
pose of forming a Confederate union of the Brit- 
ish American colonies. In 1760 he failed to 
receive the appointment to the chief -justiceship 
of the state, made vacant by the death of Judge 
DeLancey, to which he felt entitled by reason of 
rank, and on Nov. 19, 1761, he resigned his seat 
on the bench. He was a member of the council 
from 1752 until his death. April 10. 1764. 

CHAMBERS, John, representative, was bom 
in New Jersey, Dec. 4, 1779. He removed to Ken- 
tucky with his father in 1792, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1800, practising his profession in 
Washington, Ky. He served in the war of 1812 
as aid-de-camp to Ceneral Harrison, and was 
present at the battle of the Thames. In 1828 he 
was elected a representative from Kentucky in 
the 20th Congress, to fill the vacancy caused by 
Thomas Metcalfe^s resignation, and served until 
1829. He was elected to the 24th and 25th con- 
gresses as a Whig, serving from Dec. 7, 1885, to 
March 8. 1839. He was appointed governor of 



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CHAMBERS. 



CHAMBLISS. 




the territory of Iowa in 1841, holding the office 
until 1846. In 1849 he was a commissioner to 
negotiate a treaty with the Sioux Indians. He 
<iied near Paris, Ky., Sept. 21, 1852. 

CHAMBERS, Julius, editor, was bom in Belle- 
fontaine, Ohio, Nov. 21, 1850; son of Joseph and 
iSarabella Chambers. He attended the Ohio Wes- 
leyan university from 1866 to 1868, was gradu- 
ated at Cornell university in 1870, and accepted 
A position as reporter on the New York Tribune. 

In 1873 he became 
connected with the 
Herald, and served 
on this paper as re- 
porter, special cor- 
respondent, city ed- 
f. itor, foreign editor 
during the Turco- 
Russian war, and as 
v' night editor, accom- 
I' pliehing feats in jour- 
' nalism which gained 
18^ \ "" *^™ ^ national repu- 

^;^^^!ij^, \ tation. During 187S- 
vv^ ^^^V '79. he attended Col- 

In 1886 he was made 
managing editor of the Herald, and in May, 1887, 
•established in Paris the only successful European 
•edition of the Herald, In 1889 he accepted the 
«ame position with the New York World, on 
which paper he repeated his former success. He 
is the author of A Mad World and its Inhab- 
itants (1877), the experiences of the author 
who, feigning insanity, was confined in an in- 
sane asylum in New York ; On a Margin : Tlie 
Story of a Hopeless Patriot (1884), and Lovers 
Four and Maidens Five (1886) ; Missing, A 
Tale of the Sargasso Sea (1896) ; The Rascal 
Club (1897). Mr. Chambers was the discoverer 
(1872) of Elk lake, south of Lake Itasca, which 
he claimed to be the source of the Mississippi 
river. 

CHAMBERS, Robert William, author, was 
born in Brooklyn, N.Y., May 26. 1865; son of 
■William and Caroline (Boughton) Chambers; 
grandson of William and Caroline (Allen) Cham- 
bers, and of Joseph and Caroline (Smith) Boughton, 
-and a descendant of Roger Williams. He was edu- 
cated at Cormon's atelier, at the schools of Colin 
-and Harrison, and at Julians under Lefebvre 
Benjamin Constant, 1886-'93, and first exhibited 
in the Paris salon of 1889. On his return to the 
United States he illustrated for Life, Truth and 
Vogue, He is the author of In tJie Quarter 
(1894); The King in Yellow (1895); The Red 
Republic (1896) ; A King and a Feto Dukes 
(1896) ; The Maker of Moons (1896) : With 
the Band (veree, 1897) ; The Mystery of Choice 



(1897) ; Lorraine (1897) ; The Haunts of Men 
(1897); The Cambric Mask (1898); Asfies 
of Empire (1898) ; The Conspirators (1899) ; 
Outsiders (1899) ; TYie Harbour Master (1899) ; 
and J%e Witch of EUangowan a drama 
(1897). 

CHAMBERS, Talbot Wilsoo, clergyman, was 
born at Carlisle, Pa., Feb. 25, 1819; son of Dr. 
W. C. and Mary (Ege) Chambers. He attended 
Dickinson college, was graduated at Rutgers col- 
lege in 1884, and studied at the theological sem- 
inaries of New Brunswick and Princeton (1834-*37). 
In 1837-'39 he was engaged in private teaching in 
Mississippi. His first pastorate was at the second 
Reformed Dutch church of Raritan at Somervilie, 
N. J., where he was ordained and installed Jan. 

22. 1840, and which he served until Dec. 2, 1849, 
when he was called to be one of the pastors of the 
collegiate Reformed Dutch church in New York 
city, and was stationed at the Lafayette place 
church. He was one of the Americau committee 
on the revision of the Bible, and for many years 
the chairman of the American section of the 
churches connected with the Reformed alliance. 
In 1875 he became lecturer at the New Brunswick 
theological seminary, N. J., and was made a 
trustee of Rutgers college in 1868, and of Colum- 
bia college in 1881. He received the degree of 
S.T.D. from Columbia in 1853, and that of LL.D. 
from Rutgers in 1888. He wrote: Memorial of 
Theo, Frelinghuysen, The Psalter a Witness to 
the Divine Origin of the Bible (1876), and Com- 
panion to the Revised Old Testament, He died in 
New York city, Feb. 3, 1896. 

CHAMBLiS^, John Randolph, soldier, was 
born in Hicksford, Greenville county, Va., Jan. 

23, 1833; son of John R., and grandson of Lewis 
H., Chambliss. In 1853 he was graduated at 
West Point, and until March 4, 1854, was sta- 
tioned at the cavalry school, Carlisle, Pa., when 
he resigned and assumed the occupation of a 
planter at Hicksford. Va. From 1856 to 1861 he 
served as a major on the governor's staff, and 
from 1858 to '61 as colonel of militia. At the 
opening of the civil war he entered the Confed- 
erate service, was first colonel of an infantry 
regiment and later colonel of the 13th Virginia 
cf valry. He was promoted to the rank of brig- 
adier-general, and was killed while leading a cav- 
alry charge at Deep Bottom, near Richmond, Va., 
Aug. 16. 1864. 

CHAMBLISS, William Parham, soldier, was 
born in Chamblissburg, Va., March 20, 1837. He 
was educated for the law, and served in the war 
with Mexico as 2d lieutenant in the 1st Tennessee 
volunteers from 1846 until July, 1847, when he 
was promoted captain of the 3d Tennessee volun- 
teers. At the close of the war he practised his 
profession in Pulaski, Tenn., 1850-'55; edited the 



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CHAMPE. 



CHAMPLIN. 



Citizen^ a Democratic newspaper, 1850-'55 and 
was a member of the state legislature, 1853-'54. 
In March, 1855, he was given a commission as 1st 
lieutenant 2d cavalry. United States army, and 
stationed in Texas. In April, 1861, he was pro- 
moted captain, and in August of the same year 
was transferred to the 5th cavalry, served in the 
civil war during the Manassas ftnd peninsular 
campaigns, and was brevetted major May 4, 
1862, for meritorious conduct at Hanover Court 
House. Va. He was severely woimded at the 
battle of Oaines' Mills, June 27, 1862, and, after 
lying exposed on the battlefield for four days, 
was taken to Libby prison. He received the 
brevet of lieutenant-colonel for his gallantry at 
Oaines' Mills, and after his release from Libby 
he served as instructor of cavalry at West Point, 
N. Y., 1862-'64. He was promoted major in the 
4th cavalry March 30, 1864, and served as special 
inspector of cavalry in the division of the Missis- 
sippi, 1864-'65. He accompanied his regiment to 
Texas in 1865, and on Nov. 1, 1867, resigned from 
the army to engage in business in Canada. He 
was afterwards reinstated in the army as major, 
and was retired Dec. 21, 1886, by act of Congress. 
He died Feb. 22, 1887. 

CHAMPEt John, soldier, was born in Loudon 
county, Va., in 1752. He was a sergeant-major 
of cavalry, and was employed by Major Lee, at 
Washington's request, to endeavor to capture 
Benedict Arnold. To accomplish his purpose he 
deserted from the American lines and was received 
by the British at Paulus Hook. His plan to seize 
Arnold, gag him. and carry him to a boat which 
he had ready, was frustrated by that general's 
change of quarters on the night fixed for the 
event, and the removal of Champe to a trans- 
port, in which, with the legion to which he was 
attached, he was sent to Virginia. He escaped 
from the British army and joined Greene's forces, 
but was exempted from further service by Gen- 
eral Washington, lest he should be captured as a 
spy. He died in Kentucky about 1798. 

CHAMPLIN, Christopher Grant, senator, was 
born in Newport, R. I., April 12. 1768. He was a 
nephew of George Champlin, bom 1788, died 1809, 
was graduated from Harvard college in 1786, and 
afterwards studied at St. Omer, France. He 
served as a representative in Congress from May 
15, 1797, to March 3, 1801. He was chosen to the 
United States senate in place of Francis Malbone, 
deceased, took his seat Jan. 12, 1810, and resigned 
in 1811. He was president of the Rhode Island 
bank up to the time of his death, which occurred 
at Newport, R. I.. March 28, 1840. 

CHAMPLIN, James Tift, educator, was bom 
in Colchester, Conn., June 9. 1811. He was grad- 
uated as valedictorian of his class from Brown 
university in 1834, and served as a tutor in that 



institution from 1835 to 1838, when he became 
pastor of the Baptist church, Portland, Me., 
resigning his pastorate in 1841 to accept the chair 
of ancient languages in Waterville coUege, which 
he held imtil 1857, when he became president of 
the college, so remaining until 1872, when he set- 
tled at Portland, Me., and occupied himself with 
literary work. He prepared English and Greek 
grammars and other educational works, and from 
1850 was a contributor to the Christian Review. 
He published : Demosthenes on the Crottm (1843) ; 
Demostiienes* Select Orations (1848) ; jEschines 
on the Crotcn (1850); A Textbook of Intellectual 
Philosophy (1860) ; First Principles of Ethics 
(1861 ) ; A Text-book of Political Economy (1868) ; 
Scripture Reading-Lessons with Notes (1876) ; 
Constitution of the United States, with brief 
comments (1880). He died in Portland, Me., 
March 15, 1882. 

CHAMPLIN, John Denison, author, was born 
at Stonington, Ck)nn., Jan. 29, 1834; son of John 
Denison and Sylvia (Bostwick) Champlin. He 
attended the Hopkins granmiar school at New 
Haven, was graduated from Yale in 1856, and 
received the degree of M. A. in 1866. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1859, and practised in New 
York city as a member of the law firm of Hol- 
lister. Cross & Champlin. In 1860 he removed 
to New Orleans to begin the practice of law in 
that city, but at the opening of the civil war re- 
turned to New York, and from 1862 to '64 was 
engaged in general literary work. In 1864 he 
became associate editor of the Standard, Bridge- 
port, Conn., and in 1865 established a Democratic 
paper entitled the Sentinel, in Litchfield. Conn., 
which he edited for four years. In 1869 he sold it 
and removed to New York city. In 1872-'73 he 
wrote, from the journal of J. F. Loubart, a 
Narrative of the Mission to Russia in 1866 of 
the Hon. Gustavus Vasa Fox, assistant secre- 
tary of the navy, who was sent with a fleet 
by the U. S. government to congratulate Alex- 
ander II. on liis escape from assassination. 
In 1873 lie served as a reviser and in 1875 be- 
came associate editor of Tlie American Cyclo- 
p(edia. He is the author of : Yming Folk's Cy- 
clopcedia of Common Tilings (1879); Yoting FoWs 
Catechism of Common Tilings (1880) ; Yonng 
Folk's Cyclopcedia of Persons and Places (1880) ; 
Young Folk's Astronomy (1881); Young Folk's 
History of the War for the Union (1881) ; Chron- 
icleofthe Coach (1886) and edited Scribner's 
Cyclopcedia of Painters and Painting (4 vols., 
1887) , and Cyclopcedia of Music and Musicians 
(1890). He was associate editor of the iSfandard 
Dictionary in 1892-'94, and editor (with Rossi ter 
Johnson and George Cary Eggleston) of Liber 
Scriptorum, (1893) ; Young Folk's Cyclopcedia of 
Literature and Art (1901). 



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CHAMPLIN. 



CHAMPNEY. 



CHAilPLIN, Stephen, naval officer, was bom 
in South Kingston, K. L, Nov. 17, 1789; son of 
Stephen and Elizabeth (Perry) Champlin. In 1794 
his parents removed to Lebanon, Ky., where he 
received a common-school education. At the age 
of sixjbeen he went to sea and at twentytwo was 
captain of a merchantman. May 22, 1812, he was 
appointed a sailing-master in the navy and 
placed in command of a gunboat under Commo- 
dore Perry at Newport, and afterwards at 
Sacketts Harbor. He was in command of the Scor- 
pion at the battle of Lake Erie, Sept. 10, 1818, the 
Scorpion firing the first shot on the American 
side. September 13, Champlin captured the Little . 
Beit, and fired the last shot of the engagement. In 
1814 he commanded the Tigress and participated 
in the blockade of Port Mackinac. On the 13th 
of September the Tigress and Scorpion were sur- 
prised and captured by the British, Champlin re- 
ceiving a severe wound in the thigh, which 
crippled him for life. He was held as a prisoner 
at Mackinac for more than a month and was then 
paroled.. He was promoted to a lieutenancy 
Dec. 9,- 1814, and in 1815 was attached to Commo- 
dore Perry's flagship, the Java. From 1816 to 
1818 he was in command of the Porcupine, and 
during 1816 was employed in surveying the 
Canadian line. * He served on the receiving ship 
Fulton from 1824 to 1834, when he settled in 
Buffalo, N. Y. He was promoted captain, Aug. 4, 
1850; was placed on the reserve list Sept. 13, 
1855, and was raised to the rank of commodore 
on the reserve list, April 4, 1867. He died in 
Buffalo, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1870. 

CHAMPLIN, Stephen Qardner, soldier, was 
born at Kingston, N. Y. , July 1 , 1 797. He acqui red 
his education at Rhinebeck academy, N. Y., and 
was admitted to the bar at Albany, in 1850. He 
settled in the practice of his profession at Grand 
Rapids, Mich., in 1853, and later held office as 
judge of the recorder's court, and prosecuting 
attorney of Kent county. In 1861 he was com- 
missioned major of the 3d Michigan infantry, of 
which he was promoted colonel, October 22. He 
participated in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, Groveton,and Antietam. He was severely 
wounded at Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862, and as a 
result was incapacitated for active service after 
the battle of Antietam, and commanded the re- 
cruiting station at Grand Rapids upon his promo- 
tion to the rank of brigadier-general, Nov. 29, 1862. 
He died at Grand Rapids, Mich., Jan. 24, 1864. 

CHAMPNEY, Benjamin, painter, was bom in 
New Ipswich, N. H., Nov. 20, 1817, son of Ben- 
jamin and Rebecca (Brook) Champney. In 1834 
he was graduated at Appleton academy, New 
Ipswich, and removed to Boston, where he was 
employed in a lithographic establishment, 1837-'40. 
He studied at the Louvre life school in Paris 



1841-'46. In 1847-'48 he painted his notable pano- 
rama of the Rhine. He painted scenes in the 
White Mountains and the Swiss Alps. He was 
president of the Boston Art club in 1858, and pub- 
lished Sixty Year Memories of Art and Artists. 

CHAMPNEY, Elizabeth WUliams* author, 
was born in Springfield, Ohio, Feb. 6, 1850; 
daughter of Samuel Bamed and Caroline (John- 
son) Williams. She was graduated at Vassar col- 
lege in 1869; married James Wells Champney, 
and in 1876 began to write stories, poems, and 
romances for the periodicals; her first book, '* In 
the Sky Garden," also appearing in that year. 
She contributed to leading periodicals a series of 
papers embodying her observations in foreign 
lauds, the most notable being A Neglected Cor- 
ner of Europe, and another. In the Footsteps 
of Fortuny and RegnatUt. Her works com- 
prise : Bourbon Lilies, Rosemary and i?W€, All 
Around a Palette, Oreat-Orandmother Girls in 
New France, Three Vassar Girls Abroad. The 
Witch Winnie series, Sebia's Tangled Web, Ro- 
mance of the Feudal Chateaux (1900) ; Colonial 
Songs. 

CHAMPNEY, James Wells (••Champ"), artist, 
was bom in Boston, July 16, 1843. He studied in 
the Lowell institute, Boston, Mass., and at the 
age of sixteen entered the shop of a wood en- 
graver in that city. He served in the 45th Mass- 
achusetts volunteers during 1863, and afterwards 
taught drawing in the school of Dr. Dio Lewis, at 
Lexington. Mass. In 1866 he visited Europe, 
studying in Paris and at Ecouen under Edouard 
Fr^re. In 1868 he spent some time in the acad- 
emy at Antwerp, then returned to Paris, where, 
in 1869, he painted his first genre picture. He 
spent some time in Rome, Italy, in 1869-'70. He 
employed 1873 in visiting the southern states, 
making sketches to illustrate Edward Kini?*s 
The Great South. In 1885 he first turned his 
attention to pastel painting. It was as a ** pastel- 
list " that he became best known. His lectures 
before the leading art clubs on Pastels and Pas- 
tellists and the various exhibitions of his famous 
copies of the old masters did much to promote 
the growth of art in the United States. His pic- 
tures of Lawrence Barrett, the Hon. John Bige- 
low, Robert CoUyer, and Bishop Williams of 
Connecticut, are splendid exponents of the possi- 
bilities of pastel painting. He spent the summer 
of 1893 in the gallery at Versailles, producing his 
delightful replicas of the French court beauties, 
which were later exhibited in New York, Phil- 
adelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, 
Cleveland, and Cincinnati. He exhibited at the 
World's Columbian exposition at Chicago, IH. 
(1893), and at the Paris salon of 1894. Mr. 
Champney was a graceful lecturer on art. illus- 
trating his talks with rapid and effective sketches. 



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CHAMPNEYS. 



CHANCnE. 



In 1882 he was elected an associate member of the 
National academy of design, and was early made 
a member of the American society of water color 
painters. After 1876 his studios were situated in 
New York city, and at Deerfield, Mass. Among 
the more noted of his early pictures are : Boy 
Shelling Peas (1869) ; The Sere Leaf (1874) ; 
Where the Two Patlis Meet (1880); Song mthout 
Words (1886). Among his portraits in pastel are 
noted those of Mrs. Egeiton, Mrs. Rhinelander 
Stewart, Grace Kimball as Betty Linley, Mary 
Mannering as Daphne^ and Mrs. Henry Munn. 
He was accidentally killed in New York city, 
May 1, 1903. 

CHAMPNEYS, Benjamio, jurist, was bom in 
Bridgeton,C;umberland county, N. J., in January, 
1800. He was educated by a private tutor and en- 
tered the college of New Jersey but did not grad- 
uate. He was admitted to the bar April 2, 1818. 
From 1624 to 1830 he served as deputy attorney- 
general of the mayor's court, Lancaster, Pa. ; from 
1830 to 1833 as deputy attorney -general of the 
county ; and from 1839 to 1842 as president judge 
of the second judicial district. In 1825 and in 
1828 he sat in the lower house of the state legis- 
lature, and from 1843 to 1846 in the state senate. 
He became attorney -general of the state in 1846, 
and resigned that oflBce in 1848. He was elected 
to the state house of representatives in 1868, and 
to the state senate in 1864, '66, and *66. He left 
the Democratic party at the time of the civil war 
and joined the Republicans. He died at Lancas- 
ter. Pa.. Aug. 9, 1871. 

CH ANCBLLORt Charles Willhuns, physician, 
was bom in Spottsylvania county, Va., Feb. 19, 
1833. He attendeS the college at Georgetown, 
D. C, and the University of Virginia. In 1858 
he received his M.D. degree at Jeflferson medical 
college, and removed to Alexandria, Va., where 
he practised medicine until the breaking out of 
the civil war. In 1861 he was appointed modical 
director on the staff of General Pickett of the 
Ojnfederate army, and served in this capacity 
throughout the war, removmg at its close to 
Memphis, Tenn., where he practised for three 
years. In 1868 he accepted the chair of anatomy 
at Baltimore (Md.) imiversity, became dean 
of the faculty in 1869, and professor of surgery 
in 1870. He severed his connection with the uni- 
versity in 1873 to retum to general practice, and 
in 1876 he was made secretary of the state board 
of health. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
society of London. Among his writings are: 
Report upon the Conditionof the Prisons, Reform- 
atories and Cfuiritable Institutions of Maryland 
(1875) ; Mineral Waters and Seaside Resorts 
(1888) ; and monographs on Drainage of the 
Marsh Lands of Mai-yland (1884). He was U.S. 
consul at Havre, France, 1893-97. 



CHANCELLOR, Eustathius, physician, was 
born at Chancellorsville, Va., Aug. 29, 1854; son 
of Dr. J. Edgar and Josephine (Anderson) Chan- 
cellor. He entered the University of Virginia in 
1871, and ih 1874 changed from the classical to 
the medical department, from which he was 
graduated in 1876. He attended a course of 
lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, was 
appointed prosector at the University of Mary- 
land, and in 1877 was graduated from that 
institution. He became resident physician at' 
the university hospital in 1878. In 1879 he began 
general practice in co-partnership with his 
father. In 1885 he was instrumental in found- 
ing the Beaumont hospital medical college, in 
which he was a professor from 1885 to 1890. 
In 1892 he was elected secretary of the national 
association of military surgeons. He is the 
author of: Researches upon the Treatment of 
Delirium Tremens (1881) ; Oonorrhceal Articular 
Rheumatism (1883) ; Woman in her Social 
Sphere (1885); Marriage Philosophy (1886); 
Tlie Correlation of Physical and Vital Forces 
(1887) ; and The Pacific Slope and its Scenery 
(1890). 

CHANCHB, John Mary Joseph, R C. bishop, 
was bom at Baltimore, Md., Oct. 4, 1795. At the 
age of eleven he entered St. Mary's seminary; he 
received the tonsure from Archbishop Carroll at 
the age of fifteen, and was ordained June 5, 
1819. He was a member of the Sulpitian order, 
and continued his duties as a professor in St. 
Mary's, of which he became president in 1834. 
He declined the position of coadjutor bishop of 
Boston, as well as of New York which he was 
offered later. He was master of ceremonies at the 
second provincial council of Baltimore, was one 
of the promoters of several others, and chief pro- 
moter of the first national council. Dr. Chanche 
was appointed bishop of the newly erected see 
of Natchez, and was consecrated March. 4, 
1841, in the cathedral at Baltimore. He built 
and dedicated the cathedral, made laborious visi- 
tations of his diocese, organizing new churches 
and parishes, and did all that zeal and untiring 
energy could compass in so large a field of labor. 
His missions among the colored people were very 
successful. In 1848 he founded St. Mary's orphan 
asylum and school under the charge of sisters of 
charity from Emmittsburg. In 1848 he visited 
France to make efforts for the coalescence of the 
sisters of charity in the United States with those 
of EVance, in which design he succeeded. He 
built during his episcopacy eleven churches, and 
established thirty-two missionary stations. He 
attended the first national council at Baltimore, 
and on his way home was stricken with hia 
mortal sickness. He tarried for rest at Freder- 
ick, Md., and died there July 23, 1852. 



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CHANDLER. 



CELANDLER. 



CHANDLBR9 Abiely philanthropist, was born 
in Concord, N. H.. Felj. 26, 1777; son of Daniel 
and Sarah (Merrill) Chandler, and grandson of 
Capt. John Chandler, one of the original propri- 
etors of Concord. At the age of tweVity-one he 
was given a tract of forty acres of land in Stowe, 
Me., on the condition that he would settle there. 
He worked on his farm in summer, attending the 
Fryeburg, and afterwards Phillips, academy in 
winter, and was graduated at Harvard in 1806. 
He then taught school for nearly twelve years, 
and later became a commission merchant in Bos- 
ton, acquiring wealth and distinction. He 
retired in 1845. In his will, after providing 
generously for his immediate family, and be- 
queathing legacies to more than fifty nephews 
and nieces, he left fifty thousand dollars to Dart- 
mouth college to establish a scientific school, and 
the residue of his estate, amounting to twenty- 
five thousand dollars, to the asylum for the insane 
in New Hampshire. He died in Walpole, N. H., 
March 22, 1851. 

CHANDLER, Charles Frederick, chemist, 
was bom at Lancaster, Mass., Dec. 6, 1886. He 
studied at the Lawrence scientific school of Har- 
vard university, and then at Gottingen and Berlin, 
gaining his Ph.D. degree in 1856. Ii> 1857 he was 
appointed professor of chemistry in Union col- 
lege, removed to New York, 1864, and joined 
Thomas Egleston and Francis L. Vinton in organ- 
izing the Columbia college school of mines, in 
which he xvas dean and professor of analytical 
and applied chemistry. He became professor of 
chemistry in the college of pharmacy in 1866, 
and adjunct professor of chemistry and medical 
jurisprudence in the college of physicians and 
surgeons in 1872, taking the full chair in 1876. 
He was chemist to the New York city board of 
health and its president for several years. Among 
the beneficial results of his work in this field 
were the careful inspection of milk, improve- 
ments in the markets, the supervision of slaugh- 
ter-houses and their restriction to prescribed 
regions on the rivers, restrictive legislation con- 
cerning the quality of kerosene and the tene- 
ment-house act. His connection with the state 
board of health was also fruitful in restraining 
the adulteration of food. He investigated the 
water supply of New York in 1866, of Brooklyn 
in 1868 and 1870, of Albany in 1872-'85, and of 
Yonkers in 1874; reported on waters for locomo- 
tives in 1865 ; analyzed the springs at Saratoga 
in 1868. and at Ballston in 1869, and directed 
analyses for several geological surveys. He is 
the author of contributions to the American Jour- 
nal of Science, the American Chemist, which he 
conducted with his brother. Prof. W. H. Chan- 
dler, from 1870 to 1877 ; the reports of the health 
department and the national academy of sci- 



ences. He presided in 1884 at the chemical oon- 
vention which assembled at Northumberland, 
Pa., to commemorate Priestley's discovery of 
oxygen. He was made a member of the national 
academy of sciences in 1874, and became a life 
member of the chemical societies of London, Ber- 
lin, Paris and New York. He received the degree 
of M.D. from the University of New York, and 
that of LL.D. from Union college, both in 1878. 

CHANDLBR» Charles Heory, educator, waa 
born in New Ipswich, N. H., Oct. 25, 1840; son of 
James and Nancy (White) Chandler. His father 
was a member of the legislatures of Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire, and a direct descend- 
ant of Roger Chandler of Concord, Mass., who 
came from Plymouth colony in 1658, and waa 
probably a son of Roger Chandler of Duxbury, 
and Isabella, daughter of James Chilton of the 
Mayflower. Charles H. Chandler was graduated 
at Dartmouth college in 1868, taught in the New 
Ipswich Appleton academy, at the Kimbali 
union academy, and was principal of the Thet- 
ford academy and of that at St. Johnsbury (Vt.). 
In 1871 he was made professor of physics and 
chemistry at Antioch college, and held the chair 
until 1877, when he became professor of mathe- 
matics and physics. In 1881 he was made a 
professor at Ripon (Wis. ) college, at first holding- 
the chair of chemistry emd physics, afterwards 
changed to that of mathematics and physics, 
and after 1889 to that of mathematics alone. 

CHANDLER, Elizabeth Margaret* author,, 
was bom at Centre, near Wilmington, DeL,. 
Dec. 24, 1807; dliughter of Thomas and Margaret 
(Evans) Chandler. She was taken to Philadel- 
phia at an early age, and educated in Quaker 
schools until she was thirteen years old. She 
began to write verses when in her ninth year, 
and at the age of sixteen became a frequent 
contributor to the press. In 1824 she wrote The 
Slave Ship, for which she was awarded th» 
third premium by the Casket, Tliis was copied 
into the Genius of Universal Emancipation, tO" 
which paper she was invited to contribute fre- 
quently. In 1829 she became editor of the 
Ladies^ Repository, a department in that maga- 
zine, and wrote chiefly on the subject of eman- 
cipation, being the first American woman 
author to make this subject the principal theme 
of her writings. In 1830 she removed to Miclii- 
gan, settling near Tecumseh, where she contin- 
ued to write for the press. She is the author of 
Essays, Philanthropic and Moral (1836), and 
Poetical Works (1845, new ed., 1886). See The 
Poetical Works of Elizabeth Margaret Chandler p 
with a Memoir of her Life and Character by- 
Benjamin Lundy (1845). She died at "Hazel- 
bank,'' near Tecumseh. Lenawee county, Mich.^ 
Nov. 2, 1834. 



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CHANDLER. 



CHANDLER, 



CHANDLERt John* senator, was bom at 
Epping, N. H.. Feb. 1, 1762; son of Joseph and 
Lydia (Eastman) Chandler. In 1776 he offered 
himself as a recruit in the army and served out 
two enlistments as a soldier. In 1777 he removed 
to Monmouth, in a part of Massachusetts which 
afterwards became Maine. From 1805 to 1809 
he represented Massachusetts in the 9th and 10th 
congresses. In 1808 he was a specially appointed 
sheriff of Kennebec county to settle the disputes 
and quell the rising rebellion of the district. He 
was made a major-general in the militia and 
served during the war of 1813. On July 8, 1812, 
he was commissioned brigadier-general. He was 
a member of the general court of Massachusetts 
in 1819, and in the same year was a member of 
the convention which formed the constitution of 
Maine. In 1820 he was president of the Maine 
senate, resigning in the fall of that year to 
become one of the first two U. S. senators from 
Maine after its separation from Massachusetts. 
In 1822 he was one of the committee that selected 
Augusta as the capital of Maine. From 1829 to 
1837 he was collector of the port of Portland, 
removing to Augusta in the latter year. He 
was the principal founder of Monmouth academy, 
and from 1821 to 1888 was a trustee of Bowdoin 
coUege. He died in Augusta, Me., Sept. 25, 1841. 

CHANDLER, Joseph Ripley, representative, 
was bom in Kingston, Mass., Aug. 25, 1792. He 
was educated in the public schools of Kingston, 
and was at one time a school teacher. He 
moved to Philadelphia in 1815 and opened a 
school, which he conducted for eleven years. In 
1822 he became an editorial writer on the United 
States Gazette^ and in 1826 assumed the sole edi- 
torship. In 1847 he resigned his position on ac- 
count of ill-health. He was prominent in local 
politics, and in 1848 was elected a representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania in the 31st Congress as 
a Whig. He was re-elected to the 32d and 83d 
congresses, serving from Dec. 3, 1849, to March 
8, 1855. He was appointed by President Bu- 
chanan minister to the two Sicilies, and served 
in this office from 1858 to 1860. Among his pub- 
lished writings are : A Orammar of the English 
Language (1821) ; The Pilgrims of the Rock 
(1846) ; Civil and Religious Equality (1855), and 
Outlines of Penology (1874). He died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., July 10, 1880. 

CHANDLER, Ralph, naval officer, was born 
in New York city, Aug. 23, 1829. He entered the 
U. S. navy as midshipman Sept. 27, 1845, served 
during the Mexican war, was promoted passed 
midshipman, Oct. 6, 1851; master, Sept. 15, 1855; 
and lieutenant, Sept. 16, 1855. He was present 
at the battle of Port Royal, and in 1862 took part 
in the capture of Norfolk, Va., being on the San 
Jacinto of the North Atlantic blockading squad- 



ron. On July 16, 1862, he was promoted lieuten* 
ant-commander, and placed in command of the 
Maumee. He was advanced to the rank of com- 
mander, July 25, 1866 ; captain, June 5. 1874, and 
commodore, March 1, 1881. Later in 1884 he was- 
placed in command of the Brooklyn, N. Y., navy 
yard, and Oct. 6, 1886, was promoted rear- 
admiral, and assigned to the conmiand of tha 
Asiatic squadron. He died in Hong Kong, 
China, Feb. 11, 1889. 

CHANDLER, Thomas Bradbury, clergyman, 
was bom in Woodstock, Conn., April 26, 1726; 
son of Capt. William and Jemima (Bradbury) 
Chandler. He was graduated at Yale college in 
1745, and in 1747 was appointed, by the vener- 
able society for the propagation of the gospel in 
foreign parts, catechist in Elizabethtown, N. J. 
In the summer of 1751 he went to England and 
was admitted into holy orders, returning in. 
November to become a missionary in New Eng- 
land. In 1767 he published An Appeal to the 
PuhliG in Behalf of the Church of England in 
America, which gave rise to a long controvei*sy, 
but did not result in any definite decision. At 
the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles in 
America, Dr. Chandler warmly espoused th© 
royal cause. He soon found his position un- 
pleasant, and in 1775 left for England, whe :e he 
remained until 1785. In 1785 he returned to the 
United States. He retained the rectorship at 
Elizabethtown, but was never able to resume 
his parochial duties. In 1786 he was invited to 
become bishop for the province of Nova Scotia, 
but declined. In 1766 the University of Oxford 
conferred upon him the degree of D.D. He died 
at Elizabethtown, N. J., June 17, 1790. 

CHANDLER, Williani Eaton, statesman, waa 
born in Concord, N. H., Dec. 28, 1835; son of 
Nathan S. and Mary A. Chandler. He was edu- 
cated at the academy of Thetford, Vt., and Pem- 
broke, N. H., and was graduated at the Harvard 
law school in 1854. In 1856 he was admitted to 
the bar and began to 
practice in Concord, 
identifying himself 
with the Republican 
party, which was start- 
ed in that year. He 
was appointed law re- 
porter of the New 
Hampshire supreme 
court in 1859,and pub- 
lished five volumes of 
the reports. He was 
elected a member of 
the state legislature in 
1862, and was speaker 
of the house in 1864-'65. He was sent by the 
navy department in the latter part of 1864 a« 




lAf^S^t^/:^.^.,^^^^ 



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CHANDLER. 



CHANDLER. 



special counsel in the navy yard frauds, and his 
conduct in the matter led to his appointment by 
President Lincoln as first solicitor and judge- 
advocate-general of the navy department. From 
June 17, 1865, to Nov. 30, 1867, he was first assist- 
ant to Hugh McCulloch, secretary of the treas- 
ury. After his resignation he practised law in 
New Hampshire and Washington, D. C. He was 
elected a delegate-at-large to the national Repub- 
lican convention in 1868, and was subsequently 
chosen secretary of the national commiitee, 
holding the position during Grant's administra' 
tions. Meanwhile he had become owner of the 
largest interest in the Statesman, a weekly, and 
the Monitor, a daily Republican paper of New 
Hampshire. In 1876 he was a member of the 
New Hampshire convention which met to revise 
the state constitution. In 1880 he was elected a 
delegate to the Chicago convention. He was 
nominated by President Garfield as solicitor- 
general in the department of justice, but on 
account of his radical views on the southern 
question his confirmation was opposed by Attor- 
ney-General MacVeagh and by all the Demo- 
cratic senators, and was rejected on May 20 by 
a majority of five votes. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the New Hampshire legislature in 1880, 
and served during 1881. On April 7, 1882, he was 
appointed secrettury of the navy by President 
Arthur, and served until March 7, 1885, making 
many notable improvements in the department. 
He almost entirely reconstructed the complex 
and expensive system of conducting the navy, 
and brought about the beginning of a modern 
navy by building four new ciniisers. In 1884 lie 
organized the Greeley relief expedition. He was 
a member of the U.S. senate, 1887-1901 ; was made 
president of the Spanish claims commission in 
1901, and received the degree LL.D. from Daiir 
mouth college in September, 1901. 

CHANDLER, William Henry, chemist, was 
bom at New Bedford, Mass., Dec. 13, 1841; son 
of Charles and Sarah (Whitney) Chandler, and 
brother of Charles Frederick Chandler. He was 
graduated an A.M. at Union college in 1861 and 
until 1867 was chemist at the New Bedford, 
Mass., copper works and at the Swan Island 
guano company. From 1868 to 1871 he was assist- 
ant in chemistry at the school of mines. New 
York, and in the latter year was given the chair 
of chemistry at Lehigh university, Bethlehem, 
Pa. From 1878 he was also director of the uni- 
versity library. He was elected a member of 
various chemical societies in London, Paris, and 
America, and from 1870 to 1877 was joint editor 
and proprietor with his brother, Charles F. 
Chandler, of the American Chemist, He received 
the degree of Ph.D. from Hamilton college in 
1873. He is the author of Produjcts of Mining 




and Metallurgy (1891); The Construction of 
Chemical Laboratories (1893), and of various 
reports of the universal exposition at Paris in 
1889. 

CHANDLER, Zachariah, senator, was bom in 
Bedford, N. H., Dec. 10, 1818; son of Samuel and 
Margaret (Orr) Chandler. He attended the com- 
mon school of Bedford and the academies at 
Pembroke and Derry, and in 1833 removed to 
Detroit, Mich., where he commenced trade as a 
dry -goods dealer, with 
a capital of one thou- 
sand dollars, furnished 
him by his father in 
lieu of a collegiate 
education. His busi- 
ness steadily increased 
and he eventually ac- 
quired a large fortune. 
He was an abolitionist 
and helped support the 
* * underground r a i 1- 
road. " In 1851 he was 
elected mayor of De- 
troit as a Whig, and 
in 1852 was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for governor of Michigan. He 
was also Whig candidate for the U. S. senate 
in 1853. In 1854 he participated actively in 
the organization of the Republican party. He 
was elected U. S. senator, Jan. 10, 1857, to suc- 
ceed Senator Cass, receiving eighty-nine votes 
against sixteen cast for Cass, and took his seat 
March 4, 1857. He was a chairman of the com- 
mittee on commerce after March, 1861. In 
March, 1858, he opposed the admission of Kansas, 
under the Lecompton constitution, in a speech 
before the senate, and the same year made .a 
written agreement with Senators Wade and 
Cameron in which they combined against Senator 
Green of Ii^issouri, who had threatened an attack 
on Senator Cameron for words spoken in debate. 
He gained notoriety through a letter written to 
Governor Blair, Feb. 11, 1861, in which he said, 
•* Without a little blood-letting the Union will not 
in my estimation be worth a rush," and which he 
was called upon to defend on the floor of the 
senate. He contributed generously to the sup- 
port of the war, was in favor of confiscation 
measures, opposed short-term enlistments and 
expressed himself as sorry that the President did 
not call for five hundred thousand men, rather 
than seventy-five thousand. On Dec. 5, 1861, he 
moved the resolution which resulted in the ap- 
pointment of a joint committee on the conduct of 
the war, of which he became a member, but de- 
clined the chairmanship. This committee opposed 
General McClellan's mihtary management, and 
on July 16, 1862, Mr. Chandler made a powerful 



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CHANEY. 



CHANNING. 



speech in which he assailed that officer^s compe- 
tency. He was re-elected to the senate in 1863, 
and made, in 1864, a vigorous campaign for the 
Republican ticket. He was re-elected to the 
senate in 1869, and in 1874 he made a speech 
against the inflation of the currency, and was un- 
compromising in demanding a prompt return to 
specie payments. On Oct. 19, 1875, President 
Grant appointed him secretary of the interior, to 
succeed Columbus Delano, resigned, which office 
he held until the closa of Grant's administration, 
March 4, 1877. Upon Isaac P. Christiancy*s res- 
ignation as United States senator from Michigan 
in February, 1879, Mr. Chandler was elected to 
fill the vacancy. His most noted speech was 
made on March 3, 1879, at 3.30 in the morning, 
when a bill granting arrears of pensions to vet- 
eran soldiers in the Mexican war was under con- 
sideration, which would include in its provisions 
the possibility of a pension to Jefferson Davis. 
Mr. Chandler was very severe in his denuncia- 
tion of Mr. Davis, and his speech aroused ex- 
citement in the senate, and brought his name 
prominently before the public as a presidential 
candidate. In the campaign of 1876 he was made 
chairman of the Republican congressional com- 
mittee. On Oct. 31, 1879, he addressed the Young 
men's Republican club at Chicago, IlL, and was 
found dead in his room the next morning, the 
result of a cerebral hemorrhage. The date of 
his death is Nov. 1, 1879. 

CHANEY, Lucian West, biologist, was bom in 
Heuvelton, N. Y., June 26, 1857; son of Lucian 
West and Happy (Kinney) Chaney. In 1878 he 
was graduated at Carleton college, and after 
teaching for two years became superintendent 
of schools in Glencoe, Minn. In 1882 he was 
called to the chair of bic^ogy in Carleton college, 
Northfield, Minn. He is the author of many 
scientific contributions to periodicals, and of 
Guides far the Laboratory (1886). In 1894-'96 
he made explorations in the Rocky mountains 
north of Lake Macdonald, Montana. During this 
time he located a glacier not before visited, which 
was afterwards known by his name. 

CHANLBR, Amelie Rives. (See Rives, 
Amelie). 

CHANNING, Edward, author, was bom in 
Dorchester, Mass., June 15, 1856 : son of William 
Ellery and Ellen (Fuller) Channing. He was 
graduated from Harvard college in 1878. In 1888 
he was appointed instructor, and in 1887 assist- 
ant professor of history in Harvard college. In 
1880 he received the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D. 
from his alma mater. He is the author of: 
Toum and Country Oovemnient in the English 
Colonies of North America (1884) : The Narra- 
gansett Planters. A Stndy of Causes (1886) ; 
The Navigation Latos (1890); Tlie United States 



of America, 1765-1866 (1896) ; the papers on 
The Companions of Columbus and The War in 
the Southern Department in Justin Winsor's 
Narrative and Critical History of America (1886- 
'88) ; English History for American Readers 
(with Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1893), 
and Guide to the Stiuiy of American History 
(with Albert B. Hart, 1896). 

CHANNING, Edward Tyrrel, educator, was 
bom in Newport, R. I., Dec. 12, 1790; son of 
William and Lucy (Ellery) Channing. He en- 
tered Harvard in 1804, but was not graduated, as 
he was involved in the famous rebellion of 1807. 
He received his degree in 1819, and after study- 
ing law with his brother was admitted to the bar. 
In the winter of 1814-'15 he was one of a club of 
young men who planned to issue a bi-monthly 
magazine to be called the New England Maga- 
zine and Review. But on the return of William 
Tudor from Europe, with a plan for publishing 
a similar periodical to be issued quarterly, an 
arrangement was made to unite the two, and in 
May, 1815, the first issue of the North American 
Review appeared. Mr. Tudor edited it for two 
years, and in 1817 it passed into the hands of a 
club of young men, among whom were Jared 
Sparks, John Gallison, William P. Mason, Nathan 
Hale, Richard H. Dana and Edward T. Chan- 
ning. Mr. Sparks edited it for one year, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Channing, assisted by his 
cousin, Richard H. Dana. In 1819 he resigned 
this position to accept the Boylston chair of 
rhetoric and oratory at Harvard. Edward 
Everett succeeded him as editor of the North 
American Review. He resigned his chair at 
Harvard college in 1851, in full vigor of mind 
and body, having formed an early resolution 
to retire from active life at the age of sixty. He 
was married in 1826 to his cousin, Henrietta 
A. S. Ellery. Among his published writings are: 
Life of William Ellery (1836), and Lectures Read 
to the Seniors in Harvard College (1856). He 
died in Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 8, 1856. 

CHANNING, Walter, physician, was bom in 
Newport, R. L, April 15. 1786; son of William 
and Lucy (Ellery) Channing. He was a junior 
at Harvard at the time of the ** rebellion " in 
1807, but although he was not graduated with 
his class he was awarded the degree of B. A. with 
the others in 1808. In 1809 he received the de- 
gree of M.D. from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1812, after studying in Edinburgh 
and London, he began to practise medicine in Bos- 
ton, at the same time delivering lectures on ob- 
stetrics, at Harvard, in which institution, three 
years later, he became professor of obstetrics and 
medical jurisprudence, holding the chair imtil 
1845. At the inception of the Massachusetts 
general hospital in 1821 he was made assistant 



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CHANNINQ. 



CHANNING. 



phyBlcian. In 1845 he was foremost among those 
who urged the introduction of purer water i^^io 
Boston, and in 1849 took the lead in introduc- 
ing ether into medical practice. In 1858 he 
was appointed considting physician to the New 
England hospital for women and children. 
Among his many published \vritings are : An 
Address mi the Prevention of Pauperism (1843) ; 
My Oum Times, or, *Tis Fifty Years Since 
(1845) ; A Treatise on Etherization in Child- 
birth (1848) ; Memoir of Enoch Hale (1848) ; 
Miscellaneous Poems (1851) ; A Physician's 
Vacation ; or a Summer in Europe in 1852 
(1856) ; Bed Case : Its History and Treat- 
ment (1860), and Memoir of T W. Storrow 
(1863). He died in Boston, Mass., July 27, 
1876. 

CHANNING, William Eliery, clergyman, was 
born in Newport, R. I., April 7, 1780; son of 
William and Lucy (EUery) Channing, and grand- 
son of William EUery, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He attended school in New- 
port until his twelfth year, when he was placed 

under the care of his 
uncle, the Rev. Henry 
Chambers, of New 
London, Conn., who 
prepared him to enter 
Harvard. He was 
graduated in 1798 with 
the highest honors, 
having attracted the 
attention of both fac- 
ulty and students by 
the brilliancy of his 
scholarship, the origi- 
nality of his thought, 
and the remarkable 
charm of his person- 




CMANNIMfr STMruL 



ality. After his graduation he became tutor in 
the family of David Meade Randolph of Rich- 
mond, Va. Though he there viewed slavery 
from its most attractive side, his innate hatred 
of the system was confirmed during his eighteen 
months in Richmond, and he declared *' the in- 
fluence of slavery on the whites to be almost as 
fatal as on the blacks themselves." His interest 
in politics, both American and European, was 
positive, and his private letters written at that 
time disclose great breadth of mind and lucidity 
of expression. The love of luxury which charac- 
terized the Virginians, he regarded as effeminate, 
and with unwise zeal he proceeded to curb the 
animal nature by the most rigid asceticism. He 
slept on the bare floor exposed to the cold, ab- 
stained from eating any but the most necessary 
food, wore insuflicient clothing, and made a 
practice of remaining at his study -table until two 
or three o'clock in the morning. As a result, his 



once fine health was permanently destroyed. In 
July, 1800, he returned to Newport, where he 
remained a year and a half, devoting his time to 
the study of theology, and to preparing the son 
of Mr. Randolph and his own younger brother 
for college. In December, 1801, he was elected 
regent in Harvard, and while performing the 
merely nominal duties of the office he pursued 
his theological studies. He began to preach in 
the autumn of 1802, and in December received an 
invitation from the Federal street society, Bos- 
tou, to become their pastor. At the same time 
he was urged to accept the pastorate of the Brat- 
tle street church, but, believing that he could 
accomplish more good in the weaker society, he 
accepted the first call, and was ordained June 1, 
1803. His earnestness and eloquence strength- 
ened the little society, and in 1809 the number of 
listeners liad so increased as to necessitate the 
building of a larger church edifice. In 1812 he 
was elected to succeed Dr. Buckminster as Dex- 
ter lecturer in the divinity school at Harvard 
college, but was obliged to resign in 1813. His 
fame and influence as a preacher were steadily 
increasing, while his physical strength was be- 
coming enfeebled. In 1822 his parishioners 
deemed it necessary to send him abroad to recu- 
perate, and from May of that year until August 
of 1823 he travelled over the old world. In the 
spring of 1824, the Rev. Ezra Stiles Gannett was 
ordained the associate pastor of the Federal 
street society, and Mr. Channing was relieved of 
part of the care of the church. At the organiza- 
tion of the ** Anthology Club " Mr. Channing 
contributed several essays to its journal,- and 
he wrote frequently for the Christian Disciple, 
which, in 1824, was enlarged and its name 
changed to the Christian Examiner. In the 
Examiner there appeared the series of what 
he called ** hasty effasions," which caused 
him to be recognized and admired by the 
world of letters. His subjects were : Milton 
(1826) ; Bonaparte (1827-28). and Finelon (1829). 
Soon after this he was induced to collect 
and revise his writings, wliich resulted in Mis- 
cellanies, the first volume of which was pub- 
lished in 1830. His theology broadened in advance 
of his time, and though his sympathies were 
with the Unitarian movement, his mind was 
too large and free to be bound by any sect. 
He was ** a member of the church universal of 
the lovers of Grod and lovers of man ; his religion 
was a life, not a creed or a form." In 1830 the 
state of his health again demanded rest, and he 
made a voyage to the West Indies. Dr. Chan- 
ning gradually withdrew from church work to 
give his energies more to the outside world ; the 
aim of his life being to promote freedom of thought, 
and to bring about the abolition of slavery. In 



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CHANNING. 



CHANNING. 



1885, after years of preparation, he published his 
book on slavery, which was received with uni- 
versal commendation. His name received a 
place in the Hall of Fame, New York university, 
in October, 1900. His writings were collected and 
published in seven volumes, the last of which ap- 
peared in 1872. In 1820 Harvard conferred upon 
him the degree of D.D. See The Life of Wil- 
liam EUery Channing, D.D. (the centenary 
memorial edition iu one volume, 1882), by his 
nephew, William Henry Channing. The Chan- 
nlng Memorial church and Noble's heroic-size 
bronze statue of the great preacher stand in the 
Touro Park. Newport, R.I. He died in Benning- 
ton, Vt , Oct. 2, 1842. 

CHANNING, William Eliery, author, was bom 
in Boston, Mass., Nov. 29, 1818; son of Dr. Walter 
and Barbara (Perkins) Channing. He was pre- 
pared for college at the Boston Latin school, and 
entered Harvard, but did not finish his course. 
At the age of twenty -one he made a trip west, 
and, after living alone on an Illinois prairie for 
several months, he went to Cincinnati. Ohio, and 
became a writer on the Gazette of that city. In 
1842 he was married to a sister of Margaret 
Fuller, and made his home in Concord, Mass. In 
1844 he became editorially connected with the 
New York Tribune^ and remained with that 
paper for nearly two years. During 1865-'56 he 
was an editor of the Mercury, published in New 
Bedford, Mass. Among his published writings 
are Poems (1843; 2d series, 1847) ; Conversations 
in Rome between an Artist, a Catholic and a 
Critic (1847) ; The Woodman and other Poems 
(1849) ; Near Home (1858) ; The Wanderer, A 
Colloquial Poem (1871) : Thoreau. the Poet- 
naturalist (1873) ; John BrotPn. and the Heroes 
of Harper's Ferry (1886). He died at Concord, 
Mass., Dec. 23, 1901. 

CHANNING, William Praocls, inventor, was 
bom in Boston, Mass., Feb. 22, 1820; son of Wil- 
liam EUery and Ruth (Gibbs) Channing. He 
was appointed assistant on the first geological 
survey of New Hampshire, made in 1841-'42. 
In 1842-'43 he was associate editor of The Latimer 
Journal. In 1844 he was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania with the degree of M.D. 
Shortly after his graduation he became associ- 
ated with Moses G. Farmer in improving the 
American fire alarm telegraph, and remained 
with him until 1851. He made several inven- 
tions, among them an inter-oceanic ship railway, 
patented in 1865. and an electro-magnetic tele- 
phone patented in 1877. He is the author of 
The Medical Application of Electricity (1849 ; 6th 
ed., cul., 1865) ; The Municipal Electric Telegraph 
(1852) ; The American Fire- Alarm Telegraph 
(1855), Inter-Oceanic Ship-Railway (1880). He 
died in Boston, March 20, 1901. 



CHANNINQ, William Henry, clergyman, was 
bom in Boston, Mass., May 25, 1810; son of 
Francis Dana and Susan (Higginson) Channing, 
grandson of Stephen Higginson, a member of the 
Continental Congress in 1783, and a nephew of 
William EUery Channing. He was prepared for 
college at the Boston Latin school, and was grad- 
uated at Harvard in the famous class of 1829. In 
1830 he began the study of theology, and in 1838 
was graduated from Harvard divinity school. 
He spent some years in travelling, and in preach- 
ing at various parishes, and in March, 1839, 
accepted a call to the Unitarian church at Cin- 
cinnati. In June, 1839, the Western Messsenger, 
the organ of Unitarianisra in the west, wad 
removed to Cincinnati, and he succeeded James 
Freeman Clarke in editing the paper, continuing 
to conduct it until March, 1841, when it ceased 
to exist. He remained in Cincinnati three 
years, resigning because of a change in his theo- 
logical views. In 1841 he returned to Boston, and 
in 1842 preached for a few months in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Returning to Boston he identified himself 
with the socialistic movements of the day, and 
contributed frequently to periodical literature, 
meanwhile occasionally lecturing and preaching. 
In September he established The Present, which 
was discontinued in April, 1844, in order that he 
might prepare a biography of his uncle, William 
EUery Channing. This work occupied him until 
1848. He was deeply interested in the Brook 
Farm experiment, spending the summer of 1846 
with the colonists, and making valued contribu- 
tions to their papers, the Harbinger and the 
Phalanx. He was one of the original members 
and the ministw of the reUgious union of associa- 
tionists founded in Boston Jan. 3, 1847, and con- 
tinued until the end of 1850. In the spring of 
1852 he preached for a short time in Troy, N. Y., 
and in the simmier went to Rochester, N. Y., 
where he remained as minister of the Unitarian 
society imtU August, 1854. Rochester was the 
last station on the ** underground railroad " by 
which fugitive slaves were transported to 
Canada, and Mr. Channing aided in every possi- 
ble way its operations. In the faU of 1854 he 
went with his family to England, and became a 
working minister in Liverpool, in 1857 succeeding 
the Rev. James Martineau in the chapel on Hope 
street, and remaining there until June, 1861, when 
the breaking out of the civil war caUed him 
home, and he accepted an invitation to become 
minister to the Unitarian congregation in Wash- 
ington. He threw himself into the cause of 
anti-slavery with characteristic fervor. At his 
suggestion the church edifice was converted into 
a hospital, and his people worshipped in the senate 
chamber in the capitol. Afterwards, when the 
whole capitol was used for a hospital, they found 



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CHANUTE. 



CHAPIN. 



a meeting place in Willard*s EEall. Mr. Channing 
was commissioned chaplain of the Stanton hos- 
pital, for regular and constant services, and con- 
tinued in that position to the close of the war. In 
1868 he was elected chaplain of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and held this office for two years. 
In August, 1865, he again sailed for England, 
where he remained, with only occasional visits 
to America, during the rest of his life. In 1866 his 
son, Francis Allston Channing, took the ** Ar- 
noli " prize at Oxford university and afterwards 
be;3ame a member of parliament. His elder 
daughter was married to Sir Edwin Arnold. 
Among his published writings are : The Gospel 
.of To-day (1847) ; The Life of William Ellery 
Clianning (3 vols. 1848: Centenary memorial 
edition, 1882) ; Memoirs of Margaret Fuller 
Ossoli, with R. W. Emerson and J. F. Clarke 
(2 vols., 1852), and Lessons from the Life of 
Theodore Parker (1860). See Memoir of Wil- 
liam Henry Channing (1886), by Octavius Brooks 
Frothingham. He died in London, England, 
Dec. 23, 1884. 

CHANUTE, Octave, civil engineer, was bom 
in Paris, France, Feb. 18, 1832, son of Joseph and 
Eliza (De Bonnaire) Chanute. He was educated 
in New York city, and began civil engineering in 
1849 on the Hudson river railroad. He served 
on various western railroads, 1853-*63, and from 
1863 to 1867 was chief engineer of the Chicago 
and Alton railroad. In 1867-'68 he planned and 
superintended the construction of the first bridge 
built across the Missouri river, at Kansas City, 
and subsequently constructed several railroads in 
Kansas. He was chief engineer of the Erie rail- 
way from 1873 to 1883, and for a time superin- 
tendent of motive power. In 1883 he opened an 
office as consulting engineer, and supervised the 
construction of the iron bridges on the Chicago, 
Burlington and Northern railroad, and on the 
extension of the Santa F^ road. He also engaged 
in wood preserving. In 1880-'81 he vras vice- 
president of the American society of civil engi- 
neers, and in 1891 was elected its president. He 
presented a report to that society on rapid transit 
which brought about the building of the elevated 
railroads in New York. He was chairman of the 
association of engineering societies in 1893 ; an 
Jionoi-ary member of the British institution of 
civil engineers, and president of the Western so- 
ciety of engineers from 1901. He wrote Pro- 
gress in Flying Machines (with George Morison, 
1894) to which subject he was devoted. 

CHAPBLLB, Placlde Louis, R.C. archbishop, 
was born at Mende, France, Aug. 28, 1842. 
He came to America in 1859 with an uncle, 
a missionary. He was educated for the priest- 
hood and made his theological studies at St. 
Mary's seminary, Baltimore, Md. Being too 



young to receive ordination, he taught for two 
years in St. Charles college, was ordained to 
the priesthood in 1865, and appointed to the mis- 
.sions in Montgomery county, Md. In 1868 the 
degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by St. 
Mary*s, Baltimore. Father Chapelle was made 
an assistant at St. John's church, Baltimore, in 
1870, and soon afterwards became pastor of St. 
Joseph's church in the same city. In 1882 he 
was made pastor of St. Matthew's church in 
"Washington, D. C, and while at the capital won 
a national reputation. Dr. Chapelle's eminence 
as a theologian caused him to be frequently in 
demand. He was one of the board convened by 
Cardinal Gibbons to prepare the decrees of the 
last plenary council and was also secretary of 
one of the most important committees of the 
coimcil. In 1872 he was appointed to the theo- 
logical conferences held every three months in 
Baltimore, and in 1885 was elected president of 
the Ojlumbia conferences, resigning the presi- 
dency of those in Baltimore. He was resident 
member of the executive committee of the 
Catholic university of America, and selected and 
bought the site on which the university build- 
ings are erected. For a number of years Dr. 
Chapelle was a member of the board of Indian 
missions, and on Aug. 21, 1891, he was made 
coadjutor bishop of Santa F6. He was conse- 
crated bishop of Arabi.ssus Nov. 1, 1891, by C^ar- 
dinal Gibbons and on Jan. 4, 1894, succeeded to 
the archbishopric. He was transferred to the see 
of New Orleans, having been appointed Nov. 22, 
1897, and the brief received Jan. 6, 1898. He was 
made apostolic delegate to Cuba in 1898 and to 
the Philippine Islands in 1899. 

CHAPIN, Aaroo Lucius, educator, was bom 
in Hartford, Conn., Feb. 6, 1817. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale college in 1837, and at the Union 
theological seminary, New York, in 1842, mean- 
while, from 1838 to 1843, teaching in the New 
York institute for the deaf and dumb. He 
became pastor of the First Presbyterian chiuxjh 
in Milwaukee in 1843 ; in 1845 was made a trus- 
tee of Beloit college, and in 1850 was elected 
president of that institution. This position he 
resigned in 1886, and became president emeritus 
and professor of civil polity. He was a member 
of the board of examiners of the United States 
military academy in 1872, and of the United 
States naval academy in 1873. He was president 
of the Wisconsin academy of sciences and of the 
board of trustees of the Wisconsin institution 
for deaf mutes. He was a trustee of Rockford 
seminary from 1845 to 1892, and of the Chicago 
theological seminary from 1858 to 1891. The 
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Wil- 
liams college in 1853. and that of LL.D. by the 
University of the state of New York in 1882. He 



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CHAPIN. 



CHAPIN. 



edited and recast Wayland's Political Econ- 
omy (1878), and also published a small text- 
book on The First Principle of Political Econ- 
omy (1879). He wrote numerous articles in 
magazines and reviews, and for several years was 
one of the editors of the Congregational Review. 
He died at Beloit, Wis., July 22, 1892. 

CHAPIN» Alfred Clark, conamissioner, was 
born at South Hadley, Mass., March 8, 1848; son 
of Ephraim and Josephine (Clark) Chapin. In 
1852 his parents took him to Keene, N. H., where 
he attended school until 1862, when he removed 
to Rutland, Vt. He was graduated at Williams 
college in 1869, and at the law department of 
Harvard college in 1871. In 1872 he was admit- 
ted to the bar, and in 1873 removed to Brooklyn, 
where he became prominent in local politics. In 
1881 he was elected an assemblyman, was re- 
elected in 1882, and in 1883 was made speaker of 
the assembly. In 1883 he was elected state 
comptroller, and served a second term by re- 
election. In 1887 he was elected mayor of Brook- 
lyn, and in 1889 was re-elected by the largest 
majority that had ever been given to a mayor of 
that city. He was appointed a member of the 
board of railroad conamissioners of the state of 
New York in 1892. 

CHAPIN, Aloozo Bowen, clergyman, was bom 
at Somers, Conn., March 10, 1808. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1881 and began to practise 
law at WaUingford, Conn. At the same time he 
was editor of The Chronicle of the Church, an 
Episcopalian periodical, published at New Haven. 
This work he continued for about eight years. In 
1838 he was ordained an Episcopal minister, 
preached at West Haven, Conn., for twelve years. 
From 1850 to 1855 he was rector of St. Luke^s 
church at Glastonbury, Conn., going to Hartford 
in the latter year to become editor of the Calen- 
dar, His published writings include : The Eng- 
glish spelling book ; containing Rules and Rea- 
sons for Orthography and Pi*onounciaiion (1841); 
A View of the Organization and Order of the 
Primitive Church (1845); Puritanism not Qen- 
nine Protestantism (1847), antl Olastonbury for 
Two Hundred Years (1853). He died in Hart- 
ford, Conn., July 9, 1858. 

CHAPIN, Edwin Hubbell, clergyman, was 
bom in Union Village, N. Y., Dec. 29, 1814; son 
of Alpheus and Beulah (Hubbell) Chapin. He 
attended the seminary at Bennington, Vt., 
1828-'32, and for two years was olerk in the post- 
office in Bennington. In 1836 he studied law in 
Troy, N. Y., later removing to Utica, N. Y. He 
was induced to give up his law studies and de- 
vote himself to theology, and he became at the 
same time associate editor of the Magazine and 
Advocate, an organ of the Universalista. In 1837 
he was ordained to the Universalist ministry, and 



in May of that year was installed in his first pas- 
torate, at Richmond, Va. In 1841 he settled in 
Charlestown, Mass. In 1847 he became colleague 
of Hosea Ballon at the School street church, Bos- 
ton, and remained there until 1848, when, after 
repeated urgings from the Universalists of New 
York city, he accepted a call to the fourth Uni- 
versalist society, of which he continued as pastor 
of a constantly growing congregation during the 
remainder of his life. In 1852 a larger church edi- 
fice, was purchased, situated on Broadway, near 
Spring street. This also proved too small for Dr. 
Chapin *s listeners, and in 1866 the society erected, 
at the comer of Fifth fivenue and Forty-fifth 
street, a new temple, called the church of the 
Divine Paternity. In 1872 he became editor of 
the Christian Leader, He was one of the found- 
ers of the Chapin home for aged and indigent 
men and women, and a trustee of Bellevue med- 
ical college and hospital Harvard college con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of A.M. 
in 1845, and that of S.T.D. in 1856, and in 1878 he 
received the degree of LL.D. from Tufts college. 
His published works include : Duties of Young 
Men (1840) ; Hours of Communion (1844 ; 
new ed., 1853) ; Tlie Crown of Thorns ; a Token 
for the Sorrowing (1848 ; enl. ed., 1860) ; 
Duties of Young Women (1849) ; Discourses 
on the Lord's Prayer (1850) ; Characteis in 
the Oospels, illustrating Phases of Character 
at the Present Day (1852) ; Moral Aspects of 
City Life (1853); Discourses on the Beatitudes 
(1853) ; Humanity in the City (1854) ; True 
Manliness (1854) ; Living Words (I860); Ex- 
temporaneotis Discourses (1860); Lessons of 
Faith and Life (1877); Ood's Requirements, 
and Other Sermons (1881) ; and The Cliurch 
of the Living Ood^ and Other Sermons (1881). 
See Life of Edwin H Chapin, by Sumner 
Ellis (1882). He died in New York city, Dec. 
27, 1889. 

CHAPIN, Heory, lawyer, was bom in Upton, 
Mass., May 13, 1811. He was graduated at Brown 
university in 1885, and three years later com- 
pleted a law course at Harvard university and 
was admitted to the bar. He practised at Ux- 
bridge, Mass., until 1846, representing that dis- 
trict in the Massachusetts house of representa- 
tives in 1845. In 1846 he removed to Worcester, 
of which city he was mayor in 1849 and 1850. In 
1855 he was chosen a conamissioner under the 
'* personal liberty " law. The following year he 
became a commissioner of insolvency, and in 
May, 1858, was conmiissioned as judge of probate 
and insolvency, being the first incumbent of the 
combined offices of judge of probate and judg^ of 
insolvency. In 1873 Brown university conferred 
upon him the deflnree of LL.D. He died in Wor- 
cester, Mass., Oct. 18, 1878. 



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CHAPLIN. 



CHAPIN, Joho Henry, clergyman, was bom 
In Leavenworth, Ind., Dec, 31, 1832. In 1873 he 
was installed pastor of the First Universalist 
church at Meriden, Conn., and remained in this 
position until 1885, when he resigned to make a 
tour of the world. In 1888 he was elected a 
member of the state legislature, and later took 
the chair of mineralogy and geology in St. Law- 
rence university at Canton, N. Y., which he held 
for many years. Shortly before his death he 
was admitted as a partner into the firm of G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, New York city. He was an 
active member of the American association for 
the advancement of science. He died at Nor- 
walk, Conn., March 14, 1892. 

CHAPIN, Stephen, clergyman, was bom in 
Milford, Mass., Nov. 4, 1778. He was graduated 
at Harvard college in 1804, and in the following 
year was ordained to the Congregational minis- 
try. In 1819 he became a Baptist minister, and 
settled at North Yarmouth, Me., where he 
preached until 1822, resigning in that year to 
accept the chair of theology at Waterville col- 
lege. Me. From 1828 to 1841 he was president of 
the Columbian college at Washington, D. C. In 
1822 Brown university conferred upon him the 
degree of S.T.D. Among his publi^ed sermons 
are notable. Letters on the mode and sitbjects of 
Baptism; Tlie Duty of Living for the good of 
Posterity. He died Oct. 1, 1845. 

CHAPLIN, Jane Dunbar, author, was bom in 
Scotland, Feb. 11, 1819; daughter of Duncan and 
Christine (Fletcher) Dunbar. She accompanied 
her parents to the United States in 1821, and 
was brought up and educated in New York city, 
where her father was a Baptist clergyman. In 
1841 she married Dr. Chaplin, and in conjunction 
with him wrote a life of Charles Sumner. She 
contributed largely to religious periodicals and 
wrote many volimies for juveniles, notably: 
The Convent and the Manse, The Old Oentleman 
and his Friends, Gems of the Bog, Out of the 
Wilderness, Donald McBride's Lassie, Morning 
Gloom, Black and White, The Transplanted 
Shamrock, Wee Maggie For sy the. The House- 
Top Saint, She died in Boston, Mass., April 17, 
1884. 

CHAPLIN, Jeremiah, educator, was bom in 
Rowley, Mass., Jan. 2, 1776. He prepared for 
coUege while laboring on his father's farm, and 
was graduated at Brown university in 1799. He 
was tutor in that institution during 1800, and 
then pursued a theological course, and in 1802 
accepted the pastorate of the Baptist church in 
Danvers, Mass., which he held until 1817, when 
he became principal of the Baptist literary and 
theological seminary at Waterville, Me. In 1820 
this institution (now Colby university) was char- 
tered as Waterville college, and Dr. Chaplin be- 



came its first president; in 1833 he resigned the 
office and resumed his clerical occupation. He 
served the church at Rowley, Mass., Wilmington, 
Conn., and later at Hamilton, N. Y. He pub- 
lished a volume entitled The Evening of Life, 
of which new editions were issued in 1865 and 
in 1871. He died at Hamilton, N. Y., May 7, 1841, 

CHAPLIN, Jeremiah, author, was bom in 
Danvers, Mass., in 1813; son of Jeremiah Chaplin, 
first president of Waterville college. He was 
graduated at Waterville college in 1828. He 
held the chair of Greek and Latin in Hampton 
literary and theological institute, N. H., 1834- 
'37; was professor of Hebrew and moral science 
at the theological seminary, Winnsboro, S. C, 
1839-'41. He entered the Baptist ministry and 
held pastorates at Bangor, Me., 1841-'46; Dedham, 
Mass., 1850-'68; Newton Comer. Mass., 1863-'65. 
From 1865 to 1868 he was theological instructor 
of the Home missionary society. New Orleans, 
La. After 1868 he settled in Boston and engaged 
in literary pursuits. He received the degrees of 
A.M. 1833, and D.D. in 1857 from Colby univer- 
sity. His Life of Henry Dunster, First President 
of Harvard College, is considered of historical 
value. He also published : The Memorial Hour 
(1864) ; Riches of Bunyan, Tlie Hand of Jesus 
(1869). and lives of Charles Sumner, Benjamin 
Franklin, Qalen, and the Rev. Duncan Dun- 
bar. He compiled Chips from the White House 
(1881) . He died in New Utrecht, N. Y., March 5, 
1886. 

CHAPLIN, Wiofield Scott, educator, was 
bom in Maine, Aug. 22, 1847. He was educated 
in the schools of Bangor, and was graduated at 
West Point in 1870, second in a class of fifty- 
eight. He resigned his commission in 1872 to 
engage in railroad engineering. In 1874 he was 
appointed professor of mecham'cs in the Maine 
state college of agriculture and mechanic art, and 
in 1877, professor of civil engineering in the im- 
perial university at Tokio, Japan, and on resign- 
ing his position he was awarded the imperial 
order of ** Meiji" of Japan, in recognition of his 
services. He returned to America in 1883, en- 
gaged in railroad engineering until September, 
1884, when he was appointed professor of mathe- 
matics in Union college, N. Y. Here he remained 
until June, 1886, when he accepted the position 
of professor of civil engineering in Harvard uni- 
versity. In the foUowing year he was appointed 
dean of the Lawrence scientific school, and he 
was for some years chairman of the parietal com- 
mittee of the faculty. During his deanship the 
school more than quadrupled the number of its 
students. He was appointed chancellor of Wash- 
ington university, St. Louis, Mo., in 1891, and re- 
ceived the degree A.M. from Union and LL.D. 
from Harvard in 1893. 



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CHAPMAN. 



CHAPMAN, Alvan Weotworth, botanist, was 
born at Southampton, Mass., Sept. 28, 1809; de- 
scended from English ancestry. He was grad- 
uated at Amherst college in 1830; taught in 
private and public schools of (Georgia, 1831- 
'85, at the same time pursuing studies pre- 
paratory for the medical profession, until Febru- 
ary, 1885, when he removed to Florida and studied 
medicine at Quincy. He received the degree of 
M. D. from the medical institute of Louisville, Ky . , 
in 1846. Soon afterwards he removed to Appa- 
lachicola, Fla., where he practised his profession 
\mtil 1880. when he retired. In the reconstruc- 
tion period he held the offices of collector of 
internal revenue, and afterwards collector of 
customs at the port of Appalachicola, and for sev- 
eral years was judge of probate for Franklin 
<»unty, Fla. In 1860 lie published Flora of the 
Southern United States. He received the degree 
of LL.D. from the University of North Carolina 
in 1886. He died in 1899. 

CHAPMAN, Frederick Augustus, painter, was 
bom in Old Saybrook, Conn., April 18, 1818. He 
entered mercantile life in Boston, but finding 
it uncongenial he went to New York, where he 
studied painting under Prof. S. F. B. Morse. In 
1850 he removed to Brooklyn, where he engaged 
in the art of decorating in stained glass. His work 
in this line includes the window in the Holy 
Trinity church, Brooklyn. Several of his oil 
paintings were engraved or lithographed; no- 
tably. The Perils of Our Forefathers ; The 
Day ice Celebrate ; Raising the Liberty Pole ; 
The Receding Race ; Discovery of the Hud- 
son ; and Tlte Battle of ChoMcellorsville. He 
was founder and first president of the Brooklyn 
jSLvt association, and contributed many paintings 
to the exhibitions of that society. For some 
years before his death he chiefly employed him- 
self in illustrating. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Jan. 26, 1891. 

CHAPMAN, Qeorge ThomaSt clergyman, was 
bom in Pilton, Devonshire, England, Sept. 21, 
1786. He was brought to the United States at 
the age of nine, and in 1804 was graduated at 
Dartmouth college. He received the honorary 
degree of B.A. in 1805 from Yale college. He 
practised law at Bucksport, Me., for about ten 
years, and in 1818 was ordained an Episcopal 
clergyman. He became rector of a church in 
Lexington, Ky., and remained in that city ten 
years, holding the chair of history and antiquities 
in Transylvania university from 1825 to 1827. 
After leaving Lexington he held pastorates in 
Maine, New Jersey and Massachusetts. In 1824 
Transylvania university conferred upon him the 
degree of D.D. He is the author of : Sermons 
on Doctrines of the Episcopal Church (1828). 
He died in Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 18, 1872. 



CHAPMAN, Henry Cadwalader, physician, 
was bom at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 17, 1845; son 
of G^rge William and Emily (Markoe) Chap- 
man, and grandson of Dr. Nathaniel Chapman. 
He was graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1864, and from the medical school of 
that institution in 1867. He studied in Europe 
for three years. On his return home he became 
resident physician at the Pennsylvania hospital, 
and lecturer on anatomy and physiology at the 
University of Pennsylvania. In 1880 he became 
professor of medicine and medical jurisprudence 
at Jefferson medical college, and held that posi- 
tion in 1809. He was coroner's physician in Phila- 
delphia, 1876-*81. In 1868 he became a member 
of the Academy of natural science, Philadelphia, 
and its curator in 1875. He was made a fellow of 
the College of physicians, Philadelphia, 1880; 
was also a member of the Franklin institute and 
prosector of the Zoological society, Philadelphia. 
He received the degree of A.M. from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1864, and thatof M.D. 
from the same institution in 1867, and from the 
Jefferson medical college in 1878. He published : 
Evolution of Life ; History of the Discovery of 
the Circulation of the Blood and Treatise upon 
Human Physiology, besides numerous contribu- 
tions to medical journals giving the results of his 
investigations. 

CHAPMAN^ John Alfred Metcalf, clergyman, 
was born in Greenland, N. H., Aug. 21, 1829; 
son of Nathaniel and Martha (Meserve) Chapman, 
and a descendant of Edward Chapman, who 
came from England to Ipswich, Mass., in 1642. 
He was educated at the public schools, at Water- 
ville (Me.) college, and at the Concord (N. H.) 
Biblical institute. He was licensed as a Method- 
ist Episcopal clergyman in 1853, and preached in 
New England, New York and Philadelphia. In 
1891 he became chaplain of the University of 
Pennsylvania. He received the degree A.M. 
from Colby in 1869 and that of D.D. from Wes- 
leyan university in 1871. 

CHAPMAN, John Gadsby, painter, was bom 
in Alexandria, Va., in 1808. When quite young 
he evinced a decided talent for design, and for 
several years studied art in Italy, and, returning 
to the United States, opened a studio in New 
York, where he was employed in portrait paint- 
ing, composition and illustrative designs. He 
was skilled in the arts of etching and wood en- 
graving. He was commissioned by the govern- 
ment to paint the Baptism of Pocaliontas for 
the rotunda of the capitol. In 1848 he returned to 
Rome, Italy, where he set up his studio. He 
made several excellent copies of the old masters 
and produced a large amount of original work. 
Among the more noted of his pictures are : 
Israelites spoiling the Egyptians, Etruscan 



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CHAPMAN. 



CHAPMAN. 



Cfirl ; Vintage Scene ; A Donkey's Head ; 
Rachel ; The Last Arrow ; Hfferine ; First 
Italian Milestone ; Sunset on the Campagna ; 
a Harvest Scene ; Valley of Mexico ; Stone 
Pines in the Barberini Valley, and his copies 
of Teniers and other masters owned by the 
Boston Athenseiun. He was a national acade- 
mician. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 
28, 1889. 

CHAPMAN, Maria Weston, reformer, was 
bom at Weymouth, Mass., in 1806; daughter of 
Warren Weston of Weymouth. Her early edu- 
cation was obtained in her native town, and she 
was then sent to Eagland to complete her 
studies. During 1829-'30 she was principal of 
the young ladies' high school in Boston. In 1880 
she married, and two years later became an 
ardent abolitionist. After the death of her hus- 
band in 1842 she resided in Paris, France, where 
she employed her pen in behalf of the anti-slavery 
cause. In 1856 she returned to the United 
States, and published a life of Harriet Martineau 
in 1877. She died at Weymouth, Mass., in 1885. 

CHAPMAN, Nathaoiel, physician, was bom in 
Summer Hill, Fairfax county, Va., May 28, 1780. 
He was educated at the academy at Alexandria, 
Va., and was graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania in 1800 ; he 
then studied under Abemethy in London for one 
year, and took a two years' course at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he received the de- 
gree of M.D. He returned to the United States 
in 1804, established himself in practice in Phila- 
delphia, and rose to the front rank of the medi- 
cal profession. He was assistant professor of 
midwifery, 1810-'18; professor of materia medi- 
ca, 1818-'16; and held the chair of the theory 
and practice of medicine, 1816-'50, in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. In 1817 he foimded the 
Philadelphia medical institute, and during 
twenty years delivered a summer course of lec- 
tures; he was also lecturer on clinics at the 
hospital of the Philadelphia almshouse. He vbls 
president of the American philosophical society, 
of the Philadelphia medical society, and first 
president of the American medical association. In 
1820 he founded, and for many years edited, the 
Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Phys- 
ical Sciences. He publislied : Select Speeches 
Forensic and Parliamentary (1808); Elements of 
Therapeutics and Materia Medica (1828) ; Lec- 
tures on Eruptive Fevers, Hemorrhages and Drop- 
sies, and on Oout and Rheumatism, and Lectures 
on the Thoracic Viscera, He died in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., July 1, 1853. 

CHAPMAN, Orlow W., lawyer, was born in 
Ellington, Conn., in 1832. In 1854 he was gradu- 
ated at Union college, and was then employed 
for two years as professor of languages at Fergu- 



sonville academy, Delaware coimty, N. Y. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1858, and was ap- 
pointed to fill a vacancy as district-attorney of 
Broome county in 1862 ; in 1863 was elected to 
the office, and was re-elected annually until 1868. 
He was a member of the New York senate during 
1870-'71, and was superintendent of the state 
insurance department from 1871 to 1876. He 'wtis 
United States solicitor-general from March 20, 
1889, to the time of his death in Washington, 
D.CJan. 19. 1890. 

CHAPMAN, Reuben, governor of Alabama, 
was bom in Randolph county, Va., July 15, 1799. 
He was educated at an academy in his native 
state, was admitted to the bar, and settled in 
Somerville, Morgan county, Ala., where he prac- 
tised his profession. He served for many years 
as a member of the state legislature. He was 
elected as Democratic representative to the 24th 
Ck>ngress, taking his seat Dec. 7, 1835, and was 
re-elected to the six succeeding congresses, serv- 
ing until March 8, 1847. He was governor of 
Alabama, 1847-'48, and was a delegate to the na- 
tional Democratic conventions held in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in 1856; in Charleston, S. C, in 1860; and 
New York city in 1868. He died at Huntsville, 
Ala.. May 17, 1882. 

CHAPMAN, Reuben Atwater, jurist, was 
bom at Russell, EUunpden county, Mass., Sept. 
20, 1801. He received the education of a farmer^s 
son, and was clerking in a store when he began 
the study of law with a neighboring lawyer. He 
was admitted to the bar, and practised his profes- 
sion at Westfield, Monson, Ware, and Springfield. 
Mass., where from 1840 to 1860 he was a partner 
with the Hon. George Ashmun. He was made 
associate justice of the supreme court in 18C0. 
and chief justice in 1868. The honorary degree 
of A.M. was conferred upon him by Williams in 
1836 and by Amherst in 1841, and thatof LL.D. by 
Amherst college in 1861, and by Harvard college 
in 1884. He died in Switzerland, June 28, 1873. 

CHAPMAN, Robert Hett, educator, was bom 
in Orange, N. J., March 2, 1772. In 1789 he was 
graduated at the College of New Jersey, after- 
wards studied theology at New Brunswick, where 
he was tutor in Queen's college, and in 1793 was 
licensed to preach by the New York presbytery. 
He held pastorates at Rah way, N. J., 1796-'99, 
and Cambridge, N. Y., 1801-12; in the latter year 
he was appointed president of the University of 
North Carolina, filling that office and that of 
trustee of the university until 1816. Later he 
held pastorates in Tennessee, North Carolina, and 
Virginia. He received the degree of A. M. from 
Queen's college and from the College of New 
Jersey in 1791, and that of S. T. D. from Williams 
college in 1815. He died in Winchester, Va.» 
June 18, 1838. 



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> CHAPMAN, Wllllani, soldier, was born in 
St. Johns, Md., Jan. 22, 1810. He entered the 
military academy at West Point, July 1, 1827, and 
was graduated in 1831. He was employed on 
frontier duty at Fort Mackinac, Mich., during 
1831-'32 ; on the Black Hawk expedition, 1832, and 
as an assistant instructor of infantry tactics at 
West Point from October, 1832, to June 29, 1833. 
He was promoted 2d lieutenant 5th infantry, 
March 4, 1833, and served on frontier duty at 
yarious forts until 1845. He was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, 5th infantry, Dec. 31, 1836, and cap- 
tain 5th infantry, June 8, 1845. He served in the 
Mexican war and participated in nearly all the 
principal engagements. He was wounded at the 
capture of San Antonio, was brevetted major, 
Aug. 20, 1847, for gallant conduct at Contreras 
and Churubusco ; and lieutenant-colonel, Sept. 8, 
1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the 
battle of Molino del Key. Garrison and frontier 
duties occupied him until 1861, when he was pro- 
moted major 2d infantry, Feb. 25, 1861. His 
first service during the civil war was in the 
defence of Washington, after which he engaged 
in the siege of Yorktown, battle of Malvern Hill, 
Harrison's Landing, and in the northern Virginia 
campaign. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
3d infantry, Feb. 20. 1862, and brevetted colonel 
Aug 80, 1862, for conduct at the second battle of 
Bull Run; was on sick leave from September to 
December, 1862, and was retired from active ser- 
vice, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 
26, 1863, *' for disability resulting from loug and 
faithful service, and disease contracted in the 
line of duty." He was employed as commander 
of tlie draft rendezvous at Madison, Wis., and on 
various duties until 1867. He died Dec. 17, 1887. 
CHARLES, Emily Thornton, poet, was bom 
at Lafayette, Ind., March 21, 1845; daughter of 
James M. and Harriet (Parker) Thornton, and 
wife of Daniel B. Charles. She was educated in 
the schools of Indianapolis, and was married at 
an early age. Her husband died in 1869. leaving 
her with two children to support. In 1874 she 
began a successful career as a journalist, at first 
as correspondent and reporter for various news- 
papers, and later as editor. She was associate 
editor of the book entitled ** Eminent men of 
Indiana.*' In 1881 she became managing editor 
of the Washington World and was the f oimder, 
manager and editor of the National Veteran at 
Washington, D. C. She was actively identified 
with the National woman suffrage convention, 
the national woman's press association, and the 
society of American authors. Her published 
writings, under the pseudonym ** Emily Haw- 
thorne,'' include : Hawthorne BlosMoma (1876) and 
Lyrical Poems, Songs, Pastorals^ War Poems, 
and Madrigals (1886). 



CHARLTON, Robert M., senator, was bom in 
Savannah, Oa., Jan. 19, 1807. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1827 and began practice at Savannah. 
He was a member of the state house of represen- 
tatives in 1829, and was afterwards made U. S. 
district attorney. In 1835 he was elected a judge 
of the superior court, which office he afterwards 
resigned to resume his law practice. He was 
appointed a U. S. senator in place of J. McPher- 
son Berrien, resigned, serving from June 11, 1852, 
to March 3, 1853. He was afterwards elected 
mayor of Savannah and served two terms. He 
published a volume of poems in 1839, and Leaves 
from the Portfolio of a Georgia Lawyer. He died 
at Savannah, Oa., Jan. 18, 1854. 

CHASE, Carlton, 1st bishop of New Hampshire, 
and 42d in succession in the American episcopate, 
was bom in Hopkinton, N. H., Feb. 20, 1794. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1817, 
ordained a deacon at Bristol, R. I., Dec. 19, 1818, 
and advanced to the priesthood at Newport, R. I., 
Sept. 27, 1820. His ministry was spent at Imman- 
uel church. Bellows Falls, Vt., 1820-'44. In 1839 
he received the degree of D.D. from the Univer- 
sity of Vermont. He was consecrated bishop of 
New Hampshire at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 20, 
1844, and removing to Claremont, N. H., assumed 
the cure of Trinity church in that place, which 
he held for several years. The standing commit- 
tee of the diocese of New York, after the suspen- 
sion of Bishop Onderdonk and before the election 
of Bishop Wainwright, invited Bishop Chase to 
perform the episcopal duties in that state, which 
he did with great satisfaction to the diocese, 
making three visitations, 1850-'51 and '52. He 
published sermons and addresses. He died at 
Claremont, N. H., Jan. 18, 1870. 

CHASE, Dudley, jurist, was bom in Cornish, 
N. H., Deo. 30, 1771; son of Dudley and Alice 
(Corbett) Chase, and brother of Bishop Philander 
Chase. He was graduated with honors at Dart- 
mouth college in 1791, and was admitted to the 
bar two years later, practising first at Randolph, 
Vt. From 1803 to 1811 he was state attomey for 
Orange county, and in 1805 was elected a repre- 
sentative from Randolph to the Vermont legisla- 
ture. He served by re-election until 1812, being 
speaker of the house of representatives during 
the last five years. He was a delegate to the con- 
stitutional conventions of 1814 and 1822. In 1813 
he succeeded Stephen R. Bradley as U. S. senator, 
and served until 1817, when he resigned his seat 
to become chief justice of the supreme court of 
Vermont. This office he held until 1821. In 1824 
he was again elected to the U. S. senate, and 
served from 1825 to 1831, when he retired from 
public life and devoted himself to agricultural 
pursuits. He died in Randolph, Vt., Feb. 23, 
1846. 



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CHASE, Geors:e, lawyer, was bom in Portland 
Me., Dec. 29, 1849; son of David T. and Martha E. 
(EEaynes) Chase. He was prepared for college in 
the Portland schools and was graduated at Yale 
in 1870 as valedictorian. Three years later he 
finished a course at the Columbia law-school, at 
the same time being principal of a classical school 
in New York city. From 1878 to 1875 he was an 
instructor in Columbia college; from 1875 to 1878 
he was assistant professor of municipal law; from 
1878 to 1891 was professor of criminal law, torts, 
evidence, pleading and practice. In 1891 he re> 
fiigned and founded the New York law school in 
New York city, of which he became dean. He 
published : Blackstone's Commentaries on the 
LawR of England, Abridged, tcith Notes and 
References to American Decisions (1876 ; 3d ed., 
<1890); The Ready Legal Adviser (1881) and an 
edition of Stephen's DigeM of the Law of Evi- 
dence {IS86), He also contributed to Johnson's 
Universal Cydopcedia, 

CHASE» Qeorge Colby, educator, was bom 
in Unity, Me., March 15, 1844; son of Joseph and 
Jane Chase (Dyer) Chase. He was prepared for 
college at the Maine state seminary and was 
graduated at Bates college with the class of 1868. 
He taught school at New Hampton, N. H., 1868 
*69; was tutor in Bates college and student at 
Bates theological school during 1870, when he 
took a graduate student's course at Harvard, and 
in 1871 became professor of rhetoric and English 
literature in Bates college. He was married 
June 12, 1872, to Emma Francette Millett. On 
June 27, 1894, he was elected president of Bates 
college, to succeed the Rev. Dr. Oren Burbank 
Cheney. 

CHASE, Harry, artist, was bom at Woodstock, 
Vt., in 1853. He was educated in his native 
town, and pursued his art studies in Europe. He 
went to the Hague, where he was a pupil of 
Hendrik-Willem Mesdag, and afterwards studied 
at the Munich academy under the instruction of 
Wilhelm von Kaulbach. On his return to the 
United States he opened a studio in New York 
city. In 1883 he was elected an associate of the 
National academy of design, where in 1885 he won 
the three Hallgarten prizes of $300, $200, and $100, 
for his Neto York— North River, Among his 
paintings are : Low Tide on the Welsh Coast 
(1878) ; Herring Fishers of Scheveningen (1880); 
Dutch Boats at Anchor (1881) ; Bringing the 
Fish Ashore (1882) ; Summer Moiming on the 
French Coast (1883) ; Battery Park in New York 
(1884), and Rising Tide on the Dutch Coast 
(1885). 

CHA5E, Ira, clergyman, was bom in Stratton, 
Vt., Oct. 5, 1793 ; son of Isaac and Sarah (Bond) 
Chase. He was graduated at Middlebury college in 
1814, and in September, 1817, completed his theo- 



logical course at the Andover seminary. In the 
same month he was ordained a Baptist minister at 
the session of the Boston association in Danvers, 
Mass. He then served as a missionary in the west- 
em part of Virginia, and in 1818 became asso- 
ciated with Dr. WUliam Staughton, in organizing 
the first Baptist theological institution, at Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., of which he was made professor of 
language and Biblical literature. This institution 
was removed to Washington, D.C., in 1822, and 
incorporated with Columbian college. In 1825 he 
resigned his chair to accept that of biblical theol- 
ogy in the Newton theological seminary which he 
was instrumental in founding. From 1836 to 1845 
he was professor of ecclesiastical history in the 
same institution, resigning in the latter year from 
active work. He is the author of : Remarks on 
the Book of Daniel (1844) ; The Design of Bap^ 
tism (1851) ; Life of John Bunyan ; The Work 
Claiming to he the Constitution of the Holy 
Apostles, Including the Canons, Revised from the 
Greek (1863), and Infant Baptism an Invention 
of Man (1863). He died in Newton Centre, Mass., 
Nov. 1, 1864. • 

CHASE, Ira J., governor of Indiana, was bom 
in Munroe county, New York, Dec. 7, 1834. At 
the age of fifteen he entered Milan (Ohio) semin- 
ary, where he remained two years. Then after 
studying two years at Medina, N. Y., he went to 
Chicago, 111., obtaining employment first as clerk 
in a store, and later 
as a teacher, re- 
maining in the latter 
profession until 1860. 
He joined the Union 
army in 1861, and 
served until March, 
1863, when he left his 
regiment on account 
of broken health. In 
1864 he became a min- -^^ 
ister in the church 
of the Disciples of 
Christ, and served 
nineteen years a s 
a pastor in various 
leading churches in 
Indiana. In 1886 he was chosen department chap- 
lain of the G. A. R. of Indiana. In 1888 he was 
elected lieutenant-governor of Indiana, with 
Gen. Alvin P. Hovey for governor. In 1888 he was 
elected department commander, G. A. R., of the 
department of Indiana, and in 1889 was again 
elected department chaplain by acclamation. On 
the death of Governor Hovey, in 1891, he became 
governor ex-offlcio. By the request of the fomily 
of the deceased, Governor Chase preached the 
funeral discourse of his predecessor. His term 
expired Jan. 1, 1893. He died May 11, 1895. 




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CHASE. 



CHASK 



CHASE, Ludeo B., author, was bom in Ver- 
mont, Aug 9, 1817. He removed to Tennessee 
and located in Clarksville, where he became inter- 
ested in politics. In 1844 he was elected a repre- 
«entative in the 29th Ck>ngress, and was re-elected 
to the 80th Congress, serving until 1849, when he 
declined to be again elected. He is the author of 
History of Mr, Polk's Administmtion (1850) and 
English Serfdom and American Slavei^ (1854). 
He died at (;:iHrk8ville, Tenn.. Dec. 14. 1864. 

CHASE, Philander, 1st bishop of Ohio, 1819- 
'81, 1st bishop of Illinois, 1835-*52, and 18th in 
succession in the American episcopate, was bom 
at Cornish, N. H., Dec. 14, 1775; son of Dudley 
and Alice (CJorbett) Chase, and lineally descended . 
through Samuel and Mary (Dudley) Chase; Dan- 
iel and Sarah (March) Chase; Moses and Ann 
(Follansbee) Chase, from Aquila and Ann Chase, 
who came from England and settled in New 
Hampshire in 1640. He was graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1796, was admitted to the dia- 
conate of the P. E. church by bishop Provoost in 
St. Paul's chapel. New York city, Jime 10, 1798, 
and advanced to the priesthood by the same prel- 
ate, Nov. 10, 1799. He first labored as a mission- 
ary in northern and western New York, where he 
organized parishes at Utica, Canandaigua, and 
Auburn. In 1800 he assumed charge of the 
Poughkeepsie, and Fishkill churches. In 1805 he 
removed to New Orleans, La., where he organized 
Christ church and became its rector. In 1811 he 
became rector of Christ church, Hartford, 0>nn. 
He then resolved to transfer his labors to the 
missionary district west of the Alleghanies, 
held his first service at Salem, Ohio, March 16, 
1817, and in June of the same year, assumed 
charge of the church at Worthington, Ohio, and 
of the outlying parishes of Delaware and (Colum- 
bus, serving also as a principal of the academy at 
Worthington. His marked success in missionary 
work caused him to be chosen as bishop of the 
newly formed diocese of Ohio, and on Feb. 11, 
1819, he was consecrated at St. James' church, 
Philadelphia. He was president of Cincinnati 
<x>llege, 1821-28, and during that time took meas- 
ures which resulted in the founding and partial 
endowment of Kenyon college, of which he was 
president, 1828-'dl. He was also president of the 
theological seminary at Oambier, Ohio, 1825-'81. 
Bishop Chase later visited England for the pur- 
pose of obtaining funds to carry out the enter- 
prise, which resulted in a generous response to his 
appeaL In 1881, his disposition of the funds ob- 
tained in England being questioned by his clergy, 
he resigned the presidency of Kenyon college and 
€kmibier theological seminary, as well as his 
episcopate. In 1882 he removed to Michigan, 
where he was occupied in missionary work. In 
1885 he was choeen bishop of Illinois. With the 



help of money which he obtained on a second 
visit to England, he founded Jubilee college, at a 
place to which he gave the name, Robin's Nest, 
Peoria, 111. A charter, placing the college en- 
tirely under the jurisdiction of the church, was 
obtained in 1847. On the death of Bishop Gris- 
wold in 1848, Bishop Chase became presiding 
bishop. He received the degree of D. D. from Col- 
umbia college in 1819, and that of LL.D from 
Cincinnati college in 1823. He published : A 
Plea for tlie West (1826) ; The Star in the 
West (1828) ; Defence of Kenyon College (1881) ; 
A Plea for Jubilee 0835) ; Reminiscences, and 
Autobiography (1847) ; the Pastoral Letters 
of the House of Bishops from I844 to 1860, inclu- 
sive. His life has been written, as well as 
a vindication of his course in regard to Kenyon 
college. He died at Jubilee college, Robin's Nest, 
ni., Sept. 20, 1852. 

CHASE, Plioy Earle, scientist, was bom in 
Worcester, Mass., Aug 18, 1820, son of Anthony 
and Lydia (Earle) Chase. He attended the Wor- 
cester schools and the Friends' boarding school 
in Providence, R. I., and was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1889. After teaching in Leicester and 
Worcester, Mass., and in Providence, R. I., he 
removed to Philadelphia, Pa., where he taught 
school. In 1848 he entered into the stove and 
foimdry business in Philadelphia, Pa., and Wil- 
mington, DeL In 1861 he resumed the occupa- 
tion of teaching, in Philadelphia. In 1870 he vis- 
ited Europe, and in 1871 was appointed professor 
of natural science in Haverford college. He also 
served for several months as acting professor in 
the University of Pennsylvania. In 1875 he was 
transferred to the newly established chair of 
philosophy and logic at Haverford, and remained 
in this position during the rest of his life. 
On the organization of Bryn Mawr college, in 
1884, he was appointed lectmrer on psychology 
and logic in that institution. He devoted much 
time to scientific research and made many im- 
portant discoveries in astronomy and physics. 
He was an active member of several scientific 
societies, and was for a time vice-president of the 
American philosophical society, which in 1864 
awarded him its ^Magellanic gold medal. He 
received the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 
1844, and that of LL. D. from Haverford in 1876. 
Among his published writings are : The Elements 
of Arithmetic (Part 1, 1844 ; part 2, 1846) ; The 
Common School AHthmetic (1848) ; Elements 
of Meteorology for Schools and Households 
(1884), and many contributions to the American 
Journal of Arts and Sciences ; the London, Dub- 
lin, and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine ; to 
the Comptes Rendus, of Paris, and to the Journal 
of the Franklin Institute. He died in Haver- 
ford, Pa., Deo. 17, 1886. 



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CHASE. 




CHASE, Salmon Portland, chief justice, was 
born in Cornish, N. H., Jan. 13, 1808, son of Itlia» 
mar and Janette (Ralston) Chase, and sixth in 
descent from AquUa and Ann Chase, emigrants, 
who left England in 1640, and settled in Newbury, 
His father was a farmer and in 1815 re- 
moved from Cornish 
to Keene, N. H., 
where, with his wife 
and eleven children, 
he established a new 
home, having in 1812 
engaged in the man- 
ufacture of glass and 
become bankrupt. 
I Salmon attended the 
district school until 
1817, when his father 
died, and he was sent 
to Windsor, Vt., 
where he continued 
his studies. In 1820 
his mother sent him 
to Worthington, 
Ohio, at the suggestion of her brother-in-law. 
Bishop Philander Chase, who conducted a col- 
legiate school at that place, and who agreed to 
give him a home and educational advantages. 
He made the journey with an elder brother and 
H. R. Schoolcraft, who were going west to join 
the Cass exploring expedition. On the removal 
of the bishop to Cincinnati in 1822, to accept the 
presidency of Cincinnati college, Salmon entered 
that institution, and in 1828, when his uncle went 
to Europe to procure funds to establish Kenyon 
college, he returned to his mother's home in 
Keene, N. H., taught school at Royalton, Vt., 
and matriculated at Dartmouth college in 1824, 
graduating with the class of 1826. He then went 
south, expecting to find employment as tutor in 
some private family, but in this was disappointed, 
and returning as far as Washington he there was 
refused a situation in one of the departments, his 
imcle, Dudley Chase, of Vermont, declining to 
aid him on the ground that such an appointment 
had already ruined one nephew. He secured a 
private school, where he had among other pupils 
a son of Attomey-Greneral Wirt. This incident 
led to an offer from Mr. Wirt to receive the young 
tutor as a law student, and he was admitted to 
the bar of the District of Colimibia in 1829. He 
continued his school until 1830, when he returned 
to the home of his uncle in Cincinnati, and was 
admitted as an attorney and oounsellor at the 
Ohio bar. His anxious waiting for clients was 
relieved by industrious application to the prepar- 
ation of an edition of the statutes of Ohioj which 
his conscientious codification, copious annotation, 
and comprehensive historical sketch of the growth 



and development of the territory and state, ex- 
panded to three volumes. Upon its publication 
the fame of the author spread with its rapid sale, 
all previous ** Statutes of Ohio" being superseded 
by the new work. Practice now came to the 
young barrister, and among his clients were 
the bank of the United States in Cincinnati, and 
the Lafayette, a prominent city bank, which en- 
gaged his services as director, secretary of the 
board, and solicitor. This experience directed 
the mind of the rising lawyer to subjects of 
finance, and was the preparatory school of the 
future U. S. treasurer. The question of slavery 
and the rights of fugitives from bondage was at 
this time (1837) uppermost in the public mind, 
especially in the vicinity of Cincinnati. Mr. 
Chase was retained as counsel for a colored woman 
claimed as a fugitive slave, and also in the case 
of James G. Bimey, prosecuted under a state law 
for harboring a fugitive slave. Both causes were 
defended by him before the state supreme court, 
and his arguments against the right of the fed- 
eral government to demand of a state magistrate 
any service in the case of a slave voluntarily 
brought by his master into a free state and there 
escaping from his control, and in maintaining 
that the law of 1793 was unwarranted by the 
constitution of the United States, and there- 
fore void, were published and extensively circu- 
lated by the anti -slavery party. In the case of 
Van Zandt, before the supreme court of the 
United States in 1846, he was associated with 
William H. Seward, and there argued that under 
the ordinance of 1787 no fugitive from service 
could be reclaimed from Ohio, unless escaped 
from one of the original slave states, and that the 
question of slavery was an interstate, and not a 
federal question for adjudication by Congress. 
In politics Mr. Chase had taken no positive posi- 
tion, and had supported either Whig or Democrat 
as they promised to further his one political idea, 
the blotting out of slavery ; but in 1841 he called 
the convention that organized the Liberty party 
in Ohio, wrote the address to the people, and sup- 
ported the candidate for governor named by the 
party. In 1843, when the Liberty party met in 
convention at Baltimore to nominate candidates 
for president and vice-president, Mr. Chase was a 
member of the oommittee on resolutions, and 
opposed the radical proposition offered, refusing 
to support the third clause of the Constitution if 
it was applied to the case of a fugitive slave, his • 
opposition preventing its becoming a part of the 
committee's report. It was, however, introduced 
before the convention and adopted. The move- 
ment for a convention of **all who believe that 
all that is worth preserving in republicanism can 
be maintained only by uncompromising war 
against the usurpation of the slave power, and 



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CHASE. 



CHASE. 



are therefore resolved to use all constitutional and 
honorable means to effect the extinction of slavery 
within the respective states, and its reduction to 
its constitutional limits in the United States" was 
led by Mr. Chase, and was intended to invite rep- 
resentation only from the southern and western 
states. It met in Cincinnati in June, 1845, and 
the address, urging the necessity of a political 
organization determined upon the overthrow of 
the slave power, was prepared by Mr. Chase, as 
chairman of the committee on platform. The 
second Liberty national convention was held in 
1847, and in it Mr. Chase opposed making a ticket, 
and advised waiting to see how the Wilmot pro- 
viso would affect the political parties and the 
action of Congress. In 1848 he prepared a call 
for a free territory state convention at Columbus, 
Ohio, which was signed by over three thousand 
voters. This resulted in the national convention 
at Buffalo, N.Y., in Augrust, 1848, over which Mr. 
Chase presided, and which nominated the Free- 
Soil ticket, Van Buren and Adams. Mr. Chase 
was the next year elected by the Democrats 
and Federal Whigs, as United States senator. In 
1852, when the Democratic national convention 
at Baltimore nominated Franklin Pierce and de- 
nounced the agitation of the slavery question, 
and the ticket and platform were upheld by the 
Democrats of Ohio, Mr. Chase withdrew from the 
party, and prepared the platform for an indepen» 
dent party, which was adopted by the Pittsburgh 
convention of 1852. He opposed the Clay com- 
promise in a speech in the sanate ; and his amend- 
ment providing against tlie introduction of slavery 
in the territories, to which the bill applied, re- 
ceived twenty -five votes, while thirty voted against 
the amendment. He also offered an amendment 
to the fugitive slave bill, by which so-called fugi- 
tive slaves should be accorded trial by jury, and 
another granting immimity to slaves escaping 
from states to territories, or the reverse, thus con- 
forming the act to the provisions of the constitu- 
tion, both of which were defeated. When the 
Nebraska bill was introduced in 1854, he drew up 
and caused to be circulated an appeal to the 
people to oppose the measure, and in the senate on 
February 3 made a speech in which he elaborated 
the objectionable features of the bill. On the 
very night of its passage he made an earnest pro- 
test against the measure. His efforts in the senate 
were directed to the confining of the question of 
slavery within its constitutional limits, to securing 
non-intervention on the part of the Federal gov- 
ernment in the affairs of the states and territories, 
to upholding the individual rights of persons and 
states, and to securing economy in the administra- 
tion of financial affairs. He favored free home- 
steads to actual settlers, cheap postage, govern- 
ment aid towards the construction of the Pacific 



railroad, and liberal appropriations for harbor 
and river improvements. The opponents of the 
Nebraska bill and of the administration nominated 
Mr. Chase for governor of Ohio in July, 1855, and 
he was elected. His policy, as outlined in his in- 
augural address, was economy in the adminis- 
tration of state affairs, annual sessions of the 
legislature, and liberal support to schools. At 
the Republican national convention of 1856 a 
majority of the Ohio delegates, backed by a large 
following from other states, proposed his name as 
a presidential candidate, but at his personal re- 
quest it was withdrawn. In 1857 he was again 
a candidate for governor, and received the largest 
vote ever given to a candidate for that office in 
Ohio. When the Republican national convention 
met at Chicago in 1860, Ohio presented Mr. Chase 
as a candidate, and in the first ballot he received 
f orty -nine votes ; but when the votes of Ohio were 
needed to secure Mr. Lincoln's nomination they 
were promptly furnished. In the same year he 
was elected to a seat in the United States senate, 
and resigned it to accept the portfolio of the 
treasury in the cabinet of President Lincoln. The 
treasury was in need of money, and the secretary 
asked for $8,000,000, April 2, 1861, of which 
amoimt $3,099,000 was tendered at or imder six 
per cent. He refused all bids at higher rates 
than six per cent and placed the balance in two- 
year treasury notes at par or over. When Fort 
Sumter was first fired upon, the secretary went 
to New York and obtained $50,000,000 from the 
banks in exchange for treasury notes payable in 
coin, and soon after obtained $100,000,000 more 
from the same source. The bankers could not 
sell the bonds for coin, and on Dec. 27, 1861, the 
agreement to suspend specie payment was entered 
into. When the resources of the banks were 
found inadequate to supply the secretary's 
demand for money, he, largely through the sug- 
gestion of Mr. O. B. Potter of New York, issued 
' * the greenback," which was made legal tender by 
act of Congress, for all purposes except custom 
duties; these treasury notes, running for various 
lengths of time, and bearing interest at from 
six to seven and three tenths per cent payable 
in coin, were readily taken by the people and the 
loan became very popular. This popular loan 
was followed by the national banking system, a 
part of the original plan of Mr. Potter, These 
financial measures enabled the government to 
prosecute the war, and furnished a stable cur- 
rency. When Mr. Chase left the treasury de- 
partment, June 30, 1864, the national debt 
amounted to $1,740,690,489. On Dec. 6, 1864, 
President Lincoln named Mr. Chase as chief jus- 
tice of the U. S. supreme court, to bucceed Jus- 
tice Taney deceased, and his nomination was im- 
mediately confirmed by the senate. In the 



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CHASE. 



CHASE. 



impeachment trial of President Johnson in March, 
1868, Chief Justice Chase presided, and his im- 
partial and dignified demeanor won the respect 
of all save the intense partisans conducting the 
prosecution. He became dissatisfied with the 
policy of the Republican party as voiced by the 
majority in Congress, and when the Democratic 
national convention met in New York in July, 
1868, he was announced as a candidate for the 
presidency. At one time his chances of the 
nomination seemed to be flattering, but the tide 
changed before the balloting began, and he re- 
ceived but four votes. In the presidential can- 
vass of 1872 he favored the election of Mr. 
Greeley, the Democratic candidate. Dartmouth 
conferred on him the degree of LL.D in 1855. 
Mr. Chase was thrice married, and his daughter 
Katherine, born to his second wife, Eliza Ann 
(Smith), to whom he was married Sept. 26, 1839, 
was the head of his household in Washington, 
his third wife, Sara Bella Dunlap (Ludlow), hav- 
ing died some years before. Miss Chase, popularly 
known as Kate Chase, was a society leader during 
the war; she was married to Senator William 
Sprague of Rhode Island, and after the expiration 
of her husband's senatorial term established a 
palatial home in Rhode Island. Chief Justice 
Chase's health became greatly impaired through 
a paralytic stroke, and he died in New York city. 
May 7, 1872. 

CHASE, Samuel, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, was bom in Somerset county, Md. , 
April 17, 1741. His father, the Rev. Thomas 
Chase, was a clergyman in the Church of Eng- 
land. Two years after the birth of the boy he 
was appointed rector of St. Paul's church in 
Baltimore, and himself conducted the education 
of his son, who in 1759 began the study of law, 
and two years later was licensed to practise in 
the mayor's court. In 1763 he was admitted to 
the bar, and settled in Annapolis. He was ar- 
dently devoted to the cause of the colonies, and 
became a member of the **Sons of Liberty." 
When the stamp act was up for discussion he was 
vehemently opposed to it, and was among those 
who assaulted the stamp officers and destroyed the 
stamps. The authorities of Annapolis attempted 
to rebuke him, but this only added to his growing 
popularity with the people. In 1774, by a conven- 
tion of the people of Maryland, he was appointed 
one of the five delegates to the first Continental 
Congress, and became a member of the committee 
on correspondence. He was bold and outspoken 
in his advocacy of independence. He was again 
a delegate in 1775, and did all in his power to 
strengthen the army then concentrating at Bos- 
ton, Mass. In 1776, with Benjamin Franklin, 
Charles Carroll of Carroll ton, and Bishop Carroll 
he visited Canada to ask its concurrence with the 



action of the other colonies. After the failure of 
their mission he returned to his seat in Congress. 
The question of independence had been broached, 
and Maryland had expressly prohibited her dele- 
gates from voting for it; Mr. Chase traversed 
the province, and made such effective addresses 
and instigated the sending of such petitions to 
the convention then sitting at Annapolis that 
the convention lifted its restrictions. Ihis bar 
removed, Mr. Chase hastened to Philadelphia, tak- 
ing his seat Monday morning in time to join with 
the majority in a vote for, and to sign, the Declara- 
tion of Independence. He continued a member 
of Congress imtil 1778. In 1776, a delegate from 
G^rgia, the Rev. Dr. John J. Zubly, was charged 
with secret correspondence with the royal gov- 
ernor, and Mr. Chase denounced him before the 
house as a traitor. Zubly fled and made good 
his escape. As chairman of the committee con- 
cerning those who gave *' aid and comfort to the 
enemy,** he recommended the arrest and im- 
prisonment of wealthy Quakers in Philadelphia. 
In 1778 Mr. Chase withdrew from the practice 
of his profession in Annapolis. He drafted in 
this year a convincing reply to charges made and 
circulated by the Tories. In 1783 an incident 
occurred that deserves notice. He was in Balti- 
more and invited to attend a debating society. 
Among the speakers was a young man who at- 
tracted his attention by his felicitous English and 
close argument. He ascertained that he was a 
clerk in an apothecary's store; he sought him and 
advised him to study law, offered him instruc- 
tion, the use of his library, and a seat at his table. 
The young man was William Pinkney, who after- 
wards became attorney-general of the United 
States, and minister at the court of St. James. 
In 1783 Mr. Chase visited England and recovered 
six hundred and flfty thousand dollars that had 
been invested by the state of Maryland in the 
bank of England before the war. He again 
served in Congress, 1784-*85. In 1786 he changed 
his residence to Baltimore, and on leaving Anna- 
polis the corporation of the city presented him 
with an address commending his fidelity in the 
discharge of his public duties and his patriotism 
as a citizen. In 1788 he was appointed chief 
justice of the criminal court for the district of 
Baltimore, and also served in the convention 
that adopted the constitution of the United 
States. In 1791 he became chief justice of the 
supreme court of the state. In 1796 he was ap- 
pointed by Washington associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United StateS: and the 
nomination was confirmed by the senate. His 
irritable temper brought him into trouble, and 
his sharp words from the bench, however true, 
were resented. At the Fries and Callender sedi- 
tion trials he was accused of misdemeanor, and 



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CHASE. 



John Randolph instigated his impeachment, 
which had at first six and then eight counts. 
When he came to trial before the senate, six 
counts were dismissed, and the others failed to 
secure a two-thirds vote. Judge Chase resumed 
his seat on the bench, and dignified his office 
until his death, which occuired June 19, 1811. 

CHASE9 Squire, missionary, was bom in 
Scipio, N. Y., Feb. 15. 1802. In June, 1822. he 
received a preacher's license, and became a proba- 
tioner in the (Genesee (N. Y. ) conference. He was 
assigned to the St. Lawrence circuit, and in 1823 
was transferred to the Black river conference. 
At the close of his second year in conference he 
was ordained deacon, and was appointed to Sandy 
Creek circuit. In 1825 he was returned to Black 
river circuit and labored there and in other cir- 
cuits until 1831, when he was made presiding 
elder of the St. Lawrence circuit. In October. 
1836. he went as a missionary to Africa, but ill- 
health compelled him to return after an absence 
of less than a year. In 1889 he was elected a 
delegate to the general conference at Baltimore. 
In 1842 he again went to Africa, where he re- 
mained about sixteen months. During his stay 
there he was superintendent of the African mis- 
sion, and editor of the semi-monthly Methodist 
journal called Africd*B Luminary, He died in 
Syracuse, N. Y., July 26. 1843. 

CHAS6, Thoma5» educator, was bom in Wor- 
cester. Mass., June 16, 1827; brother of Pliny 
Earle Chase. He was graduated at Harvard 
with the degree of A.M. in 1848, and from 1850 to 
1853 was tutor there. He then went abroad and 
studied at the University of Berlin and the Col- 
lege of Paris. In 1855 he became professor of 
philology and literature in Haverford college, and 
in 1875 was elected president of the institution. 
He served at times as classical professor at Brown 
university. He was a member of the American 
committee on New Testament revision, and of the 
philological congress held at Stockholm. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard in 
1878. and that of Litt.D. from Haverford in 1880. 
He is the author of Tlie Early Days of Hellas 
(1858) ; Hellas : her Monuments and Scenery 
(1863), and Dr. Schlieniann and the Archceo- 
logical Value of his Discoveries (1891), and was 
senior editor of Chase and StuarVs classical 
series. He died Oct. 6, 1892. 

CHASE, William Heory, soldier, was bom in 
Massachusetts in 1798. He was graduated at 
West Point in 1815. and served as assistant in the 
corps of engineers in the construction of the 
defences of Brooklyn, in making surveys in the 
vicinity of Lake Champlain. in repairing Fort 
Niagara, and in constructing Fort Pike. La., 
until 1822. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 
1819. and was superintending engineer of the 



defences of the Rigolets and Chef Menteur passes 
to New Orleans. La., 1822-'24; of Fort Jackson, 
Mississippi river, 1823-'24; of the breakwater for 
the preservation of Plymouth Beach, Mass., 1824; 
and of forts at the Rigolets. Chef Menteur, Bien- 
venue, and Bayou Dupr^ passes to New Orleans, 
1824-^28. He was promoted captain, Jan. 1, 
1825. and served as superintending engineer for 
the construction of defences and improvementa 
in the south imtil 1856. He was promoted major 
July 7. 1838, and on Oct. 31, 1856. he resigned his 
commission in the army to become president of 
the Alabama and Florida railroad company, hold- 
ing the position until 1861. In that year he 
joined the Confederate army and served through- 
out the civil war. He died in Pensacola. Fla., 
Feb. 8. 1870. 

CHASE, William Henry, soldier, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa.. April 25, 1844. He was gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1865 and assigned to gar- 
rison duty. He was promoted Ist lieutenant of 
1st artillery Feb. 1. 1866. and was despatched to- 
the Canadian frontier to prevent Fenian raids in 
June, 1866. He was transferred to the corps of 
engineers, and from November. 1866, to June, 
1868. was battalion quartermaster. He was 
then made assistant engineer under Oeneral War- 
ren, and served as such until March. 1870, whea 
he was transferred to the Pacific board of engi- 
neers for fortifications. In 1869 he completed a 
valuable topographical survey of the battlefield 
of Gettysburg. He died at Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.. June 21. 1871. 

CHASB9 William Merritt, painter, was bom 
at Franklin. Ind.. Nov. 1, 1849. He studied paint- 
ing in Indianapolis with B. F. Hays ; in New York 
with J. O. Eaton; at the National academy at 
Munich with Wagner and Piloty; at the Royal 
academy, and in Venice, where he gave special 
attention to the works of Tintoretto. His work 
received honorable mention at the Paris salon. 
He returned to the United States in 1878. In 1890 
he was elected a national academician, and after- 
wards was elected president of the Society of 
American artists. In 1875 he exhibited The 
Doipager at the National academy of design. 
New York; in 1877 The Broken Jug and 
The Unexpected Intrusion^ and 1878 Tlie 
Court Jester, or Keying Up, which had won 
him a medal at the Centennial exhibition in 1876. 
He received a gold medal from the Philadelphia 
academy of fine arts 1895, from the Paris Exposi- 
tion 1900. and from the Pan-American exposition 
1901. He painted portraits of the five children 
of Director Piloty ; Duveneck (1879) ; General 
Webb (1880). and Peter Cooper (1882). His other 
works include : Venetian Fish- Market, The 
Apprentice, Interior of St, Mark's in Venice^ 
Tlie Coquette, and Ready for a Ride, 



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CHATARD. 



CHAUNCY. 



CHATARD, Francis Silas, fifth R. C. bishop 
of Vincennes, Ind., was born in Baltimore, Md., 
in 1834. After completing his primary education 
in the schools of his native city, he was sent to 
Mount St. Mary's college, Emmittsburg, Md., 
where he was graduated in 1853. He went to 
Rome in 1857, and became a student in the 
famous Urban college. After six years of assidu- 
ous study he was elevated to the priesthood in 
1862. Soon after his ordinatipn he was awarded 
the degree of D.D. He was subsequently ap- 
pointed vice-rector of the American college in 
Rome, and upon the resignation of Dr. McCloskey 
was made rector, and held this position for two 
years. He had the ear and confidence of the 
pope, and in this manner was enabled to be of 
inestimable service to American priests or 
bishops. In the Vatican council of 1870, Dr. 
Chatard took a conspicuous part. His services 
as theologian, secretary, and master of ceremonies 
were rewarded by the reigning pontiff, Pius IX., 
who presented him with a gold medal as a testi- 
monial of his regard. In 1878 he visited the 
United States in order to collect funds for the 
American college and revive poptdar interest in 
the institution. He had the support and sym 
pathy of both the pope and the American priests 
and bishops, and as a result obtained large sums 
of money for the institution. After his return 
from his trip, he was sxmunoned to the presence 
of the holy father, and informed that he had 
been elected Bishop of Vincennes, Ind. Dr. 
Chatard was consecrated on May 18, 1878, and 
took up his residence in Indianapolis, Ind., al- 
though the cathedral of St. Francis Xavier is at 
Vincennes. He was one of the first to welcome 
Cardinal SatoUi, shortly after whose arrival 
he wrote: ** We recommend to all the most sin- 
cere regard for the apostolic delegate, the great- 
est docility to his wishes, and the most respectful 
silence regarding his judicial acts.'' Bishop 
Chatard is the author of : Symbolism of the 
Catholic Churchy and other controvei-sial and de- 
votional wroks. 

CHATFIELD-TAYLOR, Hobart Chatfleld, 
(See Taylor, H. C. Chatfield). 

CHAUNCEY, Isaac, naval officer, was bom at 
Black Rock, Conn., Feb. 20, 1772; son of Wolcott 
and Ann (Brown) Chauncey, and a great-great- 
grandson of Israel, youngest son of Charles 
Chauncy of Harvard college. At the age of 
twelve he went to sea, and in 1791 was made com- 
mander of a ship. At the organization of the 
navy in 1798 he received a commission as lieuten- 
ant in the navy, and was afterwards promoted 
conmiander, serving as such under Preble in the 
Tripolitan war. From this officer he received 
high commendation in official despatches. On 
May 23, 1804, he was promoted master, and on 



April 24, 1806, was made captain. At the time 
of the partial reduction of the navy in 1807-'08 
he received a furlough, and took command of an 
East Indiaman belonging to John Jacob Astor. 
He made a trip to China, and on his return in 
1808 was commissioned by the government to 
organize the navy yard at Brooklyn, N. Y. He 
remained in command of the yard until the break- 
ing out of the war of 1812, when he was ordered 
to the command of the lakes. He rendered dis- 
tinguished service during the war, assisting in 
the capture of York and Fort George, and in block- 
ading the fleet of Sir James Yeo of the British navy 
in 1814. In 1816 he was assigned to the command 
of the Mediterranean squadron, conveyed to 
Naples William Pinkney, minister plenipoten- 
tiary to Russia: and in June, 1816, relieved Com- 
modore Shaw, senior officer in the Mediterranean. 
He was commissioned, with Mr. Shaler, to open 
negotiations with the Dey of Algiers, who vio- 
lated the treaty made with Decatur in 1815. The 
duty was successfully performed, and Commo- 
dore Chauncey cruised in the M!editerranean 
until 1818, when he returned to New York, 
taking command of the navy yard. In 1821 he 
was ordered to Washington as navy commis- 
sioner, and in 1824 was again ordered to the com- 
mand of the New York navy yard istation, which 
he held until 1833. In June of that year he 
returned to Washington as president of the 
board of naval commissioners. He waf> married 
to Catharine, daughter of John and Catharine 
Sickles of New York. He died in Washington, 
D. C. Jan. 27. 1840. 

CHAUNCBY, John Sickles, naval officer, was 
bom in New York in 1800; son of CoDMnodore 
Isaac and Catharine (Sickles) Chauncey. He 
was appointed midshipman in the U. S. navy 
Jan. 1, 1812, was promoted lieutenant Jan. 13, 
1825, and commander Sept. 8, 1841. In 1847 he 
was stationed at Washington as inspector of 
ordnance, and remained there three years. On 
Sept. 14, 1855, he was commissioned captain; was 
promoted commodore, July 16, 1862, and was 
placed on the retired list April 4, 1869. He died 
in Brooklyn. N. Y., April 10, 1871. 

CHAUNCY, Charles, educator, was baptized at 
Yardley-Bury, Hertfordshire, England, Nov. 5, 
1592; son of George and Agnes (Welsh) Chauncy, 
and the emigrant ancestor of all who bear the 
name of Chauncy and Chauncey in the United 
States. He received his preparatory training at 
Westminster school, and entered Trinity college, 
Cambridge, where he was made a bachelor of arts 
in 1613, and a master of arts in 1617. He was 
also made a fellow of the college, and in 1624 was 
given the degree of B. D. He was chosen profes- 
sor of Hebrew, but resigned in favor of a relative 
of the vice-chancellor, and was appointed to the 



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CHAUNCY. 



CHAUVENET. 



Greek professorship. He remained at Trinity for 
some time, and then preached for a season at 
Marston-Laurenoe, Northamptonshire. In 1627 
he became vicar of Ware, Hertfordshire, where 
his peculiar puritanical opinions involved him 
in difficulties with his ecclesiastical superiors. 
In January, 1629, he was called before the high 
commission court on the charge of having used in 
his sermons certain expressions condemnatory of 
the church, and is said to have made his submis- 
sion to Bishop Laud. In 1635 he was again prose- 
cuted for opposing the railing in of the communion 
table at Ware ; was suspended, cast into prison, 
condemned to costs, and obliged to make a 
humiliating recantation. He left England late in 

1687, and arrived at Plymouth, Mass., in May, 

1688. For about three years he preached with 
Mr. Reyner at Plymouth, and in 1641 was elected 
pastor of the church at Scituate, where he 
preached for twelve years. His pastorate in 
Scituate was for many reasons impleasant to him, 
I»rtly because of a difference of opinion among 
his parishioners, and partly because of a lack of 
financial support. His persecutor, Bishop Laud, 
had been executed, and a change had taken 
place in the attitude of the church ; Mr. Chauncy 
was invited to return to Ware, and had reached 
Boston, whence he was to sail, when he was 
invited to become president of Harvard college. 
He was inaugurated Nov. 29, 1654, and entered 
upon the duties of the office at a salary of 
£100 per annum. He was married, March 17, 
1630, to Catharine, daughter of Robert Eyre of 
Sarum, Wilts, and Agnes, his wife, daughter of 
John Still, bishop of Bath and Wells. He is 
the author of : The Plain Doctrine of the Justi- 
fication of a Sinner in tJie Sight of Ood, Six and 
Twenty Sermons (1659), and Antisynodalia 
Scripta Americana. See Cotton Mather's Mag- 
nnlia Christ i Americana, Beal's History of New 
England, vol. ii.,and Memorials of the Chaun- 
ceys. He died in Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 19, 
1672. 

CHAUNCY, Charles, clergyman, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., Jan., 1, 1705; son of Charles and 
Sarah (Walley) Chauncy ; grandson of Isaac 
Chauncy, and great-grandson of Charles Chauncy, 
president of Harvard college. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1721, and studied theology in 
Boston. On Oct. 25, 1727, he was ordained pastor 
of the first church in Boston. He was married 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Judge Hirst, and had 
three children. He was a fellow of the Ameri- 
can academy. In 1742 Edinburgh university con- 
ferred upon him the degree of S.T.D. For a 
complete list of his published writings see, BtbH- 
otheca Chaunciana (1884); and Memorials of the 
Chaunceys, by William Chauncey Fowler. He 
died Feb. 10, 1787. 



CHAUNCYt Charles, jurist, was bom in Dur- 
ham, Conn., June 11, 1747; son of Elihu and Mary 
(Griswold) Chauncy, and great-great-grandson 
of Charles Chauncy, president of Harvard col- 
lege. He studied law under James A. Hillhouse, 
and was admitted to the bar in November, 1768. 
In 1776 he was appointed attorney for the state 
of Connecticut, and in 1789 to the bench of the 
superior court. This office he resigned in 1798 
and retired from law practice, devoting his 
time to lecturing to a class of students at law. 
He was married to Abigail, daughter of Thomas 
and Abigail Darling of New Haven. In 1777 
Yale college conferred upon him the degree of 
M.A., and Middlebury gave him that of LL.D. in 
1811. He died in New Haven, Conn., April 28, 
1823. 

CHAUNCY, Charles, lawyer, was bom in New 
Haven, Conn., Aug. 17, 1777; son of Charles and 
Abigail (Darling) Chauncy, and great-great- 
great- grandson of Charles Chauncy of Harvard 
college. He was graduated at Yale college in 
1792, studied law for tLve years with his father, 
and in 1798 was admitted to the bar, beginning 
practice in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1808 he was 
married to Hannah, daughter of Col. John Ches- 
ter of Wethersfield, Conn. In 1837 and 1838 he 
was a member of the convention for revising the 
constitution of Pennsylvania. He practised law 
at the Philadelphia bar for nearly forty years, 
with eminent success. In 1827 Yale college 
conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. He 
died in Burlington, N. J., Aug. 30, 1849. 

CHAUNCY, Nathaniel, clergyman, was bom 
in Hatfield, Mass., Sept. 21, 1681; son of the Rev. 
Nathaniel and Abigail (Strong) Chauncy, and 
grandson of Charles and Catharine (Eyre) 
Chaimcy. He was educated by his uncle, and 
in 1702 was graduated at Yale college an A.M. in 
the first class and the first man graduated, and 
so honored by the college. He was then placed 
in charge of the Hopkins grammar school in 
Hadley, Mass., and later taught at Springfield, 
Mass.. studying theology meanwhile imder his 
brother-in-law, the Rev. Daniel Brewer. He 
preached at the newly settled town of Durham, 
Conn., from about 1704, but was not ordained 
until Feb. 7, 1711. He continued in office until 
his death. In April, 1746, he was elected a fel- 
low of Yale college, which office he resigned 
in September, 1752. He was married, Oct. 12. 
1708, to Sarah, daughter of Capt. James and 
Rebecca (Wells) Judson of Stratford, Conn. He 
died at Durham, Conn., Feb. 1, 1756. 

CHAUVBNET, Wllllani, mathematician, was 
bom m Milford, Pa., May 24, 1820. He was 
graduated at Yale in 1840, and was for a time 
assistant to Alexander Dallas Bache at Girard 
college. He became professor of mathematics in 



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CHEATHAM. 



CHEEVER. 



the naval service in 1841, being stationed in Phila- 
delphia, and afterwards at Annapolis, Md. In 
1859 he was chosen professor of mathematics in 
Washington university, St. Louis, Mo., of which 
institution he became chancellor in 1862. This 
office he resigned in 1869 on account of failing 
health. He twice declined the chair at Yale col- 
lege made vacant by the death of Professor 
Olmsted. He was an original member of the 
National academy of sciences. He is the author 
of : Binomial Theorems and Logarithms for the 
Use of Midshipmen at the Naval School (1843) ; 
Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry 
(1850 ; 9th ed., 1875) ; A Manual of Spherical 
and Practical Astronomy (2 vols., 1863) ; Navi- 
gation and Nautical Astronomy {2d ed,, 1865); 
New Method of Correcting Lunar Distances (1868) 
and A Treatise on Elementary Geometry (1870, 2d 
ed., 1877). He died in St. Paul, Minn., Dec. 13, 
1870. 

CHBATHAil, Benjamiii Franklin, soldier, 
was born in Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1820. 
After attending the public schools of Nashville 
he entered into business in Philadelphia, Pa., 
where he remained a year. He joined the U.S. 
army at the outbreak of the Mexican war, was 
made captain, and fought with distinction at the 
battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo. After the 
expiration of his term of enlistment he returned 
to Nashville and raised the 3d Tennessee regi- 
ment, of which he was commissioned colonel. 
He took active part in the closing battles of the 
war, and was honorably discharged in July, 1848. 
In 1861 he organized tiie supply department for 
the western Confederate army, and in May was 
commissioned brigadier-general. On Nov. 7, 
1861, he fought at the battle of Belmont as com- 
mander of three regiments. He was promoted 
major-general in 1862, and on December 31 com- 
manded a division of Bragg*s army at Murfrees- 
boro. He was offered by Preoident Grant an 
official position, which he declined. He served for 
several years as superintendent of the Tennessee 
prison, and in 1885 was appointed postmaster of 
Nashville. He died in Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 4, 
1886. 

CHBCKLEY, John, clergyman, was born in 
Boston, Mass., in 1680. In 1723 he wrote and 
published a theological treatise which caused 
bitter feeling among New England people. He 
was sued for libel, and was sentenced to pay a 
fine of £50. In 1727 he was refused holy orders 
by the Bishop of London, but received them later 
from the Bishop of Exeter. In 1739 he estab- 
lished himself in Providence, R. I., where he 
passed the remainder of his life. He is the 
author of : Choice Dialogues between a Godly 
Minister and an Honest Country-Man, concerning 
Election and Predestination (1715), and A Mod- 



est Proof of the Order and Government Settled 
by Christ and his Apostles in the Church (1723), 
both of which caused much comment. He died 
in Providence, R.I., in 1753. 

CHEETHAM, James, author, was bom in 
Manchester, England, in 1772. He came to 
America in 1798 and entered journalism in New 
York city. He edited The American Citizen for 
some years, and wrote : A Narrative of the 
Suppression by Colonel Burr of the History of 
the Administration of John Adams, written by 
John Wood (1802) ; A View of the Political Con- 
duct of Aaron Burr, Esq., Vice-President of 
tlie United States (1802) ; Antidote to John 
Wood's Poison (1802) ; Nine Letters on Aaron 
* Burr's Political Defection (1803) ; Reply to Aris- 
tides (1804) ; Peace or War f or. Thoughts on our 
affairs with England (1807), and Life of Thomas 
Paine (1809). He died in New York city, Sept. 
10, 1810. 

CHEEVER, David WlllUms, educator, was 
bom in Portsmouth, N. H., Nov. 30, 1831 ; son of 
Charles A., and Adeline (Haven) Cheever. He 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1852 and from 
the medical school in 1858. In 1866 he was made 
assistant professor of anatomy in Harvard, and in 
1868 was advanced to the adjunct professorship of 
clinical surgery. He was given the full chair in 
1875 and held it until 1882. From 1882 to 1893 he 
was professor of surgery, and in the latter year be- 
came professor emeritus. In 1894 Harvard con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL.D. His puli- 
lished writings include : Tlie Value and the Fal- 
lacy of Statistics in the Observation of Disease 
(1861), the Boylston prize essay for 1860 ; Two 
Cases of CEsophagotomy for the Removal of 
Foreign Bodies (1861) ; Narcotics (1862) ; Lec- 
tures on Hernia (1866) ; Surgical Cases (1869) ; 
The Future of Surgery without Limit (1889); Is 
the Study of Medicine a Liberal Education^ 
(1891), and Lectures on Surgery (1894). He edited 
witli J. N. Borland, the first five volumes of the 
medical and surgical report of the Boston city 
hospital. 

CHEEVER, Ezeklel, educator, was born in 
London, England, Jan. 25, 1614 ; son of William 
Cheever, skinner. He was preferred to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, April 27, 1633. He arrived 
in Boston, Mass., in June, 1637, and the follow- 
ing year went with Governor Eaton to his new 
plantation at New Haven, Conn. In 1638 he be- 
gan to teach school. In 1646 he was elected a 
deputy from New Haven to the general court. 
He removed to Ipswich, Mass., in December, 1650. 
where he took charge of the grammar school. 
There he remained until 1661, when he went to 
Charlestown, Mass., teaching there for nine 
years. He removed to Boston Jan. 6. 1670, and 
for thirty-eight years taught the school which 



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CHEEVER. 



CHENEY. 



from 1790 was known as the Boston Latin school. 
He was the author of : Cheever^s Latin Accidence^ 
for more than a century a standard text-book. 
See Biographical Sketch of Ezekiel Cheever, by 
Henry Barnard (1856). He died in Boston, Mass., 
Aug. 31, 1708. 

CHEEVER, Qeorge Barrell, clergyman, was 
born in Hallowell, Me., April 17, 1807 ; son of 
Nathaniel and Charlotte (Barrell) Cheever. He 
was graduated at Bowdom college in the famous 
class of 1825, and at Andover theological semi- 
nary in 1830. In 1883 he was ordained pastor of 
the Howard street Congregational church of 
Salem, Mass. On one occasion he remarked in a 
public speech upon the inadequacy of the Unita- 
rian faith to produce the highest excellence in lit- 
erature. His attack aroused fierce indignation, 
and be was challenged to a newspaper controversy 
which resulted in a series of articles in the Salem 
Register and a Defence of the Orthodoxy of 
Cudtoorth. In 1835 he published, in the inter- 
est of the temperance cause, an allegory called 
Inquire at Amos Giles's Distillery, It hap- 
pened that there dwelt in that region a deacon 
who appropriated to himself the allegorical coat 
and resorted to the courts on a charge of defama- 
tion. Mr. Cheever was twice tried and twice 
convicted, and then obliged to spend thirty days 
in the county jail. Upon regaining his freedom 
he resigned his pastorate and went to Europe, 
where he spent the following two years and a 
half, during which time he contributed a series 
of letters to the New York Observer, Upon his 
return to America he became pastor of the Allen 
street Presbyterian church of New York, and 
shortly after his installation delivered a course of 
remarkable lectures on the Pilgrim's Progress^ 
and on the life and times of John Bunyan, which 
were published in 1844. When in 1841 the ques- 
tion of the abolition of capital punishment was 
agitating the country, he engaged in a series of 
debates with John L. O'SuUivan, arguing €or 
capital punishment, and scored a victory. Soon 
after this he became involved in a discussion 
with Bishop Hughes concerning the reading of 
the Bible in the public schools, which resulted 
in bis Hierarchical Despotism in the Romish 
Church, In 1846 his admirers organized for 
him a new church, the ** Church of the Puritans " 
where he remained as pastor until 1870, when he 
retired from his labors and took up his residence 
in Englewood, N.J. On retiring from the min- 
istry he gave his home in New York city to the 
American missionary society and the American 
board of commissioners for foreign missions, for 
their joint use. He bequeathed to various chari- 
table soineties sums aggregating twenty-two 
thousand dollars. His published works include : 
The American Commonplace Book of Prose 



I ; Studies in Poetry (1880) ; Tlie American 
Commonplace Book of Poetry (1831) ; Ood*$ 
Hand in America (1841) ; Wanderings of a 
Pilgrim in the Shadow of Mont Blanc (1845) ; 
The Pilgrim in the Shadow of the Jungfraa 
Alp (1846); A Defence of Capital Punishment 
(1846) ; The Journal of tfie Pilgrims at Ply- 
mouth in New England, in 1620 (1848) ; Wind- 
ings of the River of the Water of Life (1849); 
The Hill Difficulty, with other Miscellanies 
(1849) ; Voices of Nature to her Foster Child, 
the Soul of Man (1852); Right of the Bible 
in our Public Schools (1854) ; Lectures on Cow- 
per (1856) ; The Pcnvers of the World to Come 
(1856) ; Ood against Slavery (1857) ; American 
Slavery (1860) ; The QuUt of Slavery, and the 
Crime of Slaveholding (1860), and Faith, Doubts 
and Evidence (1881). He died at Englewood, 
N.J., Oct. 1, 1890. 

CHEEVER, Henry Theodore, author, was 
bom in Hallowell, Me., Feb. 6, 1814 ; son of 
Nathaniel and Charlotte (Barrell) Cheever. He 
was graduated from Bowdoin college in 1834, 
and spent two years in Spain, France, and 
Lousiana as correspondent of the New York 
Evangelist, On his return he entered the Ban- 
gor Theological seminary and was graduated 
in 1839. He was correspondent of the New 
York Evangelist, 1840-'42, in the Sandwich 
and the South Sea Islands, and on returning 
home was for a year one of its editors and 
regular contributors. He was pastor at Jewett 
City, Conn., and Worcester, Mass., 1844-'58, 
and agent and secretary of the church anti- 
slavery society, 1859-'64. In 1892 Bowdoin 
college conferred upon him the degree of D.D. 
His books are principally biography and travel, 
and include : . The Wliale and its Captors 
(1849); The Island World of the Pacific (1851) ; 
Memorials of the Life and Trials of Nathaniel 
Cheever, M.D, (1851) ; Life in the Sandunch 
Islands (1851) ; Autobiography and Memorials 
of Captain Obadiah Congat (1851) ; Short Yams 
for Long Voyages (1855) ; Way marks in the 
Moral War unth Slavery between the Opening 
of 1859 and the Close of 1861 (1862) ; Autobiog- 
raphy and Memoirs of IcJiabod Washburn 
(1878), and Correspondencies of Faith and Views 
of Madame Ouyon (1885). He edited Colton's 
Ship and Shore in Madeira, Lisbon and the 
Mediterranean, He died in Worcester, Mass., 
Feb. 13, 1897. 

CHENEY, Ben)aiiiln Pierce, expressman, was 
bom in Hillsboro, N. H., Aug. 12, 1815 ; son of 
Jesse and Alice (Steele) Cheney. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools, leaving his studies 
when ten years old to work in his father's 
blacksmith shop. In 1831 he became a stage- 
driver, and in 1836 went to Boston as agent of 



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CHENEY. 



CHENEY. 



the northern stage route. He went into busi- 
ness for himself in 1842 and organized, with 
Nathaniel White and William Walker, Cheney & 
Co.'s Express, running between Boston and 
Montreal. This venture was highly successful. 
Shortly after this another line was established, 
which was purchased by Mr. Cheney in 1853. 
He continued to buy out all competing lines 
imtil he formed the United States and Canada 
express company. This name was retained for 
more than thirty-five years, when it was merged 
into the American express company, of which 
he was made treasurer. He also held large inter- 
ests in other express and railroad companies. 
At his death his property was estimated at nine 
million dollars, about seventy -five thousand dol- 
lars of which he bequeathed to various charities. 
He died in Wellesley, Mass.. June 23, 1895. 

CHENEY, Charles, manufacturer, was bom 
in what was then called East Hartford Woods, 
Conn., in 1804; son of George and EUecta (Wood- 
bridge) Cheney. He established himself in busi- 
ness in Providence, R. I., before he had attained 
his majority, and there remained until 1837, 
when he removed to Ohio, and engaged in farm- 
ing until 1847. He then joined his brothers in 
the manufacture of silk at South Manchester 
ftnd Hartford, Conn. He was an abolitionist, and 
served in the state legislature. He died at South 
Manchester, Conn., June 20, 1874. 

CHENEY, Charles Edward, clergyman, was 
bom in Canandaigua. N.Y., Feb. 12, 1836; son of 
Dr. E. W. Cheney. He was graduated from Ho- 
bart college in 1857 and from the P. E. theological 
seminary of Virginia, in 1859. He was ordained 
as a priest of the Protestant Episcopal church and 
was assistant minister of St. Luke*s church, 
Rochester, N. Y., then temporarily in charge 
of St. Paul's church, Havana, N. Y., and after 
1860 of Christ church, Chicago. While rector 
of this church he was cited before an ecclesi- 
astical tribune, because of his refusal to use 
the word regenerate in the baptismal ofiices, 
at the instance of his diocesan, Bishop White- 
house. Mr. Cheney was found guilty. and sus- 
pended from his sacerdotal functions; refusing 
to obey the order of the court, he was tried for 
contumacy, and on this charge was deposed 
from the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He affiliated with George David Cum- 
mins, assistant bishop of Kentucky, and others, 
in the organisation of the Reformed Episcopal 
church. His congregation followed him into the 
new organization and he remained rector of 
Christ church. He was elected missionary bishop 
of the northwest and consecrated Dec. 14, 1873. 
In 1876 he was made bishop in charge of the 
synod of Chicaga On Simday, March 14, 1897, 
Bishop Cheney completed his 87th year as rector 



of Christ church ; ifi&t being the longest pastorate 
in the ecclesiastical history of Chicago. He pub- 
lished several volumes of sermons, notably: 
Th£ Evangelical Ideal of a Visible Church (1874), 
A Word to Old-Fashioned Episcopalians (1878) ; 
The Prayer which Ood Denied, and other Ser- 
mons (1880), and the Enlistment of the Christian 
Soldier (1893). 

CHENEY, Ednah Dow, author, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., June 27, 1824; daughter of Sar- 
gent Smith and Ednah (Parker) Littlehale. She 
was educated at private schools, and was a mem- 
ber of the classes held by Margaret Fuller, 
1830-'40. She participated in the institution of 
the school of design in 1851, and was its secre- 
tary, 1851-'54. She was married in 1853 to Seth 
Wells Cheney, the artist. In 1859 she was instru- 
mental in founding a hospital in connection with 
the woman's medical school, and in 1862 became 
secretary of, the New England hospital. In 1863 
she was secretary of the teachers* committee of 
the Freedmen's aid society and held the same 
office on the committee to aid colored regiments. 
For several years she was actively interested in 
the education of the colored soldiers and in the 
colored schools of the south. She attended the 
Freedmen's conventions held in New York city 
in 1865 and in Baltimore in 1866. She was one 
of the founders of the New England woman's 
club, and became its vice-president in 1868. She 
assisted in founding a horticultural school for 
women in 1869, and lectured on agriculture 
before the Massachusetts horticultural society 
in 1871. In 1879 she gave a course of ten lec- 
tures on art before the Concord school of 
philosophy; in this year also she was elected 
vice-president of the Massachusetts woman 
suffrage association, of which she afterwards 
became president, and in 1887 was elected 
president of the hospital she had been instru- 
mental in founding in 1859. Mrs. Cheney 
was a delegate to the woman's council held 
in Washington, D. C, and in 1890 was pres- 
ent at the Lake Mohonk negro conference. 
She contributed voluminously to numerous 
periodicals, and published in book form : Hand- 
book of American History (1866) ; Faithful 
to the Light (1870) ; Sally Williams (1872) ; 
Child of the Tide (1874) ; Life of Dr. Susan 
Dimock (1875) ; Religion as a Social Force 
(1875) ; Memoir of Seth Wells Cheney, Olean- 
ings in the Fields of Art (1881) ; Selected 
Poems from Michelangelo Buonarotti (1885) ; 
A Story of the Olden Time (1890); Life of 
Daniel Ranch (1893). She also edited a col- 
lection of poems by D. Wasson (1887) ; those of 
Harriet Sewall (1889), and Louisa M. Alcott: 
Her Life, Letters, and Journal (1889 ; 2d ed., 



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CHENEY. 



CHENEY. 



CHENEY, Frank Woodbridge, manufacturer, 
was born in Providence, R. I., June 5, 1832; son 
of George and Electa (Woodbridge) Cheney. 
He was graduated at Brown university in 1856. 
He was in charge of the Hartford house of the 
Cheney Brothers, silk manufacturers, Manches- 
ter, Conn., 185^*62. In 1862 he was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel of the 16th Connecticut 
volunteers, and in his first skirmish, the day 
before the battle of Antietam, received a severe 
wound, which caused his retirement from the 
service. He travelled extensively in China, 
Japan and Europe. The death of his brother 
Ralph, March 26, 1897, left him the sole sur- 
vivor of the founders of the house of Cheney 
Brothers. 

CHENEY, John Vance, poet, was born at 
Groveland, N. Y., Dec. 29, 1848; son of Simeon 
Pease and Christiana (Vance) Cheney, and 
grandson of Moses Cheney, an eloquent Baptist 
divine. He received an academical education, 
studied law, and was admitted to the Massachu- 
setts bar. He practised his profession in New 
York city until 1876. Ill health caused him to 
remove to California, and in 1887 he was ap- 
pointed librarian of the San Francisco free 
library, where his management was conducive 
of the best results. In 1894 he succeeded Wil- 
liam F. Poole as librarian of the Newberry library, 
Chicago. While in New York he contributed 
poems to the principal magazines, and was 
elected a member of the Authors' club (1883). 
He also wrote numerous essays on literary sub- 
jects, and published in book form : The Old 
Doctor (1881) ; Tliistle Drift, poems (1888), and 
The Golden Oness ; Essays on Poetry and the 
Poets (1892). and dinette, a Redwoods Idyll {\SM). 
He also edited Wood Notes U^ild, by bis father, 
Simeon Pease Cheney (1893), and published Lyrics 
(1902). 

CHENEY, Oren Burbank, educator, was bom 
at Holderness, N. H., Dec. 10, 1816; son of Moses 
and Abigail (Morrison) Cheney. When a boy he 
worked in his father's paper mill to fit himself 
to follow the business, and in 1829 was sent to 
the New Hampton academical institute. In 1882 
he entered the first school of the Free Baptist 
denomination, established in that year at North 
Parsonsfield, Me. He was graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1839, and was soon after chosen 
principal of the academy at Farmington. acting 
in that capacity there and elsewhere until 1845. 
In that year he went to Whitestown, N. Y., 
where he studied theology in the Biblical school, 
and taught lAtin in the seminary. Having 
entered the ministry he preached in various 
locations until 1851, when he was elected repre- 
sentative to the t state legislature by the Whigs 
and Free Sellers. In 1854 Parsonsfield seminary 



was burned, and Dr. Cheney at once began the 
carrying out of a long-cherished plan of estab- 
lishing a Free Baptist coUe^ in Maine, and in 
1854 he was instrumental in founding the insti- 
tution which, in 1868. became Bates college, 
and he was made its first president. In 1894 
increasing years made it necessary for him to 
relinquish the cares of office and he was made 
president emeritus, Prof. George Colby Chase 
si^j^ceeding to the presidency. In 1868 Wesleyan 
university conferred upon President Cheney the 
degree of D.D. 

CHENEY, Person C, governor of New Hamp- 
shire, was bom in Holderness, N. H., Feb. 
25, 182^; son of Moses and Abigail (Morrison) 
Cheney. He received an academic education, 
and when seventeen years old was placed in 
charge of his father's i»per-mill at Manchester. 
In 1853 he was a member of the state legislature ; 
in 1862 quartermaster of the 13th New York vol- 
unteers, and was forced to resign because of ill- 
ness caused by exposure at Fredericksburg. In 
1864-'67 he was a state railroad commissioner; 
in 1871 mayor of Manchester; and governor of 
New Hampshire, 1875-77. He became U.S. sen- 
. ator on tiie death of Austin F. Pike, serving 
1886-'87 ; was U.S. minister to Switzerland, 1892- 
'93. and a member of the Republican National Con- 
vention in 1892 and 1900. He received the honor- 
ary degree A.M. from Dartmouth in 1876. He de- 
voted himself to manufacturing, stock raising and 
travel. He died in Dover, N.H., June 19, 1901. 

CHENEY, Seth Wells, artist, was bom at 
East Hartford Woods, Conn., Nov. 26, 1810; son 
of George and Electa (^Woodbridge) Cheney. He 
was educated in the common school, and in 1829 
removed to Boston, where he learned the art of 
engraving. In 1833 he went to Paris, where he 
studied under Isabey. His engravings were 
remarkable for their excellence. In 1840 he 
began to draw in crayons, being one of the earli- 
est artists in black and white in America. In 
1841 he opened a studio in Boston, and devoted 
himself to portraiture, in which he became emi- 
nently successful, his ideal heads being still 
much in request by collectors. Among his 
sitters were Lowell, Putnam. Appleton, Bow- 
ditch, Mrs. Horace Gray. W. C. Bryant, Miss 
Appleton, and a host of other well-known people. 
In 1843 he went to Europe and studied for a time 
under Ferrero, returning to Boston in 1844. He 
was made an associate of the National academy 
of design. May 10, 1848. Mr. Cheney was twice 
married: September, 1847, to Emily Pitkin, who 
died May 11, 1850. and in 1858 to Ednah Dow 
Littlehale. Many portraits of him are extant. 
His memoir was published by Mrs. Cheney in 
1881. He died in South Manchester, Conn., Sept. 
10, 1856. 



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CHENEY. 



CHESHIRE. 



CHENEY, Ward, manufacturer, wae bom in 
Connecticut in 10i3 ; son of George and Electa 
(Woodbridge) Cheney. He began his business 
career in Providence, R. I., and became inter- 
ested in the culture of silk in Burlington, N. J. , 
which led to his establishing, with several of his 
brothers, in 1836, a silk manufactory at Man- 
chester. Conn. Later they built mills at Hart- 
ford aUo, their chief productions being sewing 
silks, and silk fabrics woven by power looms, 
both plain -dyed and printed. He was a benevo- 
lent aai progressive man, and afforded assistance 
to many young men entering business life. The 
relations of ^Iie firm of Cheney Brothers with 
their employees were exceptionally kind and 
cordial; upon the family homestead they built 
a model village of homes for their operatives, a 
school and library, boarding-houses, with pleasure 
gproimds, and a spacious hall and theatre. The 
firm eventually was incorporated, and Ward 
Cheney became its president. He died at Man- 
chester, Conn., March 22, 1876. 

CHBNOWBTH, Caroline Van Deusen, edu- 
cator, was born near Louisville, Ky., Dec. 29, 
1846 ; daughter of Charles and Mary (Hunting- 
ton) Van Deusen. She was educated in the St. 
Charles institute. New Orleans, and at Moore ^s 
Hill college, near Cincinnati She was married 
to Colonel Bernard Peel Chenoweth, accompanied 
him to Jhina, where he acted as vice-consul, 
and during his last illness herself conducted the 
affairs of the vice-consulate, being highly compli- 
mented for this service by Secretary Fish when 
she returned to Washington to settle Colonel 
Chenoweth's affairs. She was afterwards pro- 
fessor of Englisli literature at Smith college, and 
taught private classes in Boston. She became a 
member of the London society for psychical re- 
search, the Brooklyn institute, the New York 
Dante society, and an associate editor of the Med- 
ico-Legal journal. She wrote stories on child life 
in China ; Stories of the Saints (1882) ; CoL John 
Hazeltine an Undistinguished Citizen (1900). 

CHBSBROUQH, Ellis Sylvester, civil engi- 
neer, was born in Baltimore, Md., July 6, 1813. 
His first work was done at the age of thirteen as 
chainman on the survey of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad. He was next employed on the 
Alleghany and Portage railway, and assisted 
W. G. McNeill in constructing the Paterson and 
Hudson River railroad. He became senior assist- 
ant in the building of the liOuisville, Cincinnati, 
and C!harleston railroad in 1837 ; was appointed 
chief engineer of the Boston water- works in 1846. 
and as such planned the Brookline reservoir and 
other important improvements for the water 
system. In 1850 he was made sole commissioner 
of the Boston water department; in 1851 was 
made city engineer and sur\'eyor of street and 



harbor improvements. He planned the sewerage 
system of Chicago, being appointed engineer for 
the Chicago board of sewerage commissioners in 
1855; he also constructed the nver timnels In 
1879 he resigned his position as commissioner of 
public works. He was considered an expert on 
water supply and sewerage of cities, being fre- 
quently consulted by the officials of the great 
cities in that capacity. He was president of 
the American society of civil engineers. Be 
died in Chicago, 111., Aug. 19, 1886. 

CHBSEBRO, Carollnet author, was bom at 
Canandaigua, N. Y., about 1828. She received 
an academical education, and after 1848 con- 
tributed to the magazines and wrote novels. 
From 1865 to 1873 she was instructor of rhetoric 
and composition in the Packer collegiate insti- 
tute, Brooklyn. She published : Dream-Land 
by Daylight (1851) ; Isa, a Pilgrimage (1852) ; 
The Children of Light (1853) ; The Little Cross- 
Bearer (1855) ; Philly and Kit (1856) ; Amy 
Carr and Peter Carradine, The Beautiful Gate, 
and other Tales (1863), and The Foe in the House- 
hold (1871). She died in Piermont, N. Y., Feb. 
16, 1873. 

CHBSBBROUQH, Robert A., inventor, was 
bom in London, Eng., Jan. 9, 1837; son of Henry 
A. Chesebrough, and grandson of Robert Chese- 
brough and of Richard M. WoodhuU. His par- 
ents were Americans, and he was taken to New • 
York city soon after his birth. He acquired a 
good education, devoting especial attention to 
the study of chemistry. In 1858 he established a 
manufactory of petroleum and coal oil products, 
and in 1870 discovered the substance called vas- 
eline. He obtained exclusive rights on this pro- 
duct, and in 1876 organized a stock comiMiny. He 
originated the New York real estate exchange, 
and became a prominent member of the consoli- 
dated stock exchange. He became a member 
of many prominent clubs of New York city, in- 
cluding the Exchange, the Union league, the 
Manhattan athletic and the New York riding. 
He is the author of A Reveriey and other 
Poems, 

CHESHIRE, Joseph Blount, 5th bishop of 
North Carolina and 172d in succession in the 
American episcopate, was bom at Tarboro, 
N. C, March 27, 1850; son of the Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Blount Cheshire, rector of Calvary church, 
Tarboro, for half a century. He graduated at 
Trinity college, Hartford, 1869. For two years 
he followed the occupation of teaching, after 
which he studied law and was admitted to the 
bar of North Carolina in 1872. He decided to 
enter the ministry of the Episcopal church, was 
ordained a deacon, April 21. 1878, and to the 
priesthood May 30, 1880. During his diaconate. 
and for a year after lus ordination as a priest he 



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CHESNUT. 



CHESTER. 



serred at Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., estab. 
lishing a church at each of these places. From 
1881 to 1893 he was rector of St. Peter's church, 
Charlotte, N.C. He was a deputy to the general 
conventions of 1886, 1889 and 1892, and a trustee 
of the University of the South from 1885. He re- 
ceived his degree of D.D. from the University of 
North Carolina in 1890, and from the University 
of the South in 1894. He was consecrated bishop 
Oct. 15, 1893, and made coadjutor bishop of North 
Carolina, and on the death of Bishop Lyman in 
the same year succeeded him as diocesan. 
Bishop Cheshire became the historiographer of his 
diocese. 

CHESNUT, James, senator, was born near 
Camden, S.C, in 1815; son of James Chesnut. 
He was graduated from Princeton in 1835. He 
was a member of the South Carolina legislature, 
1842-'52, and of the state senate, 1854-*58. He 
was appointed United States senator to succeed 
Arthur P. Hayne, and was elected for the full 
term beginning Dec. 5, 1859. On Nov. 10, 1800, he 
resigned, anticipating the secession of South Caro- 
lina ; his resignation was not accepted ; and upon 
his appointment as a delegate in the Confederate 
provisional congress he was expelled from the 
United States senate, July 11, 1861. He served 
during the war in the Confederate army, receiv- 
ing a commission as colonel. He served on the 
8taff of Jefferson Davis, and was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general. He was a delegate to 
the national Democratic convention in 1868. He 
died in South Carolina in 1885. 

CHESTER, Colby MItchel, naval officer, was 
bom in New London, Conn., Feb. 29, 1844; son of 
Melville and Frances C. (Harris) Chester. He was 
graduated at the United States naval academy 
and saw his first service on the Richmond, of the 
western gulf squadron, in the operations against 
Mobile, 1863-'64 He was advanced to the grade of 
master, Nov. 10, 1866; was promoted lieutenant, 
Feb. 21, 1867; lieutenant-commander, March 12, 
1868 ; commander, Oct. 15, 188 1. From 1881 to 1885, 
he was employed as hydrographic inspector of the 
coast survey, and on October 81 of the latter 
year took command of the Oalena and rendered 
assistance to the British ship Historian, which had 
struck on Magdalena river bar, Dec. 21, 1885; for 
which the officers of the Qalena received a service 
of silver from the owners, and the thanks of the 
British government. He was detached from the 
Qalena in 1888, was a member of the navy yard 
commission, 1888-'89 ; attached to bureau of navi- 
gation, July, 1890, to April, 1891 ; to naval academy, 
1891-94. On June 12, 1896. he was made captain. 
He commanded the receiving ship Hichmond at 
the navy yard. League Island, Pa. , 1896 ; the bat- 
tleship NeuHirk, North Atlantic squadron, 1897; 
and the battleship Cincinnati in 1898. 



CHESTER, Frederick Dixson Walthall, geolo- 
gist, was born in Porte au Platte, Santo Domingo, 
Oct. 8, 1861. He was graduated at Cornell, B.S., 
1882, M.S., 1887 ; was professor of geology and 
botany at the Delaware state college, 1882-*85 ; was 
botanist and mycologist of the Delaware agricul- 
tural experimental station, 1885-'99, and director 
of the laboratory of the Delaware state board of 
health in 1899. He became fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

CHESTER, John, soldier, was bom in Wethers- 
field, Conn., Jan. 29. 1749. He was graduated at 
Yale college in 1766, and was a representative in 
the state legislature in 1772. He distinguished 
himself in the battle of Bunker Hill, where he 
served as a captain, remaining in the army until 
1777, being promoted to the rank of colonel. He 
was speaker of the Connecticut legislature, a 
member of the council, 1788-'91, and again in 1808 ; 
was supervisor of the district of Connecticut 
1791-1801, and was made a probate county judge. 
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
Harvard in 1775, and those of A.B. and A.M. from 
Yale in 1776. He died in Wethersfield, Conn., 
Nov. 4, 1809. 

CHESTER, Joseph Lemuel, antiquarian, was 
bom in Norwich, Conn., April 80, 1821; son of 
Joseph and Prudee (Tracy) Chester, and was de- 
scended through Joseph and £lizabeth (Lee) 
Chester, Joseph and Elizabeth (Otis) Chester, and 
John Chester, from Captain Samuel, who removed 
from Boston to Connecticut in 1663. He was 
educated in Norwich, Conn., at Rome, Ohio, 
whither the family removed in 1885, and at Ash- 
tabula, Ohio. In 1838 he entered the employ of 
Arthur Tappan & Co., silk merchants, New York 
city. He contributed to periodical literature 
under the pseudonym of ''Julian Oamer." In 
the winter of 1839-'40 he entered the lecture field 
as a temperance advocate. In 1845 he removed 
to Philadelphia, and during 1848-*49-'50 was musi- 
cal editor of Qodey's Ladies* Book, and in 1852 be- 
came one of the editors of the Philadelphia In- 
quiver and of the Daily Sun. He was assistant 
clerk of the U. S. house of representatives under 
John W, Forney, and from 1855 to 1858 was one 
of the aids of Governor Pollock of Pennsylvania, 
with the military rank of colonel. In 1858 he 
went to London, England, where he permanently 
settled and acquired fame by his genealogical and 
antiquarian researches. He collated and edited 
much valuable information concerning the 
English origin of many American families, and 
was consulted as an authority on matters gene- 
alogical by distinguished antiquarians in England. 
He was one of the founders of the Harleian 
society and a voluminous contributor to its 
records. He was made a member of the New 
England historical genealogical society in 1862 



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CHESTER 



CHEVERUS 



of the New York genealogical and biographical 
society in 1871, and was an honorary or corre- 
s|)onding member of almost every genealogical 
society in the United States. He was a fellow of 
the Royal historical society. He received from 
Columbia college the degree of LL.D. in 1877, 
and from Oxford that of D.C.L. in 1881. His 
early publications are : Oreentvood Cemetery 
and oilier poems (1843) ; A Preliminary Treat- 
ise on tlie Law of Repulsion (1853) ; Narrative 
of Margaret Douglas (1854). His publications 
on genealogical subjects are so numerous that it 
is possible to mention only the most important : 
The Marriage, Baptismal and Burial Registers 
of the Collegiate Church or Abbey of St, Peter, 
Weshninster (1876). A tablet was erected to 
his memory by the dean and chapter of West- 
minster Abbey. He died in London, England, 
May 28. 188'i. 

CHESTER, Thomas Morris, soldier, was born 
in Vermont, of colored parents. After graduat- 
ing from the Thetford (Vt.) academy in 1826, he 
went to Liberia, where he was superintendent 
and instructor of tlie colony of Africans recap- 
tured from American slaveif*. He returned to 
America in 1861, and assisted in the enlistment of 
colored soldiei*s in tlie 54tli and 55th Massachusetts 
regiments. He was the war correspondent, with 
the army of the James and Potomac, of the Phila- 
delphia Press. In 1866 he visited Europe and 
passed the winter in Russia, where he was a 
special guest of Alexander H.. on the occasion of 
a ffraud review of forty thousand troops in St. 
Petersburg. He afterwards visited Denmark, 
Sweden. Saxony and England. He then studied 
law at Middle Temple Inn. London, and was ad- 
mitted to the English bar in 1870, being the first 
colored lawyer in England. He returned to 
America in 1871 and settled in Louisiana, where 
he practised law and was prominent in estab- 
lishing schools for the education of colored per- 
sons. He commanded the Louisiana guard, a 
militia regiment. In 1873 he was appointed U.S. 
commissioner, serving until 1879. In 1884 he 
became president of the Wilmington, Wrights- 
ville and Onslow railroad in North Carolina. He 
died in Harrisburg, Pa., Sept. 30, 1893. 

CHESTERflAN, William Dallas, editor, was 
born in Richmond, Va., July 10, 1845. He was edu- 
cated in Richmond, and served in the Confederate 
army until 1864, when he became clerk in the 
bureau of exchange of prisoners. He entered 
journalism, was Richmond correspondent of the 
Petersburg Index ; business manager of the Rich- 
mond Enquirer ; city editor of the Richmond Dis- 
patch^^nd subsequently vice-president oftheDi«- 
patch company and managing-editor of the pajjer. 

CHETLAIN, Arthur Henry, jurist, was born 
in G;il( Ml. III., April 12, 1849; son of Gen. Au- 



gustus L. Chetlain. He was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin in 1870, and took a course in 
natural science at the Universite Libre, Brussels ; 
receiving the degree B.S. in 1870. He studied 
law ; served as 1st assistant corporation counsel 
of Chicago, 1891-93, and as judge of the Supreme 
court of Cook county, III., from 1894. 

CHETLAIN, Augustus Louis, soldier, was 
born in St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 26, 1824 ; son of Swiss 
parents who emigrated from Neuchatel, Switzer- 
land, to Red River. British America, in 1823. Twa 
years later they removed to the United States, 
lived in St. Louis during 1825, and early in 1826- 
settled at Galena, 111., where the son received a 
common-school education, and entered mercantile 
life. At a meeting held in Galena in response to 
President Lincoln's call for volunteers in 1861, he 
was the first to enlist, and was chosen captain of 
a company which became a part of the 12th 
Illinois regiment, of which he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel, April 16. 1862. From Septem- 
ber, 1861 , to January, 1862, he was in command at 
Smithland, Ky. ; he then rejoined his regiment 
and led it in the Tennessee campaign. He par- 
ticipated in the capture of Port Henry and at the 
battle of Fort Donelson. He was promoted colonel 
and led his regiment at Shiloh, April 6, 1862^ 
and at the seige of Corinth, May, 1862. After the 
battle of Corinth, in which he distinguished him- 
self, he was left in command of Corinth by Gen- 
eral Rosecrans. While in this service he recruitf d 
the first colored regiment raised in the west. He 
was relieved in 1863, was promoted brigadier-gen- 
eral and given charge of the organization of colored 
troops in Tennessee and Kentucky. He was suc- 
cessful in raising a force of seventeen thousand 
men, for which service he received special com- 
mendation in General Thomas's report to the 
deimrtment of war. During 1864-'65 he was in 
command of the post of Memphis, and in June of 
the latter year was bre vetted major-general for 
meritorious service. In the fall of 1865 he was 
given command of the central district of Alabama^ 
and in February, 1866, was mustered out. In 
1867 President Johnson appointed him collector of 
internal revenue for Utah and Wyoming, and in 
1869 General Grant gave him the appointment of 
U.S. consul-general at Bi*ussels, which office he 
resigned in 1872. On his return to the United 
States he took up his residence in Chicago, where 
he was made president of the Home bank on its 
organization in 1872, and of the Industrial bank 
of Chicago in 1891. He published Recollections 
of Seventy Years (1900). 

CHEVERUS, John Louis Ann ilasdalen Le- 
febre de, R.C. cardinal, was bom in Mayenne^ 
France, Jan. 28, 1768. His father was civil judge 
of Mayenne, and his mother, Ann Lemarchand De 
Noyers, was a woman of great piety and learninjr. 



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CHEVES. 



CHEW. 



Young De Cheverus pursued liis studies at May- 
enne, and assumed the tonsure at the age of twelve 
years. He was made prior of Torbechet in 1771, 
and was admitted at the college of Louis Le 
Grand in Paris. In 1786 he entered the seminary 
of St. Magloire and attended lectures at the Sor- 
bonn'e. He was made a deacon in October, 1790, and 
ordained a priest in December of the same year. 
Tlie bishop of Mans having procured a dispensation 
on account of his being under the required age, 
he acted as assistant to his uncle, the curate of 
Mayenne, and was made a canon of the cathedral. 
On tlie death of his uncle, he was appointed to suc- 
ceed him, but refusing to take the oath of the revo- 
lution he was driven from Mayenne, kept under 
surveillance at Laval, imprisoned in the prison of 
Cordelier, and, after incredibly narrow escapes 
from death, managed to break prison in June, 
1792. He fled in disguise from Paris to Calais, 
and reached England, where he studied the 
langiiage, taught French and mathematics in 
a school, and organized a congregation of Catho- 
lics to whom he preached in English. He was 
invited by Abb6 Matignon to join him in Boston, 
Mass., and arrived tiiere, Oct. 3, 1796. Arch- 
bishop Carroll tendered him the pastorate of St. 
Mary's church, Philadelphia, which he refused, 
preferring his missionary work. He encom- 
passed the erection of the first Catholic church in 
Boston, the Church of the Holy Cross. He was 
one of the most prominent encouragers of art, 
science, and literature in Boston, and was one of 
the instigators and founders of the Atlienaeum. 
Abbe De Cheverus was consecrated first bishop of 
Boston by Archbisliop Carrol at Baltimore, Nov. 
1, 1810. He was held in very high esteem in 
Boston by Protestants as well as Catholics, and 
performed the duties of his position with dignity 
and urbanity. In 1800 the Grand Almoner of 
France conveyed to Bishop De Cheverus the desire 
of Louis XVIII. that he should accept the bishopric 
of Montauban, which at first he was unwilling to 
do. The solicitations of the king at length pre- 
vailed, and he left Boston for France, Oct. 1, 1823. 
In 1826 he was made Archbishop of Bordeaux and 
a peer of France. In 1830 he was appointed a 
councillor of the order of the Holy Ghost. He 
founded many charitable institutions, and when 
the cholera broke out in France he opened a 
hospital in his palace with the inscription, *' House 
of Succor." He was proclaimed cardinal, Feb. 
1, 1836, and on March 9 received the hat at the 
hands of the king, at Paris. He died Cardinal 
Archbishop of Bordeaux, July 19, 1836. 

CHEVESt Langdon, statesman, was born in 
Abbeville district, S. C, Sept. 17, 1776, son of 
Alexander and Mary (I^angdon) Cheves. His 
father was a native of Scotland and his mother 
a Virginian. He engaged in mercantile business 



in 1786-'95 ; was admitted to the bar in 1797, and 
in a few years had acquired a competence through 
the practice of his profession. He was elected to 
Congress in 1808 as a representative from South 
Carolina, serving through the 11th, 12th, and 
18th congresses. He was a vigorous supporter of 
the war with Great Britain and served as chair- 
man of the naval committee in 1812, and of the 
ways and means committee in 1813. He was 
elected speaker to succeed Henry Clay, Jan. 19, 

1814, by the Federalists and anti-restriction Demo- 
crats. His position as speaker enabled him to 
defeat the Dallas scheme for re-chartering the 
United States bank. He declined re-election in 

1815, resumed the practice of law, and was 
made judge of the superior court of South Caro- 
lina the next year. He was elected president of 
the board of directors of the United States bank 
in 1819, and resigned in 1823, after having placed 
the bank in a firm financial condition, to accept 
the position of chief commissioner of claims under 
the treaty of Ghent, to which President Monroe 
had appointed him. He returned to South Caro- 
lina in 1829, where he occupied himself in the 
cultivation of his extensive plantation for twenty- 
eight years. He published a notable letter in 
the Charleston Mercury ^ Sept. 11, 1844, on the 
political issue of the times. He condemned the 
nullification scheme of 1832, but supported the 
secession movement, and as a delegate to the 
convention of the Southern Rights association at 
Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1H50, in a powerful 
speech, declared himself friendly to the scheme 
of a separate southern Confederacy. He was 
married to Mary Dallas of Charleston, in 1806. 
He died in C\)lumbia, S.C, June 25. 1857. 

CHEW, Benjamin, jurist, was bom at West 
River, Md., Nov. 29, 1722 ; son of Dr. Samuel and 
Mary (Galloway) Chew ; grandson of Benjamin 
and Elizabeth (Benson) Chew ; great-grandson of 
Samuel and Anne (Ayres) Chew, and great- 
great-grandson of John and Sarah Chew. John 
Chew is said to have been a cadet of the family 
of Chew of Chewton, Somersetshire, England, 
and came over from England in 1622 ; was a 
menib<^r from Jamestown to the Virginia house 
of assembly in 1623, was afterwards a burgess 
from Hogg's Island in the assembly until 1643, 
and had two sons, Samuel and Joseph. Ben- 
jamin's father. Dr. Samuel Chew, born Oct. 30, 
1693, was at one time chief justice of the three 
lower counties of Pennsylvania, now included in 
the state of Delaware. Benjamin Chew read 
law in Philadelphia and in London, settled on 
the Delaware river in 1743, and in 1745 removed 
to Philadelphia. He was recorder of the city 
from 1756 until 1776, and register of wills and 
attorney-general until 1776. He represented the 
three lower counties of the state in the house of 



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CHEW 



CmCKERINO. 



delegates and was speaker of the assembly. On 
April 29, 1774, he became chief justice of Penn- 
sylvania. At the opening of the revolution 
Justice Chew sided with the Royalists, and when, 
in 1777, he refused his parole, he, with John 
Penn, the proprietary of Pennsylvania, was 
placed under arrest, but they were allowed to 
retire to Mr. Chew's property, Union Forge, 
N. J., and were released from arrest the next 
year. His stately mansion in Grermantown, Pa., 
still standing in 1897, was the resort of Tories 
and British officers, and before the battle of 
Grermantown, Oct. 4, 1777, the English troops 
used it as a fort; it was cannonaded by Wash- 
ington's army as it entered the place, but the 
stone walls resisted the assault, and the prog- 
ress of the army was delayed, giving the British 
forces a decided advantage. From 1791 till 
1806 he served as president of the high court of 
errors and appeals. He died in Germantown, 
Pa., Jan. 20, 1810. 

CHEW, Richard Smith, naval officer, was 
born near Washington, D. C, Sept. 7, 1843; son 
of Robert Smith and Elizabeth R. (Smith) Chew. 
He was graduated at the United States naval 
academy in 1861, was promoted lieutenant, Feb. 
22, 1864, and lieutenant-commander, July 25, 
1866. In April, 1862, he took part in the engage- 
ment between the Minnesota and the Menrimac, 
On Aug. 5, 1864, he participated in the battle of 
Mobile Bay. He was retired Feb. 2, 1875, and 
died in Washington, D. C, April 10, 1875. 

CMEW, Robert Smith, government clerk, was 
bom in Virginia in 1811; son of Robert Smith 
and Elizabeth (French) Chew; grandson of 
Robert and Molly (Parrott) Chew, and a lineal 
descendant of Joseph, second son of John and 
, Sarah Chew. About 1845 he became a govern- 
ment clerk in the state department in Washing 
ton, D. C, and in July. 1866, was promoted chief 
clerk, to succeed William Hunter, appointed 
assistant secretary of state. His continuous 
service under seven successive administrations 
made him an authority on affairs of state. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Aug. 3, 1873. 

CHICKERINQ, Charles A., representative, 
was born in Harrisburg, Lewis county, N. Y., 
Nov. 26, 1843. He was educated at the common 
schools, and at Lowvllle academy, where he 
afterwards became a teacher. From 1845 to 1875 
he was a school commissioner of Lewis county. 
Was a member of the assembly in 1879, '80 and 
'81 ; in 1884 he was elected clerk of the assembly, 
and was re-elected each year up to and inclusive 
of 1890; also served as secretary of the Repub- 
lican state committee. In 1892 he was elected 
a representative in tbe 53d Congress as a Repub- 
lican, and was re-elected to tiie 54th and 55th. 
He died in New York city, Feb. 12, 1900. 



CHICKBRINQ, Charles Prank» manufacturer, 
was bom in Boston, Mass., Jan. 20, 1827; son of 
Jonas Chickering. He attended school until 
1841, when he entered his father's manufactory 
to become familiar with the piano business. He 
introduced the Chickering piano into India 
when he was but seventeen years old. In 1851 
he went to England in the interest of his father, 
who exhibited his stock at the London world^s 
fair, and two years later he became a member of 
the firm. At the Paris exposition of 1867 he was 
awarded the cross and ribbon of the Legion of 
Honor. He became senior partner of the firm 
in 1871, on the decease of his brother. In 1875 he 
built Chickering Hall in New York city, at that 
time the largest music hall in that city. He 
was prominent in musical circles, and held the 
office of president of the Handel and Haydn 
society of Boston. The first musical festival in 
the United States was projected by him. He 
died in New York city, March 22, 1891. 

CHICKBRINQ, Jesse, statistician, was bom 
at Dover, N. H., Aug. 21, 1797. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1818, and pursued a 
divinity course there, graduating in 1821, and in 
the same year receiving his A.M. He became a 
Unitarian minister, but later returned to his 
alma mater to pursue the study of medicine. He 
was graduated M. D. in 1833, and practised as a 
physician in Boston and West Roxbury. He 
published : Statistical View of the Population 
of Massachusetts from 1765 to ISJfi (1846) ; Emi- 
gration into tlie United States (1848) ; Reports 
on the Census of Boston (1851), and A Letter 
Addressed to the President of the United States 
on Slavery considered in Relation to the Princi- 
ples of Constitutional government in Great Brit- 
ain and the United States (1855). He died in 
West Roxbury, Mass., May 29, 1855. 

CHICKERINQ. John White, clergyman, was 
born at Wobum, Mass., March 19, 1808; son of 
Joseph and Betsey (White) Chickering. He was 
graduated at Middlebury college in 1826, and at 
Andover theological seminary in 1829. From 
1830 to 1835 he was pastor of a Congregational 
church at Bolton, Mass., and in 1835 accepted a 
call to the High street church in Portland, Me., 
where he remained until 1865. . From 1865 to 
1870 he was secretary of the Suffolk temperance 
union, and from 1870 until his death he held the 
same position in the Massachusetts and the Con- 
gressional temperance societies. He received the 
degree of D. D. from Bowdoin college in 1855. He 
died at Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1888. 

CHICKERINQ, John White, educator, was 
bom at Bolton, Mass., Sept. 11, 1831; son of 
John White and Frances E. (Knowlton) Chick- 
ering. The family came to New England about 
1670, and is descended from Jeffrey de Chicker- 



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CHICKERING. 



CHILD. 



ing, of Chickering Hall. Hoxne, Suffolk, Eng- 
i&nd, 1811. His paternal ancestors for five gen- 
erations were clergymen. He attended the 
public schools of Portland, Me., was graduated 
at Bowdoin college ill 1852; was occupied in 
teaching school and in editing until 1858, and 
was graduated at the Bangor theological sem- 
inary in 1860. He was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church, Springfield, Vt., 1860-'63; secretary 
of the Vermont Bible society, 1863-'65, and pastor 
at Exeter, N. H., 1865-'70, resigning this charge 
to accept the chair of natural science at Gallaudet 
college, Washington, D. C. He was elected a 
member of the American association for the 
advancement of science, and of the anthropologi- 
cal, biological, philosophical and geographical 
societies of Washington, and of the Appalachian 
mountain club. 

CHICKBRINQ, Jonas, manufacturer, was 
born in New Ipswich, N. H., April 5, 1797. He 
was educated in the schools of his native place, 
and learned the trade of cabinet - making. In 
1818 he removed to Boston, and obtained employ- 
ment in a piano factory. In 1828 he established 
himself in business as a piano manufacturer, 
later becoming associated with John Mackay, a 
retired shipmaster, who undertook the importa- 
tion of fine woods for the making of piano cases. 
He made improvements in a cast-iron frame for 
pianos which he patented in 1840, and he exhib- 
ited at the London exhibition, 1851, a frame for 
grand pianos in one casting. The system of over- 
stringing was adopted by him in 1858. He 
made many improvements in pianos. He died 
in Boston, Mass.. Dec. 8, 1853. 

CHICKERING* Thomas Edward, manufac- 
turer, was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 22, 1824; 
son of Jonas Chickering. He was educated in 
Boston, became a member of his father's firm in 
1845 and senior partner in 1858. In 1862 he went 
to New Orleans in command of the 41st Massa- 
chusetts volunteers. April, 1868, he was made 
military governor of Opelousas, La., and was 
brevetted brigadier -general at the close of the 
war for his efficient services. He died in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Feb. 14, 1871. 

CHILCOTT, Qeorge Miles, lawyer, was bom 
in Huntingdon county. Pa., Jan. 2, 1828. In 
1844 his parents settled in Jefferson county, 
iowa, where he studied medicine and taught 
school until 1850. In 1858 he was elected sheriff, 
and in 1856 removed to Burt county, Neb., where 
he was elected to the territorial legislature on 
the Republican ticket. He removed to Colorado 
in 1859, was elected to its legislature in 1861- 
•62, and was also a member of the constitu- 
tional convention. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1868 and appointed register of the United 
States land office for Colorado. In 1864 he was 



elected as a delegate to Congress by a state oi- 
ganization, but his election was not recognized. 
In 1866 he was regularly elected a delegate 
to the 40th Congress. During 1872 he was a 
member and president of the territorial coim- 
cil, was re-elected a member of that body in 1874, 
and was elected to a seat in the state legislature 
in 1878. On April 11, 1882, he was appointed to 
fill a vacancy in the United States senate, caused 
by the appointment of Senator Henry M. Teller 
as secretary of the interior, and served one 
year. He died in St. Louis, Mo., March 6, 1891. 

CHILD, Calvin Qoddard, lawyer, was bom in 
Norwich, Conn., April 6, 1834; son of Asa and 
Alice Hart (Goddard) Child, and grandson of 
Rensselaer Child. His maternal grandfather was 
Judge Calvin Ooddard, and he was lineally 
descended from Dr. Joseph Bellamy, the noted 
Puritan divine. . His preparatory education was 
obtained at the university grammar school in the 
city of New York, and he was graduated in 1855 
at Yale college, which later conferred on him 
the degree of M. A. He was admitted to the bar 
and practised law at Norwich, Conn. In May, 
1862, he was appointed secretary executive of 
Governor Buckingham, and in the August follow- 
ing aid-de-camp on his staff. In 1864 he removed 
to New York city, and entered into partnership 
with Thomas E. Stuart. Returning to Connecti- 
cut in 1867 he formed a partnership with Joshua 
B. Ferris at Stamford, Samuel Fessenden being 
admitted in 1870, and the firm dissolving in 
1873. In 1870 he was appointed United States 
district attorney for Connecticut, and he held 
the office up to the time of his death. He was 
counsel for the New York and New Haven rail- 
road company, and had a large private practice. 
He died at Stamford, Conn., Sept. 28, 1880. 

CHILD, David Lee, journalist, was bom at 
West Boylston, Mass., July 8, 1794; son of Zacha- 
riah and Lydia (Bigelow) Child. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1817, and for a short time 
held a sub-mastership in the Boston Latin school. 
In 1819 he was appointed by President Monroe 
secretary of legation at Lisbon, Spain, imder Min- 
ister John Forsyth, but he soon resigned, and 
participated in the insurrection headed by Riego 
and Quiroga, which resulted in the acceptance of 
the constitution by Ferdinand VII. from 1820 to 
1823. In 1824 he returned to the United States, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He 
introduced the manufacture of beet sugar into 
the United States, specially visiting Belgiima in 
1836 to learn the process of its manufacture. He 
edited the Massachusetts Journal about 1880, was 
also a member of the state legislature, and in 
both tliese capacities condemned the annexation 
of Texas, whicli 1h» also denounced in a pam- 
phlet entitled NabotWs Vineyard, He was an 



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CHILD. 



CHILD. 



abolitionist, and an early member of the anti- 
slayery society. He wrote voluminously upon the 
subjects of slavery and the slave trade, his most 
notable articles being a series of letters addressed 
to the y^tigliah philanthropist, Edward S. Abdy, 
and a memoir presented on his visit to Paris in 
1837 to the Soci^t^ pour Tabolition d'esclavage. 
He was a trustee of the Noyes academy, Canaan, 
N. H., which opened its doors to colored youth 
in 1884, giving them equal privileges with the 
white students. In 1843, in conjimction with 
his wife, Lydia Maria Child, he edited the Anti- 
Slavery Standard in New York city. He died in 
Wayland, Mass., Sept. 18, 1874. 

CHILD, Francis James, educator, was bom 
in Boston, Mass., Feb. 1, 1825. He was prepared 
for college at the Boston English high and Latin 
schools, and was graduated at Harvard in 1846. 
He remained there as tutor until 1848, and in 
1849-'50 travelled in Europe and studied at 
Oottingen. In August, 1851, he returned to 
Harvard to succeed Professor Channing as Eoyls- 
ton professor of rhetoric and oratory, holding the 
position twenty-five years. During this time he 
collected the English and Scottish ballads and 
published them in eight volumes, with critical, 
historical and introductory notes , in 1857. This 
work gained for him recognition throughout 
England and America as authority on Anglo- 
Saxon and Old English. In 1876 he resigned his 
chair and became professor of English literature, 
which position he filled imtil bis death. He 
received the degree of A.M. from Harvard in 
1849; that of Ph.D. from Gottingen in 1854; that 
of LL.D. from Harvard in 1884, and that of 
L.H.D. from Colimibia in 1887. He was a fellow 
of the American academy. His published works 
include : Four Old Plays (1848) ; Songs for Free- 
men (1862) ; Poems of Religious Sorrow, Comfort, 
Counsel and Aspiration (1865) , and Observations 
on the language of Chaucer and Oower in Ellis's 
Early English Pronunciation (1869). He super- 
intended the American edition of the British 
poets, edited tlie works of Spenser, and prepared 
annotations for many other literary works. In 
1897 the Child memorial library was established 
in his honor at Harvard university. He died in 
Boston, Sept. 11, 1896. 

CHILD, Lydia Maria, author, was born at 
Med ford. Mass., Feb. 16, 1802 ; daughter of David 
Francis. She attended the village schools and 
later a private seminary, and was taught by her 
brother, Con vers Francis, afterwards professor of 
theology in Harvard college. In her nineteenth 
year she went to live with her brother at Water- 
town, Mass., and in his study wrote her first 
story, Hohomok (1821). It met with imme- 
diate success and was soon followed by The 
Bebels : A Tale of tlie Revolution (1822), which 



ran through several editions. This was followed 
by Tlce Motlier's Book, which passed through 
eight American editions, twelve Knglish and one 
Oerman. In 1826 she became editor of the Juve- 
nile Miscellany, which was the first children's 
periodical published in the English language. 
In 1828 she was married to David Lee Chad, and 
some three years later she and her husband be- 
came deeply interested in the subject of slavery, 
through the influence of William Lloyd Garrison. 
Mr. Child was a member of the Massachusetts 
legislature and the editor of the Massachusetts 
Journal, and he used all his powers of tongue and 
pen in upholding the anti -slavery cause, which 
at that time was extremely impopular in the 
north. In 1833 Mrs. Child published An Ap- 
peal in Behalf of that class of Americans called 
Africans, which called forth a volley of indigna- 
tion and abuse from press and rostrum. She 
at once found herself almost friendless. Social 
and literary doors were closed against her, the 
Boston AtbensBum withdrew its ticket of admis- 
sion, the sale of her books ceased, and the sub- 
scriptions to her magazine became painfully less. 
Whenever opportunity presented itself, however, 
she wrote and spoke with telling effect, not only 
on the slavery question, but upon peace, tem- 
perance, education, and woman^s equality re- 
forms. In 1859, upon the capture of John Brown, 
she wrote a letter of sympathy to him under 
cover of a letter to Governor Wise, who rebuked 
her for her misguided enthusiasm. She also 
received a letter of vituperation from Mrs. Mason, 
wife of Senator Mason, author of the fugitive 
slave law. These letters were all published in 
jMimphlet form, and had a circulation of three 
hundred thousand copies. The last years of her 
life were spent in quiet retirement at Way- 
land, Mass. Among her published writings 
are : Tlie First Settlers of Neiv England ( 1829) ; 
Tlie American Frugal Houseicife ; (1829 ; 33d 
ed., 1855) ; Tlie Motlier's Book ; The GirVs 
Oum Book, and The Coronal (1831) ; The 
Ladies' Family Library (5 vols., (1832-'35) ; 
Philoihea, a romance of ancient Greece (1835) ; 
Letters from New York (2 vols., 1843-M5) : 
Flowers for Children (3 vols., 1844-*46) ; Fact 
and Fiction (1846) ; The Power of Kind- 
liness (1851) ; Isaac T, Hopper, a True Life 
(1853) ; The Progress of Religious Ideas 
Through Successive Ages (3 vols., 1855) : 
AutumncU Leaves (1856) ; Looking Toward 
Sunset (1864) ; The Freedman's Book (1866) : 
Miria, A Romance of the Republic (1867), and 
Aspirations of the World (1878). See Letters 
of Lydia Maria Child, unth a Biographical In- 
troduction by John G, Wliittier and an Appendix 
by Wemiell Phillips {ISS2). She died in Wayland, 
Mass., Oct. 20, 1880. 



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CHILDS. 



CHILDS. 




CHILDS, Qeors:e William, journalist, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., May 12, 1829. He came 
of humble parentage and what education he re- 
ceived was obtained in the public schools of his 
native city. His aptitude for business was 
manifested in early boyhood, and in his twelfth 

year he became an 
errand boy in a 
book store. In his 
thirteenth year he 
entered the United 
States navy, .but 
resigned the service 
at the end of fifteen 
months, and, re- 
turning to Balti- 
more, attended 
school for a few 
weeks. He then re- 
moved to Philadel- 
phia, where he ob- 
tained a situation as clerk and errand boy in the 
store of a bookseller. His previous experience in 
the business made him a valuable assistant, and 
he was intrusted with the task of attending 
auction sales in New York and Boston. At the 
end of four years of faithful labor, the firm of 
George W. Childs & Co., entered upon the manu- 
facture and sale of confections and candies, and 
later became venders of soaps, powders, and 
patent medicines. He sold out his interest in the 
business in 1850, and became a clerk in the pub- 
lishing house of Daniels & Smith, afterwards R. 
E. Peterson & Co., of which firm he finally be- 
came a member, the name being subsequently 
changed to Childs <fc Peterson. Although some 
of the publications of the house reached enor- 
mous sales, the firm was insolvent in 1860, when 
Mr. Peterson retired, leaving Mr. Childs to con- 
tinue the business alone under a heavy load of 
debt. In 1863-^64, while still engaged in pub- 
lishing books and editing the American Literary 
Gazette and Publishers* Chronicle, he conducted 
an agency for the sale of sewing machines. On 
Dec. 5, 1864, he purchased, in c>onjunction with 
Mr. Anthony J. Drexel, the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger^ a prominent penny journal which had 
fallen upon evil days. Under his judicious man- 
agement the paper soon assumed new life, its 
tone and morals were changed, and its circula 
tion and its list of advertisers were soon doubled, 
despite the facts that the price of the paper was 
two cents, and the price of space in its advertising 
columns materially increased. The Public Ledger 
rose rapidly to a commanding position among the 
leading journals of the day, and in 1876 a new 
building, erected specially for its accommodation 
testified to the financial prosperity of the under- 
taking. Mr. Childs was the friend* of amateur 



writers, and he was continually offering prizes 
and other inducements to encourage the produc- 
tion of good American literature. He possessed 
good literary taste and judgment, and his selec- 
tion of material for his journal was uniformly ex- 
cellent. He surrounded himself with a staff of 
able assistants, and under his management the 
Ledger became famed for its pure literary tone. 
In 1868 he presented to the typographical union 
of Philadelphia a large and handsomely enclosed 
lot in Woodlands, to be used as a printers' ceme- 
tery, and to this he added a liberal endowment 
for its proper care. He also established a fund 
for the maintenance of superannuated printers, 
and of widows and orphans of printers. He was 
one of the founders of Fairmount park, contribu- 
ting half the money that secured that splendid 
addition to the attractions of Philadelphia, and 
was one of the first to subscribe ten thousand 
dollars towards the expense of the Centennial ex- 
hibition in 1876. The Meade fund was raised 
with remarkable rapidity as soon as he identified 
himself with it; so great was his reputation as 
a business man, that his example in contributing 
to any public enterprise was an assurance of 
popular recognition and sympathy. He placed in 
Westminster Abbey a memorial window to the 
poets Herbert and Cowper, another in St. Mar- 
garet's church, Westminster, to the poet Blilton, 
and he was the largest contributor to the Thomas 
Moore window in the church at Bromham, Eng- 
land. He gave to the church of St. Thomas, 
Winchester, a reredos in memory of Bishops An- 
drewes and Ken, and in 1887 he erected at 
Stratford-on-Avon a highly ornamented drinking 
fountain and clock tower in memory of Shakes- 
peare. Mr. Childs numbered among his friends 
the most distinguished men and women in every 
walk of life. Presidents, emperors, military men, 
titled foreigners, statesmen, eminent publishers 
and politicians, authors, poets, artists, actors, 
financiers, all were entertained at his handsome 
home in the most unostentatiously royal style, 
and by his genial and graceful hospitality he did 
more than any other single individual in the 
United States to el